This Academy member benefit temporarily has been made public to allow all practitioners access to content that may assist in patient care during the national pandemic response. Click here for information on joining the Academy. 

Unintended Weight Loss in Older Adults

UWL: References (2009)

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Nutrition Screening

Bauer JM, Vogl T, Wicklein S, Trögner J, Mühlberg W, Sieber CC. Comparison of the Mini Nutritional Assessment, Subjective Global Assessment, and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) for nutritional screening and assessment in geriatric hospital patients. Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2005 Oct; 38 (5): 322-327. PMID: 16244816

Brownie S, Myers SP, Stevens J. The value of the Australian Nutrition Screening Initiative for older Australians - results from a national survey. J Nutr Health Aging. 2007;11(1):20-25.

Burden ST, Bodey S, Bradburn YJ, Murdoch S, Thompson AL, Sim JM, Sowerbutts AM. Validation of a nutrition screening tool: testing the reliability and validity. J Hum Nutr Diet 2001;14(4):269-275.

Callen B. Understanding nutritional health in older adults. A pilot study. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2004; 30(1): 36-43.

Charlton KE, Kolbe-Alexander TL, Nel JH. Development of a novel nutrition screening tool for use in elderly South Africans. Public Health Nutrition. 2005; 8 (5): 468-479.

Coelho AK, Rocha FL, Fausto MA. Prevalence of undernutrition in elderly patients hospitalized in a geriatric unit in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Nutrition. 2006; 22: 1,005-1,011.

Donini LM, De Bernardini L, De Felice MR, Savina C, Coletti C, Cannella C. Effect of nutritional status on clinical outcome in a population of geriatric rehabilitation patients. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004; 16(2): 132-138.

Formiga F, Chivite D, Mascaro J, Ramon JP, Pujol R. No correlation between Mini Nutritional Assessment (short form) scale and clinical outcomes in 73 elderly patients admitted for hip fracture. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005; 17: 343-346.

Kruizenga HM, Seidell JC, de Vet HC, Wierdsma NJ, van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren MA. Development and validation of a hospital screening tool for malnutrition: The short nutritional assessment questionnaire (SNAQ). Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb; 24(1): 75-82. PMID: 15681104

Langkamp-Henken B, Hudgens J, Stechmiller JK, Herrlinger-Garcia KA. Mini nutritional assessment and screening scores are associated with nutritional indicators in elderly people with pressure ulcers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105: 1,590-1,596.

Mackintosh MA, Hankey CR. Reliability of a nutrition screening tool for use in elderly day hospitals. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001 Apr; 14(2): 129-136.

Neumann SA, Miller MD, Daniels L, Crotty M. Nutritional status and clinical outcomes of older patients in rehabilitation. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2005; 18(2): 129-136.

Ranhoff AH, Gjøen AU, Mowé M. Screening for malnutrition in elderly acute medical patients: The usefulness of MNA-SF. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005 Jul-Aug; 9(4): 221-225.

Rubenstein LZ, Harker JO, Salvà A, Guigoz Y, Vellas B. Screening for undernutrition in geriatric practice: Developing the short-form mini-nutritional assessment (MNA-SF). J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001 Jun; 56 (6): M366-M372.

Sharkey JR. Nutrition risk screening: The interrelationship of food insecurity, food intake, and unintentional weight change among homebound elders. J Nutr Elder. 2004; 24(1): 19-34.

Soderhamn U, Soderhamn O. Developing and testing the Nutritional Form for the Elderly. Int J Nurs Pract. 2001; 7(5): 336-341.

Thorsdottir I, Jonsson PV, Asgeirsdottir AE, Hjaltadottir I, Bjornsson S, Ramel A. Fast and simple screening for nutritional status in hospitalized, elderly people. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005; 18: 53-60.

Vellas B, Guigoz Y, Baumgartner M, Garry PJ, Lauque S, Albarede J-L. Relationships between nutritional markers and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment in 155 older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000; 48 (10): 1,300-1,309.

Weekes CE, Elia M, Emery PW. The development, validation and reliability of a nutrition screening tool based on the recommendations of the British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (BAPEN). Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct; 23(5): 1104-1112. PMID: 15380902

Woo J, Chumlea WC, Sun SS, Kwok T, Lui HH, Hui E, Fang NY, Fan YP. Development of the Chinese Nutrition Screen (CNS) for use in institutional settings. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005; 9(4): 203-210.

Bedard M, Molloy DW, Bell R, Lever JA. Determinants and detection of low body mass index in community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer's disease. International Psychogeriatrics. 2000; 12(1): 87-98.

Bowman JJ, Keller HH. Assessing nutritional risk of long-term care residents. Can J Diet Prac Res. 2005; 66: 155-161.

Laporte M, Villalon L, Payette H. Simple nutrition screening tools for healthcare facilities: Development and validity assessment. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2001 Spring; 62(1): 26-34.

Laporte M, Villalon L, Thibodeau J, Payette H. Validity and reliability of simple nutrition screening tools adapted to the elderly population in healthcare facilities. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001; 5 (4): 292-294.

Lou MF, Dai YT, Huang GS, Yu PJ. Nutritional status and health outcomes for older people with dementia living in institutions. J Adv Nurs. 2007; 60(5): 470-477.

Margetts BM, Thompson RL, Elia M, Jackson AA. Prevalence of risk of undernutiriton is associated with poor health status in older people in the UK. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57: 69-74.

Nakamura H, Fukushima H, Miwa Y, Shiraki M, Gomi I, Saito M, Mawatari K, Kobayashi H, Kato M, Moriwaki H. A longitudinal study on the nutritional state of elderly women at a nursing home in Japan. Intern Med. 2006; 45(20): 1,113-1,120.

Zuliani G, Romagnoni F, Soattin L, Leoci V, Volpato S, Fellin R. Predictors of two-year mortality in older nursing home residents. The IRA study. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2001; 13: 3-7.

Martin CT, Kayser-Jones J, Stotts NA, Porter C, Froelicher ES. Risk for low weight in community-dwelling, older adults. Clinical Nurse Specialist. 2007; 21: 203-211.

Saletti A, Johansson L, Yifter-Lindgren E, Wissing U, Osterberg K, Cederholm T. Nutritional status and a 3-year follow-up in elderly receiving support at home. Gerontology, 2005; 51 (3): 192-198.

Sanchez-Garcia S, Garcia-Pena C, Duque-Lopez MX, Juarez-Cedillo T, Cortes-Nunez AR, Reyes-Beaman S. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 2-11.

Sullivan DH, Morley JE, Johnson LE, Barber A, Olson JS, Stevens MR, Yamashita BD, Reinhart SP, Trotter JP, Olave XE. The GAIN (Geriatric Anorexia Nutrition) Registry: The impact of appetite and weight on mortality in a long-term care population. J Nutrition Health and Aging. 2002; 6 (4): 275-281.

Sullivan DH, Johnson LE, Bopp MM, Roberson PK. Prognostic significance of monthly weight fluctuations among older nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004; 59(6): M633-M639.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Medical Nutrition Therapy

Faxen-Irving G, Andren-Olsson B, Af Geijerstam A, Basun H, Cederholm T. The effect of nutritional intervention in elderly subjects residing in group-living for the demented. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002; 56(3): 221-227.

