HTN: Cocoa and Chocolate (2007)
What is the relationship between cocoa or chocolate intake and blood pressure in healthy and hypertensive adults?
The effect of the consumption of cocoa or chocolate on blood pressure is unclear, as the results of six studies are conflicting.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
Evidence Summary: What evidence suggests a relationship between cocoa or chocolate intake and blood pressure in healthy and hypertensive adults?
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Buijsse B, Feskens EJM, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Cocoa intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166 (4): 411-417.
- Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder ML. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23 (3): 197-204.
- Fisher NDL, Hughes M, Gerhard-Herman M, Hollenberg NK. Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide dependent vasodilation in healthy humans. J Hypertens. 2003; 21 (12): 2,281-2,286.
- Grassi D, Lippi C, Necozione S, Desideri G, Ferri C. Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81 (3): 611-614.
- Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri C. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension, 2005; 46 (2): 398-405.
- Vlachopoulos C, Aznaouridis K, Alexopoulos N, Economou E, Andreadou I, Stefanidis C. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens. 2005; 18 (6): 785-791.
Search Plan and Results: Chocolate / Cocoa 2006