DFA: Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Supplementation and Intermediate Health Outcomes (2011)
What is the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body composition and weight loss in healthy adults?
Fair evidence indicates that three to six months of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation results in a decrease in fat mass and an increase in fat-free mass in healthy adults; however, fair evidence indicates that CLA does not affect body weight.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
Evidence Summary: What is the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body composition and weight loss in healthy adults?
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Colakoglu S, Colakoglu M, Taneli F, Cetinoz F, Turkmen M. Cumulative effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on endurance development, body composition, serum leptin and insulin levels. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2006; 46: 570-577.
- Cornish SM, Candow DG, Jantz NT, et al. Conjugated lilnoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during srength training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Feb; 19(1): 79-96. PMID: 19403955.
- Desroches S, Chouinard PY, Galibois I, Corneau L, Delisle J, Lamarche B, Couture P, Bergeron N. Lack of effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids naturally incorporated into butter on the lipid profile and body composition of overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 309-319.
- Diaz ML, Watkins BA, Li Y, Anderson RA, Campbell WW. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. J Nutr Biochem. 2008; 19: 61-68.
- Gaullier JM, et al. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. J Nutr. 2005; 135: 778-784.
- Gaullier JM, Halse J, Hoivik HO, Hoye K, Syversten C, Nurminiemi M, Hassfeld C, Einerhand A, O'Shea M, Gudmundsen O. Six-month supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese. British Journal of Nutrition. 2007; 97: 550-560.
- Goedecke JH, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers, t10c12 and c9t11, are differently incorporated into adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in humans. Lipids 2009; 44: 983-988.
- Lambert EV, Goedecke JH, Bluett K, Heggie K, Claassen A, Rae DE, West S, Dugas J, Dugas L, Meltzer S, Charlton K, Mohede I. Conjugated linoleic acid vs. high-oleic acid sunflower oil: Effects on energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, appetite and body composition in regularly exercising individuals. Br J Nutr 2007; 97: 1,001-1,011.
- Larsen TM, Toubro S, Gudmundsen O, Astrup A. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for one year does not prevent weight or body fat regain. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006; 83: 606-612.
- Laso N, Brugue E, Vidal J, Ros E, Arnaiz JA, Carne X, Vidal S, Mas S, Deulofeu R, Lafuente A. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. Br J Nutr. 2007; 98: 860-867.
- Malpuech-Brugere C, Wilhelmine PHG, Venne V-v de, Mensink RP, Arnal M-A, Morio B, Brandolini M, Saebo A, Lassel TA, Chardigny JM, Sebedio JL, Beaufrere B. Effects of two conjugated linoleic acid isomers on body fat mass in overweight humans. Obes Res 2004; 12: 591-598.
- Nazare JA, de la Perriere AB et al. Daily intake of conjugated lilnoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: Effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene experession in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr. 2007; 97: 273-280.
- Norris LE, Collene AL, Asp ML, Hsu JC, Liu LF, Richardson JR, LI D, Bell D, Osei K, Jackson RD, Belury MA. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90: 468-476.
- Pinkoski C, Chilibeck PD, Candow DG, Esliger D, Ewaschuk JB, Facci M, Farthing JP, Zello GA. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38: 339-348.
- Riserus U, et al. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid suplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation and proinflammatory markers in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 279-283.
- Sluijs I, et al. Dietary supplementation with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and aortic stiffness in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 175-183.
- Sneddon AA, Tsofliou F, Fyfe CL, Matheson I, Jackson DM, Horgan G, Winzell MS, Wahle KW, Ahren B, Williams LM. Effect of a conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid mixture on body compositon and adiponectin. Obesity. 2008; 16: 1019-1024.
- Steck SE, Chalecki AM, Miller P, Conway J, Austin GL, Hardin JW, Albright CD, Thuillier P. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. J Nutr 2007; 137: 1,188-1,193
- Syvertsen C, Halse J, Hoivik HO, Gaullier J-M, Nurminiemi M, Kristiansen K, Einerhand A, O'Shea M, Gudmundsen O. The effect of six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on insulin resistance in overweight and obese. Int J Obes. 2007; 31: 1,148-1,154.
- Tarnopolsky M, Zimmer A, Paikin A, Aboud A, Pearce E, Roy B, Doherty T. Creatine monohydrate and conjugated linoleic acid improve strength and body composition following resistance exercise in older adults. PLoS ONE (published online). 2(10): e991.
- Taylor JS, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid impairs endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006; 26: 307-312.
- Tricon S, Burdge GC, et al. Opposing effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on blood lipids in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 614-620.
- Whigham LD, O'Shea M, Mohede ICM, Walaski HP, Atkinson RL. Safety profile of conjugated linoleic acid in a 12-month trial in obese humans. Food chem Toxicol 2004; 42: 1,701-1,709.