Keller HH, Gibbs AJ, Boudreau LD, Goy RE, Pattillo MS, Brown HM. Prevention of weight loss in dementia with comprehensive nutritional treatment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51(7): 945-952.

Mamhidir AG, Ljundggren G, Kihlgren M, Kihlgren A, Wimo A. Underweight, weight loss and related risk factors among older adults in sheltered housing: A Swedish follow-up study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006; 10(4): 255-262.

Payette H, Boutier V, Coulombe C, Gray-Donald K. Benefits of nutritional supplementation in free-living, frail, undernourished elderly people: A prospective randomized community trial. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 1,002: 1,088-1,095.

Splett PL, Roth-Yousey LL, Vogelzang JL. Medical nutrition therapy for the prevention and treatment of unintentional weight loss in residential healthcare facilities. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 352-362.

Nutrition Assessment

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults:  Assessment of Nutritional Status

Andrieu S, Reynish W, Nourhashemi F, Ousset PJ, Grandjean H, Grand A, Albarede JL, Vellas B. Nutritional risk factors for institutional placement in Alzheimer's disease after one-year follow-up. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001; 5(2): 113-117.

Arellano M, Garcia-Caselles MP, Pi-Figueras M, Miralles R, Torres RM, Aguilera A, Cervera AM. Clinical impact of different scores of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in the diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with cognitive impairment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2004; (9): 27-31.

Bauer JM, Vogl T, Wicklein S, Trögner J, Mühlberg W, Sieber CC. Comparison of the Mini Nutritional Assessment, Subjective Global Assessment, and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) for nutritional screening and assessment in geriatric hospital patients. Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2005 Oct; 38 (5): 322-327. PMID: 16244816

Crogan NL, Alvine C. Testing of the Individual Nutrition Rx assessment process among nursing home residents. Appl Nurs Res. 2006; 19(2): 102-104.

Donini LM, De Bernardini L, De Felice MR, Savina C, Coletti C, Cannella C. Effect of nutritional status on clinical outcome in a population of geriatric rehabilitation patients. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004; 16(2): 132-138.

Gerber V, Krieg MA, Cornuz J, Guigoz Y, Burckhardt P. Nutritional status using the Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire and its relationship with bone quality in a population of institutionalized elderly women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2003; 7 (3): 140-145.

Kucukerdonmez O, Koksal E, Rakicioglu N, Pekcan G. Assessment and evaluation of the nutritional status of the elderly using two different instruments. Saudi Med J. 2005; 26(10): 1,611-1,616.

Kulnik D, Elmadfa I. Assessment of the nutritional situation of elderly nursing home residents in Vienna. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008; 52 (suppl 1): 51-53.

Kuzuya M, Kanda S, Koike T, Suzuki Y, Satake S, Iguchi A. Evaluation of Mini-Nutritional Assessment for Japanese frail elderly. Nutrition 2005; 21(4): 498-503.

Langkamp-Henken B, Hudgens J, Stechmiller JK, Herrlinger-Garcia KA. Mini nutritional assessment and screening scores are associated with nutritional indicators in elderly people with pressure ulcers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105: 1,590-1,596.

Magri F, Borza A, del Vecchio S, Chytiris S, Cuzzoni G, Busconi L, Rebesco A, Ferrari E. Nutritional assessment of demented patients: a descriptive study. Aging Clin Exp. 2003; 15(2): 148-153.

Murphy MC, Brooks CN, New SA, Lumbers ML. The use of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool in elderly orthopaedic patients. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2000; 54: 555-562.

Norman K, Schutz T, Kemps M, Lubke HJ, Lochs H, Pirlich M. The Subjective Global Assessment reliably identifies malnutrition-related muscle dysfunction. Clin Nutr. 2005; 24 (1): 143-150.

Nursal TZ, Noyan T, Atalay BG, Köz N, Karakayali H. Simple two-part tool for screening of malnutrition. Nutrition. 2005 Jun; 21(6): 659-665.

Nursal TZ, Noyan T, Tarim A, Karakayali H. A new weighted scoring system for Subjective Global Assessment. Nutrition 2005; 21 (6): 666-671.

Ruiz-Lopez MD, Artacho R, Oliva P, Moreno-Torres R, Bolanos J, de Teresa C, Lopez MC. Nutritional risk in institutionalized older women determined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment test: What are the main factors? Nutrition 2003; 19 (9): 767-771.

Saletti A, Lindgren EY, Johansson L, Cederholm T. Nutritional status according to Mini Nutritional Assessment in an institutionalized elderly population in Sweden. Gerontology. 2000;46(3):139-145.

Soini H, Routasalo P, Lagstrom H. Characteristics of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment in elderly home care patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004; 58 (1): 64-70.

Van Nes MC, Herrmann FR, Gold G, Michel JP, Rizzoli R. Does the Mini Nutritional Assessment predict hospitalization outcomes in older people? Age and Ageing. 2001; 30: 221-226.

Wojszel ZB. Determinants of nutritional status of older people in long-term care settings on the example of the nursing home in Bialystok. Adv Med Sci. 2006; 51: 168-173.

Bedard M, Molloy DW, Bell R, Lever JA. Determinants and detection of low body mass index in community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer's disease. International Psychogeriatrics. 2000; 12(1): 87-98.

Bowman JJ, Keller HH. Assessing nutritional risk of long-term care residents. Can J Diet Prac Res. 2005; 66: 155-161.

Laporte M, Villalon L, Payette H. Simple nutrition screening tools for healthcare facilities: Development and validity assessment. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2001 Spring; 62(1): 26-34.

Laporte M, Villalon L, Thibodeau J, Payette H. Validity and reliability of simple nutrition screening tools adapted to the elderly population in healthcare facilities. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001; 5 (4): 292-294.

Lou MF, Dai YT, Huang GS, Yu PJ. Nutritional status and health outcomes for older people with dementia living in institutions. J Adv Nurs. 2007; 60(5): 470-477.

Margetts BM, Thompson RL, Elia M, Jackson AA. Prevalence of risk of undernutiriton is associated with poor health status in older people in the UK. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57: 69-74.

Nakamura H, Fukushima H, Miwa Y, Shiraki M, Gomi I, Saito M, Mawatari K, Kobayashi H, Kato M, Moriwaki H. A longitudinal study on the nutritional state of elderly women at a nursing home in Japan. Intern Med. 2006; 45(20): 1,113-1,120.

Zuliani G, Romagnoni F, Soattin L, Leoci V, Volpato S, Fellin R. Predictors of two-year mortality in older nursing home residents. The IRA study. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2001; 13: 3-7.

Callen BL, Wells TJ. Screening for nutritional risk in community-dwelling old-old. Public Health Nurs. 2005;22(2):138-146.

Chen CC, Chang CK, Chyun DA, McCorkle R. Dynamics of nutritional health in a community sample of American elders: A multidimensional approach using Roy Adaptation Model. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2005; 28 (4): 376-389.

Crogan NL, Pasvogel A. The influence of protein-calorie malnutrition on quality of life in nursing homes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003; 58 (2): 159-164.

Purandare N, Burns A, Craig S, Faragher B, Scott K. Depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001; 16 (10): 960-964.

Rigler SK, Webb MJ, Redford L, Brown EF, Zhou J, Wallace D. Weight outcomes among antidepressant users in nursing facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001; 49(1): 49-55.

Schulz R, Beach SR, Lind B, Martire LM, Zdaniuk B, Hirsch C, Jackson S, Burton L. Involvement in caregiving and adjustment to death of a spouse: Findings from the Caregiver Health Effects Study. JAMA. 2001; 285(24): 3,123-3,129.

Shahar DR, Schultz R, Shahar A, Wing RR. The effect of widowhood on weight change, dietary intake, and eating behavior in the elderly population. J Aging Health. 2001; 13 (2): 189-199.

Shum NC, Hui WW, Chu FC, Chai J, Chow TW. Prevalence of malnutrition and risk factors in geriatric patients of a convalescent and rehabilitation hospital. Hong Kong Med J. 2005; 11(4): 234-242.

Starkstein SE, Jorge R, Mizrahi R, Robinson RG. The construct of minor and major depression in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162 (11): 2,086-2,093.

Thomas P, Hazif-Thomas C, Clement JP. Influence of antidepressant therapies on weight and appetite in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2003; 7(3): 166-170.

Thomas DR, Zdrowski CD, Wilson MM, Conright KC, Lewis C, Tariq S, Morley JE. Malnutrition in subacute-care. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 308-313.

Woods NF, LaCroix AZ, Gray SL, Aragaki AA, Cochrane BB, Brunner RL, Masaki K, Murray A, Newman AB. Frailty: Emergence and consequences in women aged 65 and older in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53 (8): 1,321-1,330.

Barreto SM, Passos VM, Lima-Costa MF. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: The Bambui Health and Aging Study. Cad Saude Publica. 2003; 19(2): 605-512.

Dambach B, Salle A, Marteau C, Mouzet JB, Ghali A, Favreau AM, Berrut G, Ritz P. Energy requirements are not greater in elderly patients suffering from pressure ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:478-482.

Langmore SE, Skarupski KA, Park PS, Fries BE. Predictors of aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents. Dysphagia. 2002; 17(4): 298-307.

Paillaud E, Herbaud S, Caillet P, Lejonc JL, Campillo B, Bories PN. Relations between undernutrition and nosocomial infections in elderly patients. Age and Ageing. 2005; 34: 619-625.

Rothan-Tondeur M, Meaume S, Girard L, Weill-Engerer S, Lancien E, Abdelmalak S, Rufat P, Le Blanche AF. Risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia in a geriatric hospital: A control-case one-center study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51: 997-1,001.

Schmaltz HN, Fried LP, Xue QL, Walston J, Leng SX, Semba RD. Chronic cytomegalovirus infection and inflammation are associated with prevalent frailty in community-dwelling older women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53(5): 747-754.

van der Steen JT, Ooms ME, Mehr DR, van der Wal G, Ribbe MW. Severe dementia and adverse outcomes of nursing-home acquired pneumonia: evidence for mediation by functional and pathophysiological decline. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50 (3): 439-448.

de Castro JM. Age-related changes in the social, psychological and temporal influences on food intake in free-living, healthy, adult humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002; 57 (6): M368-M377.

Knoops KTB, Slump E, de Groot LCPGM, Wouters-Wesseling W, Brouwer ML, van Staveren WA. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005; 60 (4): 536-539.

Mowe M, Bohmer T. Reduced appetite. A predictor for undernutrition in aged people. J Nutr Health Aging. 2002; 6 (1): 81-83.

Saletti A, Johansson L, Yifter-Lindgren E, Wissing U, Osterberg K, Cederholm T. Nutritional status and a 3-year follow-up in elderly receiving support at home. Gerontology, 2005; 51 (3): 192-198.

Shahar DR, Schultz R, Shahar A, Wing RR. The effect of widowhood on weight change, dietary intake, and eating behavior in the elderly population. J Aging Health. 2001; 13 (2): 189-199.

St. Arnaud-McKenzie D, Paquet C, Kergoat MJ, Ferland G, Dube L. Hunger and aversion: drives that influence food intake of hospitalized geriatric patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004;59(12):1304-1309.

Sullivan DH, Morley JE, Johnson LE, Barber A, Olson JS, Stevens MR, Yamashita BD, Reinhart SP, Trotter JP, Olave XE. The GAIN (Geriatric Anorexia Nutrition) Registry: The impact of appetite and weight on mortality in a long-term care population. J Nutrition Health and Aging. 2002; 6 (4): 275-281.

Suzana S, Earland J, Suriah AR, Warnes AM. Social and health factors influencing poor nutritional status among rural elderly Malays. J Nutr Health Aging 2002;6(6):363-369.

Al Snih S, Raji M, Markides K, Ottenbacher K, Goodwin J. Weight change and lower body disability in older Mexican Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53: 1,730-1,737.

Boyd CM, Xue QL, Simpson CF, Guralink JM, Fried LP. Frailty, hospitalization, and progression of disability in a cohort of disabled older women. Am J Med. 2005; 118: 1,225-1,231.

Corbett CF, Crogan NL, Short RA. Using the minimum data set to predict weight loss in nursing home residents. Applied Nursing Research. 2002; 15 (4): 249-253.

Huang Y, Wueng S, Ou C, Cheng C, Su K. Nutritional status of functionally dependent and nonfunctionally dependent elderly in Taiwan. J Am College Nutr. 2001; 20: 135-142.

Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50: 889-896.

Kikafunda JK, Lukwago FB. Nutritional status and functional ability of the elderly aged 60 to 90 years in the Mpigi district of central Uganda. Nutrition 2005; 21 (1): 59-66.

Odlund Olin A, Koochek A, Ljungqvist O, Cederholm T. Nutritional status, well-being and functional ability in frail elderly service flat residents. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 263-270.

Ottenbacher KJ, Ostir GV, Peek MK, Snih SA, Raji MA, Markides KS. Frailty in older Mexican Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53(9): 1,524-1,531.

Payette H, Coulombe C, Boutier V, Gray-Donald K. Nutrition risk factors for institutionalization in a free-living functionally dependent elderly population. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2000; 53: 579-587.

Pearson JM, Schlettwein-Gsell D, Brzozowska A, van Staveren WA, Bjornsbo K. Life style characteristics associated with nutritional risk in elderly subjects aged 80 - 85 years. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001; 5 (4): 278-283.

Richardson J, Bedard M, Weaver B. Changes in physical functioning in institutionalized older adults. Disabil Rehabil. 2001; 23(15): 683-689.

Shum NC, Hui WW, Chu FC, Chai J, Chow TW. Prevalence of malnutrition and risk factors in geriatric patients of a convalescent and rehabilitation hospital. Hong Kong Med J. 2005; 11(4): 234-242.

Woo J, Ho SC, Sham A. Longitudinal changes in body mass index and body composition over three years and relationship to health outcomes in Hong Kong Chinese age 70 and older. J Am Geriatric Soc. 2001; 49: 737-746.

Woods NF, LaCroix AZ, Gray SL, Aragaki AA, Cochrane BB, Brunner RL, Masaki K, Murray A, Newman AB. Frailty: Emergence and consequences in women aged 65 and older in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53 (8): 1,321-1,330.

Zuliani G, Romagnoni F, Volpato S, Soattin L, Leoci V, Bollini MC, Buttarello M, Lotto D, Fellin R. Nutritional parameters, body composition, and progression of disability in older disabled residents living in nursing homes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56(4): M212-M216.

Bedard M, Molloy DW, Bell R, Lever JA. Determinants and detection of low body mass index in community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer's disease. International Psychogeriatrics. 2000; 12(1): 87-98.

Brubacher D, Monsch AU, Stahelin HB. Weight change and cognitive performance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004; 28(9): 1,163-1,637.

Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Shah RC, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Change in body mass index and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2005; 65(6): 892-897.

Chen H, Zhang SM, Hernan MA, Willett WC, Ascherio A. Weight loss in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2003; 53(5): 676-679.

Corbett CF, Crogan NL, Short RA. Using the minimum data set to predict weight loss in nursing home residents. Applied Nursing Research. 2002; 15 (4): 249-253.

Faxen-Irving G, Basun H, Cederholm T. Nutritional and cognitive relationships and long-term mortality in patients with various dementia disorders. Age Ageing. 2005; 34(2): 136-141.

Guerin O, Andrieu S, Schneider SM, Milano M, Boulahssass R, Brocker P, Vellas B. Different modes of weight loss in Alzheimer disease: A prospective study of 395 patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 435-441.

Guerin O, Soto ME, Brocker P, Robert PH, Benoit M, Vellas B, REAL.FR Group. Nutritional status assessment during Alzheimer's disease: Results after one year (the REAL French Study Group). J Nutr Health Aging. 2005; 9(2): 81-84.

Holm B, Soderhamn O. Factors associated with nutritional status in a group of people in an early stage of dementia. Clin Nutr. 2003; 22: 385-389.

Hu X, Okamura N, Arai H, Higuchi M, Maruyama M, Itoh M, Yamaguchi K, Sasaki H. Neuroanatomical correlates of low body weight in Alzheimer's disease: A PET study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002; 26(7-8): 1,285-1,289.

Johnson DK, Wilkins CH, Morris JC. Accelerated weight loss may precede diagnosis in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2006; 63(9): 1,312-1,317.

Kagansky N, Berner Y, Koren-Morag N, Perelman L, Knobler H, Levy S. Poor nutritional habits are predictors of poor outcome in very old hospitalized patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 784-791.

Keller HH, Ostbye T. Do nutrition indicators predict death in elderly Canadians with cognitive impairment? Can J Public Health. 2000; 91(3): 220-224.

Keller HH, Ostbye T. Body mass index (BMI), BMI change and mortality in community-dwelling seniors without dementia. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005; 9 (5): 316-320.

Knoops KTB, Slump E, de Groot LCPGM, Wouters-Wesseling W, Brouwer ML, van Staveren WA. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005; 60 (4): 536-539.

Lorefalt B, Ganowiak W, Palhagen S, Toss G, Unosson M, Granerus AK. Factors of importance for weight loss in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand. 2004; 110(3): 180-187.

Lorefalt B, Ganowiak W, Wissing U, Granerus AK, Unosson M. Food habits and intake of nutrients in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. Gerontology. 2006; 52: 160-168.

Odlund Olin A, Koochek A, Ljungqvist O, Cederholm T. Nutritional status, well-being and functional ability in frail elderly service flat residents. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 263-270.

Pearson JM, Schlettwein-Gsell D, Brzozowska A, van Staveren WA, Bjornsbo K. Life style characteristics associated with nutritional risk in elderly subjects aged 80 - 85 years. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001; 5 (4): 278-283.

Poels BJ, Brinkman-Zijlker HG, Dijkstra PU, Postema K. Malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in a stroke rehabilitation centre. Disabil Rehabil. 2006; 28(10): 637-643.

Purandare N, Burns A, Craig S, Faragher B, Scott K. Depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001; 16 (10): 960-964.

Shatenstein B, Kergoat MJ, Nadon S. Anthropometric changes over five years in elderly Canadians by age, gender and cognitive status. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56(8): M483-M488.

Starkstein SE, Jorge R, Mizrahi R, Robinson RG. The construct of minor and major depression in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162 (11): 2,086-2,093.

Stewart R, Masaki K, Xue QL, Peila R, Petrovitch H, White LR, Launer LJ. A 32-year prospective study of change in body weight and incident dementia: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Arch Neurol. 2005; 62: 55-60.

Wang PN, Yang CL, Lin KN, Chen WT, Chwang LC, Liu HC. Weight loss, nutritional status and physical activity in patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A controlled study. J Neurol 2004;251:314-320.

White HK, McConnell ES, Bales CW, Kuchibhatla M. A six-month observational study of the relationship between weight loss and behavioral symptoms in institutionalized Alzheimer's disease subjects. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2004; 5: 89-97.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 The Role of Nutrition in Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel/European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2009. Accessible at www.npuap.org.
 

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults:  Assessment of Food, Fluid and Nutrient Intake

Dambach B, Salle A, Marteau C, Mouzet JB, Ghali A, Favreau AM, Berrut G, Ritz P. Energy requirements are not greater in elderly patients suffering from pressure ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:478-482.

Foley N, Finestone H, Woodbury MG, Teasell R, Greene-Finestone L. Energy and protein intakes of acute stroke patients. J Nutr Health Aging 2006;10(3):171-5.

Lammes E, Akner G. Repeated assessment of energy and nutrient intake in 52 nursing home residents. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006; 10 (3): 222-230.

Nowson CA, Sherwin AJ, McPhee JG, Wark JD, Flicker L. Energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and fibre intakes from meals in residential care establishments in Australia. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr 2003;12(2):172-77.

Suominen M, Laine A, Routasalo P, Pitkala KH, Rasanen L. Nutrient content of served food, nutrient intake and nutritional status of residents with dementia in a Finnish nursing home. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004; 8 (4): 234-238.

Wright L, Cotter D, Hickson M, Frost G. Comparison of energy and protein intakes of older people consuming a texture modified diet with a normal hospital diet. J Hum Nutr Diet 2005;18(3):213-9.

Young KWH, Greenwood CE. Shift in diurnal feeding patterns in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56 (11): M700-M706.

Andersson JC, Gustafsson K, Fjellstrom C, Sidenvall B, Nydahl M. Meals and energy intake among elderly women - an analysis of qualitative and quantitative dietary assessment methods. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001;14 (6): 467-476.

Kulnik D, Elmadfa I. Assessment of the nutritional situation of elderly nursing home residents in Vienna. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008; 52 (suppl 1): 51-53.

Murphy MC, Brooks CN, New SA, Lumbers ML. The use of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool in elderly orthopaedic patients. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2000; 54: 555-562.

St. Arnaud-McKenzie D, Paquet C, Kergoat MJ, Ferland G, Dube L. Hunger and aversion: drives that influence food intake of hospitalized geriatric patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004;59(12):1304-1309.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Assess Anthropometric Measurements

Martin CT, Kayser-Jones J, Stotts NA, Porter C, Froelicher ES. Risk for low weight in community-dwelling, older adults. Clinical Nurse Specialist. 2007; 21: 203-211.

Saletti A, Johansson L, Yifter-Lindgren E, Wissing U, Osterberg K, Cederholm T. Nutritional status and a 3-year follow-up in elderly receiving support at home. Gerontology, 2005; 51 (3): 192-198.

Sanchez-Garcia S, Garcia-Pena C, Duque-Lopez MX, Juarez-Cedillo T, Cortes-Nunez AR, Reyes-Beaman S. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 2-11.

Sullivan DH, Morley JE, Johnson LE, Barber A, Olson JS, Stevens MR, Yamashita BD, Reinhart SP, Trotter JP, Olave XE. The GAIN (Geriatric Anorexia Nutrition) Registry: The impact of appetite and weight on mortality in a long-term care population. J Nutrition Health and Aging. 2002; 6 (4): 275-281.

Sullivan DH, Johnson LE, Bopp MM, Roberson PK. Prognostic significance of monthly weight fluctuations among older nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004; 59(6): M633-M639.

Nutrition Diagnosis

 Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Diagnosis of Involuntary Weight Loss

Martin CT, Kayser-Jones J, Stotts NA, Porter C, Froelicher ES. Risk for low weight in community-dwelling, older adults. Clinical Nurse Specialist. 2007; 21: 203-211.

Saletti A, Johansson L, Yifter-Lindgren E, Wissing U, Osterberg K, Cederholm T. Nutritional status and a 3-year follow-up in elderly receiving support at home. Gerontology, 2005; 51 (3): 192-198.

Sanchez-Garcia S, Garcia-Pena C, Duque-Lopez MX, Juarez-Cedillo T, Cortes-Nunez AR, Reyes-Beaman S. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 2-11.

Sullivan DH, Morley JE, Johnson LE, Barber A, Olson JS, Stevens MR, Yamashita BD, Reinhart SP, Trotter JP, Olave XE. The GAIN (Geriatric Anorexia Nutrition) Registry: The impact of appetite and weight on mortality in a long-term care population. J Nutrition Health and Aging. 2002; 6 (4): 275-281.

Sullivan DH, Johnson LE, Bopp MM, Roberson PK. Prognostic significance of monthly weight fluctuations among older nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004; 59(6): M633-M639.

Nutrition Intervention

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults:  Resident Involvement in Meal Planning

Kofod J and Birkemose A. Meals in nursing homes. Scand J Caring Sci. 2004; 18(2): 128-134.

Taylor KA, Barr SI. Provision of small, frequent meals does not improve energy intake of elderly residents with dysphagia who live in an extended-care facility. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 1,115-1,118.

Young KWH, Greenwood CE. Shift in diurnal feeding patterns in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56 (11): M700-M706.

Young KWH, Greenwood CE, van Reekum R, Binns MA. A randomized, crossover trial of high-carbohydrate foods in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease: associations among intervention response, body mass index, and behavioral and cognitive function. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005; 60 (8): 1,039-1,045.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults:  Diet Liberalization

Kofod J and Birkemose A. Meals in nursing homes. Scand J Caring Sci. 2004; 18(2): 128-134.

Schatz IJ, Masaki K, Yano K, Chen R, Rodriguez BL, Curb JD. Cholesterol and all-cause mortality in elderly people from the Honolulu Heart Program: A cohort study. Lancet. 2001; 358: 351-355.

Simons LA, Simons J, Friedlander Y, McCallum J. Cholesterol and other lipids predict coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke in the elderly, but only in those below 70 years. Atherosclerosis. 2001; 159: 201-208.

Tariq SH, Karcic E, Thomas DR, Thomson K, Philpot C, Chapel DL, Morley JE. The use of a no-concentrated-sweets diet in the management of type 2 diabetes in nursing homes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101(12): 1,463-1,466.

Taylor KA, Barr SI. Provision of small, frequent meals does not improve energy intake of elderly residents with dysphagia who live in an extended-care facility. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 1,115-1,118.

Young KWH, Greenwood CE. Shift in diurnal feeding patterns in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56 (11): M700-M706.

Young KWH, Greenwood CE, van Reekum R, Binns MA. A randomized, crossover trial of high-carbohydrate foods in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease: associations among intervention response, body mass index, and behavioral and cognitive function. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005; 60 (8): 1,039-1,045.

 

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Indications for Medical Food Supplements

Avenell A, Handoll HHG. Nutritional supplementation for hip fracture aftercare in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (4): CD001880.

Milne AC, Potter J, Avenell A. Protein and energy supplementation in elderly people at risk for malnutrition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (2): CD003288.

Barreto SM, Passos VM, Lima-Costa MF. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: The Bambui Health and Aging Study. Cad Saude Publica. 2003; 19(2): 605-512.

Dambach B, Salle A, Marteau C, Mouzet JB, Ghali A, Favreau AM, Berrut G, Ritz P. Energy requirements are not greater in elderly patients suffering from pressure ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:478-482.

Langmore SE, Skarupski KA, Park PS, Fries BE. Predictors of aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents. Dysphagia. 2002; 17(4): 298-307.

Paillaud E, Herbaud S, Caillet P, Lejonc JL, Campillo B, Bories PN. Relations between undernutrition and nosocomial infections in elderly patients. Age and Ageing. 2005; 34: 619-625.

Rothan-Tondeur M, Meaume S, Girard L, Weill-Engerer S, Lancien E, Abdelmalak S, Rufat P, Le Blanche AF. Risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia in a geriatric hospital: A control-case one-center study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51: 997-1,001.

Schmaltz HN, Fried LP, Xue QL, Walston J, Leng SX, Semba RD. Chronic cytomegalovirus infection and inflammation are associated with prevalent frailty in community-dwelling older women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53(5): 747-754.

van der Steen JT, Ooms ME, Mehr DR, van der Wal G, Ribbe MW. Severe dementia and adverse outcomes of nursing-home acquired pneumonia: evidence for mediation by functional and pathophysiological decline. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50 (3): 439-448.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process:
 

Volkert D, Berner YN, Berry E, Cederholm T, Coti Bertrand P, Milne A, Palmblad J, Schneider S, Sobotka L, Stanga Z, DGEM: Lenzen-Grossimlinghaus R, Krys U, Pirlich M, Herbst B, Schutz T, Schroer W, Weinrebe W, Ockenga J, Lochs H, ESPEN. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Geriatrics. Clin Nutr 2006;25(2):330-360.
 

The Role of Nutrition in Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel/European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2009. Accessible at www.npuap.org.

 

 

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Enteral Nutrition

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process:

A.S.P.E.N. Enteral Nutrition Practice Recommendations. Bankhead R, Boullata J, Brantley S, Corkins M, Guenter P, Krenitsky J, Lyman B, Metheny NA, Mueller C, Robbins S, Wessel J, and the A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33(2) March/April:122-167. Originally published online Jan 26, 2009. The online version of this article can be found at: http://pen.sagepub.com

Korner U, Bondolfi A, Buhler E, MacFie J, Meguid MM, Messing B, Oehmichen F, Valentini L, Allison SP. Ethical and legal aspects of enteral nutrition. Clin Nutr 2006;25:196-202.

Maillet JO, Potter RL, Heller L. Position of the American Dietetic Association: ethical and legal issues in nutrition, hydration, and feeding. J Am Diet Assoc 2002;102(5):716-26.

President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Deciding to Forgo Life Sustaining Treatment. No. 83-600503. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1983.

Volkert D, Berner YN, Berry E, Cederholm T, Coti Bertrand P, Milne A, Palmblad J, Schneider S, Sobotka L, Stanga Z, DGEM: Lenzen-Grossimlinghaus R, Krys U, Pirlich M, Herbst B, Schutz T, Schroer W, Weinrebe W, Ockenga J, Lochs H, ESPEN. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Geriatrics. Clin Nutr 2006;25(2):330-360.

The Role of Nutrition in Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel/European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2009. Accessible at www.npuap.org.
 

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults:  Caloric Needs

Luhrmann PM, Neuhaeuser Berthold M. Are the equations published in literature for predicting resting metabolic rate accurate for use in the elderly? J Nutr Health Aging 2004;8(3):144-9.

Meunier N, Beattie JH, Ciarapica D, O'Connor JM, Andriollo-Sanchez M, Taras A, Coudray C, Polito A. Basal metabolic rate and thyroid hormones of late-middle-aged and older human subjects: the ZENITH study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:S53-S57.

Nhung BT, Khan NC, Hop LT, Lam NT, Khanh NLB, Lien DTK, Nakamori M, Hien VTT, Kassu A, Yamamoto S. Resting metabolic rate of elderly Vietnamese. Ann Nutr Metab 2007; 51:7-13.

Ozeki T, Ebisawa H, Ichikawa M, Nagasawa N, Sato F, Fujita Y. Physical activities and energy expenditures of institutionalized Japanese elderly women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2000;46:188-192.

Rizzo MR, Mari D, Barbieri M, Ragno E, Grella R, Provenzano R, Villa I, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Paolisso G. Resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient in human longevity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(1):409-13.

Rothenberg EM, Bosaeus IG, Westerterp KR, Steen BC. Resting energy expenditure, activity energy expenditure and total energy expenditure at age 91 - 96 years. Br J Nutr 2000;84:319-324.

Rothenberg EM, Bosaeus IG, Steen BC. Energy expenditure at age 73 and 78 - a five year follow up. Acta Diabetol 2003;40:S134-138.

Dambach B, Salle A, Marteau C, Mouzet JB, Ghali A, Favreau AM, Berrut G, Ritz P. Energy requirements are not greater in elderly patients suffering from pressure ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:478-482.

Gariballa S, Forster S. Energy expenditure of acutely ill hospitalized patients. Nutr J 2006;5:9.

Lammes E, Akner G. Resting metabolic rate in elderly nursing home patients with multiple diagnoses. J Nutr Health Aging 2006;10(4):263-70.

Schneider SM, Al-Jaouni R, Pivot X, Braulio VB, Rampal P, Hebuterne X. Lack of adaptation to severe malnutrition in elderly patients. Clin Nutr 2002;21(6):499-504.

Sergi G, Coin A, Bussolotto M, Beninca P, Tomasi G, Pisent C, Peruzza S, Inelmen EM, Enzi G. Influence of fat-free mass and functional status on resting energy expenditure in underweight elders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002;57(5):M302-7.

Blanc S, Schoeller DA, Bauer D, Danielson ME, Tylavsky F, Simonsick EM, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Everhart JE. Energy requirements in the eighth decade of life. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79(2):303-10.

Malatesta D, Simar D, Dauvilliers Y, Candau R, Borrani F, Prefaut C, Caillaud C. Energy cost of walking and gait instability in healthy 65- and 80-year olds. J Appl Physiol 2003;95:2248-2256.

Rothenberg EM. Resting, activity, and total energy expenditure at age 91 - 96 compared to age 73. J Nutr Health Aging 2002;6(3):177-8.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

The Role of Nutrition in Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel/European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2009. Accessible at www.npuap.org.
 

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Feeding Assistance

Colodny N. Dysphagic independent feeders' justifications for noncompliance with recommendations by a speech-language pathologist. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2005;14(1):61-70.

Ekberg O, Hamdy S, Woisard V, Wuttge-Hannig A, Ortega P. Social and psychological burden of dysphagia: its impact on diagnosis and treatment. Dysphagia 2002;17:139-146.

Foley N, Finestone H, Woodbury MG, Teasell R, Greene-Finestone L. Energy and protein intakes of acute stroke patients. J Nutr Health Aging 2006;10(3):171-5.

Lorefalt B, Granerus AK, Unosson M. Avoidance of solid food in weight losing older patients with Parkinson's disease. J Clin Nurs 2006;15(11):1404-12.

Nowson CA, Sherwin AJ, McPhee JG, Wark JD, Flicker L. Energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and fibre intakes from meals in residential care establishments in Australia. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr 2003;12(2):172-77.

Rypkema G, Adang E, Dicke H, Naber T, De Swart B, Disselhorst L, Goluke-Willemse G, Olde Rikkert M. Cost-effectiveness of an interdisciplinary intervention in geriatric inpatients to prevent malnutrition. J Nutr Health Aging 2004;8(2):122-7.

Wright L, Cotter D, Hickson M, Frost G. Comparison of energy and protein intakes of older people consuming a texture modified diet with a normal hospital diet. J Hum Nutr Diet 2005;18(3):213-9.

Crogan NL, Shultz JA, Adams CE, Massey LK. Barriers to nutrition care for nursing home residents. J Gerontol Nurs. 2001; 27: 25-31.

Hickson M, Bulpitt C, Nunes M, Peters R, Cooke J, Nicholl C, Frost G. Does additional feeding support provided by health care assistants improve nutritional status and outcome in acutely ill older in-patients? A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 23: 69-77.

Holm B, Soderhamn O. Factors associated with nutritional status in a group of people in an early stage of dementia. Clin Nutr. 2003; 22: 385-389.

Horn SD, Buerhaus P, Bergstrom N, Smout RJ. RN staffing time and outcomes of long-stay nursing home residents. American Journal of Nursing. 2005; 105: 58-70.

Riviere S, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Voisin T, Reynish E, Andrieu S, Lauque S, Salva A, Frisoni G, Nourhashemi F, Micas M, Vellas B. A nutritional education program could prevent weight loss and slow cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. 2001; 5(4): 295-299.

Simmons SF, Levy-Storms L. The effect of dining location on nutritional care quality in nursing homes. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging. 2005; 9: 434-439.

Simmons SF, Patel AV. Nursing home staff delivery of oral liquid nutritional supplements to residents at risk for unintentional weight loss. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006; 54: 1372-1376.

Simmons SF, Garcia ET, Cadogan MP, Al-Samarrai NR, Levy-Storms LF, Osterweil D, Schnelle JF. The minimum data set weight-loss quality indicator: Does it reflect differences in care processes related to weight loss? Journal of the American Gerontological Society 2003; 51: 1,410-1,418.

Simmons SF, Lam HY, Rao G, Schnelle JF. Family members' preferences for nutrition interventions to improve nursing home residents' oral food and fluid intake. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51: 69-74.

Sullivan DH, Morley JE, Johnson LE, Barber A, Olson JS, Stevens MR, Yamashita BD, Reinhart SP, Trotter JP, Olave XE. The GAIN (Geriatric Anorexia Nutrition) Registry: The impact of appetite and weight on mortality in a long-term care population. J Nutrition Health and Aging. 2002; 6 (4): 275-281.

Suominen M, Laine A, Routasalo P, Pitkala KH, Rasanen L. Nutrient content of served food, nutrient intake and nutritional status of residents with dementia in a Finnish nursing home. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004; 8 (4): 234-238.

Westergren A, Karlsson S, Andersson P, Ohlsson O, Hallberg IR. Eating difficulties, need for assisted eating, nutritional status and pressure ulcers in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. J Clin Nursing. 2001; 10: 257-269.

Westergren A, Ohlsson O, Hallberg IR. Eating difficulties in relation to gender, length of stay, and discharge to institutional care, among patients in stroke rehabilitation. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2002; 24: 523-533.

Westergren A, Ohlsson O, Hallberg IR. Eating difficulties, complications and nursing interventions during a period of three months after a stroke. J Adv Nurs. 2001; 35 (3): 416-426.

Westergren A, Unosson M, Ohlsson O, Lorefalt B, Hallberg IR. Eating difficulties, assisted eating and nutritional status in elderly (>65 years) patients in hospital rehabilitation. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2002; 39: 341-351.

Woo J, Chi I, Hui E, Chan F, Sham A. Low staffing level is associated with malnutrition in long-term residential care homes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 474-479.

Xia C, McCutcheon H. Mealtimes in hospital: Who does what? Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2006; 15: 1,221-1,227.

Al Snih S, Raji M, Markides K, Ottenbacher K, Goodwin J. Weight change and lower body disability in older Mexican Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53: 1,730-1,737.

Boyd CM, Xue QL, Simpson CF, Guralink JM, Fried LP. Frailty, hospitalization, and progression of disability in a cohort of disabled older women. Am J Med. 2005; 118: 1,225-1,231.

Corbett CF, Crogan NL, Short RA. Using the minimum data set to predict weight loss in nursing home residents. Applied Nursing Research. 2002; 15 (4): 249-253.

Huang Y, Wueng S, Ou C, Cheng C, Su K. Nutritional status of functionally dependent and nonfunctionally dependent elderly in Taiwan. J Am College Nutr. 2001; 20: 135-142.

Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50: 889-896.

Kikafunda JK, Lukwago FB. Nutritional status and functional ability of the elderly aged 60 to 90 years in the Mpigi district of central Uganda. Nutrition 2005; 21 (1): 59-66.

Odlund Olin A, Koochek A, Ljungqvist O, Cederholm T. Nutritional status, well-being and functional ability in frail elderly service flat residents. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 263-270.

Ottenbacher KJ, Ostir GV, Peek MK, Snih SA, Raji MA, Markides KS. Frailty in older Mexican Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53(9): 1,524-1,531.

Payette H, Coulombe C, Boutier V, Gray-Donald K. Nutrition risk factors for institutionalization in a free-living functionally dependent elderly population. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2000; 53: 579-587.

Pearson JM, Schlettwein-Gsell D, Brzozowska A, van Staveren WA, Bjornsbo K. Life style characteristics associated with nutritional risk in elderly subjects aged 80 - 85 years. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001; 5 (4): 278-283.

Richardson J, Bedard M, Weaver B. Changes in physical functioning in institutionalized older adults. Disabil Rehabil. 2001; 23(15): 683-689.

Shum NC, Hui WW, Chu FC, Chai J, Chow TW. Prevalence of malnutrition and risk factors in geriatric patients of a convalescent and rehabilitation hospital. Hong Kong Med J. 2005; 11(4): 234-242.

Woo J, Ho SC, Sham A. Longitudinal changes in body mass index and body composition over three years and relationship to health outcomes in Hong Kong Chinese age 70 and older. J Am Geriatric Soc. 2001; 49: 737-746.

Woods NF, LaCroix AZ, Gray SL, Aragaki AA, Cochrane BB, Brunner RL, Masaki K, Murray A, Newman AB. Frailty: Emergence and consequences in women aged 65 and older in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53 (8): 1,321-1,330.

Zuliani G, Romagnoni F, Volpato S, Soattin L, Leoci V, Bollini MC, Buttarello M, Lotto D, Fellin R. Nutritional parameters, body composition, and progression of disability in older disabled residents living in nursing homes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56(4): M212-M216.

Bedard M, Molloy DW, Bell R, Lever JA. Determinants and detection of low body mass index in community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer's disease. International Psychogeriatrics. 2000; 12(1): 87-98.

Brubacher D, Monsch AU, Stahelin HB. Weight change and cognitive performance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004; 28(9): 1,163-1,637.

Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Shah RC, Evans DA, Bennett DA. Change in body mass index and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2005; 65(6): 892-897.

Chen H, Zhang SM, Hernan MA, Willett WC, Ascherio A. Weight loss in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2003; 53(5): 676-679.

Corbett CF, Crogan NL, Short RA. Using the minimum data set to predict weight loss in nursing home residents. Applied Nursing Research. 2002; 15 (4): 249-253.

Faxen-Irving G, Basun H, Cederholm T. Nutritional and cognitive relationships and long-term mortality in patients with various dementia disorders. Age Ageing. 2005; 34(2): 136-141.

Guerin O, Andrieu S, Schneider SM, Milano M, Boulahssass R, Brocker P, Vellas B. Different modes of weight loss in Alzheimer disease: A prospective study of 395 patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 435-441.

Guerin O, Soto ME, Brocker P, Robert PH, Benoit M, Vellas B, REAL.FR Group. Nutritional status assessment during Alzheimer's disease: Results after one year (the REAL French Study Group). J Nutr Health Aging. 2005; 9(2): 81-84.

Holm B, Soderhamn O. Factors associated with nutritional status in a group of people in an early stage of dementia. Clin Nutr. 2003; 22: 385-389.

Hu X, Okamura N, Arai H, Higuchi M, Maruyama M, Itoh M, Yamaguchi K, Sasaki H. Neuroanatomical correlates of low body weight in Alzheimer's disease: A PET study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002; 26(7-8): 1,285-1,289.

Johnson DK, Wilkins CH, Morris JC. Accelerated weight loss may precede diagnosis in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2006; 63(9): 1,312-1,317.

Kagansky N, Berner Y, Koren-Morag N, Perelman L, Knobler H, Levy S. Poor nutritional habits are predictors of poor outcome in very old hospitalized patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 82: 784-791.

Keller HH, Ostbye T. Do nutrition indicators predict death in elderly Canadians with cognitive impairment? Can J Public Health. 2000; 91(3): 220-224.

Keller HH, Ostbye T. Body mass index (BMI), BMI change and mortality in community-dwelling seniors without dementia. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005; 9 (5): 316-320.

Knoops KTB, Slump E, de Groot LCPGM, Wouters-Wesseling W, Brouwer ML, van Staveren WA. Body weight changes in elderly psychogeriatric nursing home residents. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005; 60 (4): 536-539.

Lorefalt B, Ganowiak W, Palhagen S, Toss G, Unosson M, Granerus AK. Factors of importance for weight loss in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand. 2004; 110(3): 180-187.

Lorefalt B, Ganowiak W, Wissing U, Granerus AK, Unosson M. Food habits and intake of nutrients in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. Gerontology. 2006; 52: 160-168.

Odlund Olin A, Koochek A, Ljungqvist O, Cederholm T. Nutritional status, well-being and functional ability in frail elderly service flat residents. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 263-270.

Pearson JM, Schlettwein-Gsell D, Brzozowska A, van Staveren WA, Bjornsbo K. Life style characteristics associated with nutritional risk in elderly subjects aged 80 - 85 years. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001; 5 (4): 278-283.

Poels BJ, Brinkman-Zijlker HG, Dijkstra PU, Postema K. Malnutrition, eating difficulties and feeding dependence in a stroke rehabilitation centre. Disabil Rehabil. 2006; 28(10): 637-643.

Purandare N, Burns A, Craig S, Faragher B, Scott K. Depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001; 16 (10): 960-964.

Shatenstein B, Kergoat MJ, Nadon S. Anthropometric changes over five years in elderly Canadians by age, gender and cognitive status. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56(8): M483-M488.

Starkstein SE, Jorge R, Mizrahi R, Robinson RG. The construct of minor and major depression in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162 (11): 2,086-2,093.

Stewart R, Masaki K, Xue QL, Peila R, Petrovitch H, White LR, Launer LJ. A 32-year prospective study of change in body weight and incident dementia: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Arch Neurol. 2005; 62: 55-60.

Wang PN, Yang CL, Lin KN, Chen WT, Chwang LC, Liu HC. Weight loss, nutritional status and physical activity in patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A controlled study. J Neurol 2004;251:314-320.

White HK, McConnell ES, Bales CW, Kuchibhatla M. A six-month observational study of the relationship between weight loss and behavioral symptoms in institutionalized Alzheimer's disease subjects. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2004; 5: 89-97.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults:  Dining Environment

Mathey MF, Vanneste VG, de Graaf C, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA. Health effect of improved meal ambience in a Dutch nursing home: A one-year intervention study. Prev Med. 2001; 32(5): 416-423.

Remsburg RE, Luking A, Baran P, Radu C, Pineda D, Bennett RG, Tayback M. Impact of a buffet-style dining program on weight and biochemical indicators of nutritional status in nursing home residents: A pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101(12): 1,460-1,463.

Shatenstein B, Ferland G. Absence of nutritional or clinical consequences of decentralized bulk food portioning in elderly nursing home residents with dementia in Montreal. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000; 100(11): 1,354-1,260.

Simmons SF, Levy-Storms L. The effect of dining location on nutritional care quality in nursing homes. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging. 2005; 9: 434-439.

Simmons SF, Lam HY, Rao G, Schnelle JF. Family members' preferences for nutrition interventions to improve nursing home residents' oral food and fluid intake. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51: 69-74.

Stroebele N, De Castro JM. Effect of ambience on food intake and food choice. Nutrition, 2004; 20: 821-838.

Wright L, Hickson M, Frost G. Eating together is important: Using a dining room in an acute elderly medical ward increases energy intake. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2006; 19(1): 23-26.

Xia C, McCutcheon H. Mealtimes in hospital: Who does what? Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2006; 15: 1,221-1,227.

Mamhidir AG, Karlsson I, Norberg A, Mona K. Weight increase in patients with dementia, and alteration in meal routines and meal environment after integrity promoting care. J Clin Nurs. 2007; 16(5): 987-996.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Collaboration for Modified Textured Diets

Colodny N. Dysphagic independent feeders' justifications for noncompliance with recommendations by a speech-language pathologist. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2005;14(1):61-70.

Ekberg O, Hamdy S, Woisard V, Wuttge-Hannig A, Ortega P. Social and psychological burden of dysphagia: its impact on diagnosis and treatment. Dysphagia 2002;17:139-146.

Foley N, Finestone H, Woodbury MG, Teasell R, Greene-Finestone L. Energy and protein intakes of acute stroke patients. J Nutr Health Aging 2006;10(3):171-5.

Lorefalt B, Granerus AK, Unosson M. Avoidance of solid food in weight losing older patients with Parkinson's disease. J Clin Nurs 2006;15(11):1404-12.

Nowson CA, Sherwin AJ, McPhee JG, Wark JD, Flicker L. Energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and fibre intakes from meals in residential care establishments in Australia. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr 2003;12(2):172-77.

Rypkema G, Adang E, Dicke H, Naber T, De Swart B, Disselhorst L, Goluke-Willemse G, Olde Rikkert M. Cost-effectiveness of an interdisciplinary intervention in geriatric inpatients to prevent malnutrition. J Nutr Health Aging 2004;8(2):122-7.

Wright L, Cotter D, Hickson M, Frost G. Comparison of energy and protein intakes of older people consuming a texture modified diet with a normal hospital diet. J Hum Nutr Diet 2005;18(3):213-9.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults: Evaluation and Treatment of Depression

Callen BL, Wells TJ. Screening for nutritional risk in community-dwelling old-old. Public Health Nurs. 2005;22(2):138-146.

Chen CC, Chang CK, Chyun DA, McCorkle R. Dynamics of nutritional health in a community sample of American elders: A multidimensional approach using Roy Adaptation Model. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2005; 28 (4): 376-389.

Crogan NL, Pasvogel A. The influence of protein-calorie malnutrition on quality of life in nursing homes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003; 58 (2): 159-164.

Purandare N, Burns A, Craig S, Faragher B, Scott K. Depressive symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001; 16 (10): 960-964.

Rigler SK, Webb MJ, Redford L, Brown EF, Zhou J, Wallace D. Weight outcomes among antidepressant users in nursing facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001; 49(1): 49-55.

Schulz R, Beach SR, Lind B, Martire LM, Zdaniuk B, Hirsch C, Jackson S, Burton L. Involvement in caregiving and adjustment to death of a spouse: Findings from the Caregiver Health Effects Study. JAMA. 2001; 285(24): 3,123-3,129.

Shahar DR, Schultz R, Shahar A, Wing RR. The effect of widowhood on weight change, dietary intake, and eating behavior in the elderly population. J Aging Health. 2001; 13 (2): 189-199.

Shum NC, Hui WW, Chu FC, Chai J, Chow TW. Prevalence of malnutrition and risk factors in geriatric patients of a convalescent and rehabilitation hospital. Hong Kong Med J. 2005; 11(4): 234-242.

Starkstein SE, Jorge R, Mizrahi R, Robinson RG. The construct of minor and major depression in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162 (11): 2,086-2,093.

Thomas P, Hazif-Thomas C, Clement JP. Influence of antidepressant therapies on weight and appetite in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2003; 7(3): 166-170.

Thomas DR, Zdrowski CD, Wilson MM, Conright KC, Lewis C, Tariq S, Morley JE. Malnutrition in subacute-care. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 308-313.

Woods NF, LaCroix AZ, Gray SL, Aragaki AA, Cochrane BB, Brunner RL, Masaki K, Murray A, Newman AB. Frailty: Emergence and consequences in women aged 65 and older in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53 (8): 1,321-1,330.

Unintended Weight Loss (UWL) in Older Adults:  Appetite Stimulants

No references - Grade V