Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Welcome to the Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Guideline and supporting Systematic Review


The focus of the 2016 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Guideline is on the treatment of women with gestational diabetes. The overall objective of the guideline is to provide evidence-based medical nutrition therapy recommendations for management of GDM that assist in achieving and maintaining glycemia.

For the Systematic Review, which supports the guideline, the workgroup concentrated its efforts on five sub-topics:

  • Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT)
    • Prevention of Gestational Diabetes with MNT
  • Calories
  • Macronutrients
  • Dietary Patterns (Glycemic Index, DASH)
  • Distribution of Meals and Snacks

View the results of 12 evidence analysis questions by using the links on the left.

The Guideline includes recommendations based on the systematic review, plus evidence from other resources.  Five major outcomes were considered. Examples of each include:

  • Blood glucose control: fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, HbA1c
  • Maternal weight gain: inappropriate weight gain (IOM standards)
  • Fetal growth/birth weight
  • Adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes: mortality, macrosomia, large- and small-for-gestational age, shoulder dystocia, jaundice, hypoglycemia, prematurity
  • Adverse maternal outcomes: mortality, mode of birth (e.g., c-section, labor induction), hypertension/preeclampsia, insulin therapy.

The 2016 GDM guideline complements the 2008 GDM guideline. Download the GDM Guideline Comparison Table to see changes between the newly published and previous guideline. Since not all of the 2008 recommendations were updated/reviewed, the results of the previous systematic review remain an accessible resource.

Additionally, the GDM guideline focuses on women diagnosed with GDM. You may also be interested in these EAL topics:

  • Obesity, Reproduction and Pregnancy
  • Diabetes Type 1 and 2
  • Diabetes (Type 2) Prevention

Please use the left navigation bar to view the GDM guideline and supporting evidence. Expand the sections below for a listing of individuals who contributed to the development of the GDM projects.

 

  • Project Team (2008)
    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Workgroup Members
    • Diane M. Reader, RD, CDE, Chair
    • Susan Blastre, RD, LDN, CDE
    • Sharmila Chatterjee, MSc, MS, RD, CDE
    • Maria O. Duarte-Gardea, PhD, RD, LD
    • Melanie D. Sipe, RD, CDE
    • Alyce M. Thomas, RD, CDN
    Project Manager/Lead Analyst
    • Erica Gradwell, MS, RD
    Evidence Analysts
    • Jeannette Beasley, MPH, RD
    • Jeanne Blankenship, MS, RD
    • Ellen Bowser, MS, RD, CSP
    • Mei Chung, MPH
    • Linda H. Clemens, EdD, RD
    • Tanja Cutting, MS, RD, LD
    • Mable Everette, PhD, RD, FADA
    • Billie Jeanne McGuire, MS, LD, CDE, CCN
    • Gita Patel, MS, RD, CDE, LD
    • Christopher A. Taylor, PhD, RD
    • Carol I. Waslien, PhD, MS, RD
    Guideline Reviewers
    • Irene Alton, MS, LN, RD
    • M. Joann Henry, RNC, MSHS
    • Marion Franz, MS, RD, CDE
    • Dr. Jamie S. Stang, PhD, MPH, RD
    • Florence Brown, MD
    • Patti Urbanski, MEd, RD, LD, CDE
    • Dr. Aido Khoury, MD
    • Patricia B. Geil, MS, RD, CDE, FADA
    • Deborah L. Conway, MD
    • Maribeth Inturrisi, RN, MS, CNS, CDE
    • Catherine Fagen, MA, RD
    Academy Staff
    • Deborah Cummins, PhD
    • Kari Kren, MPH, RD, LD
    • Esther F.Myers, PhD, RD
    Financial Contributors
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.
    • None of the workgroup members listed above disclosed potential conflicts.
  • Project Resources
    The following resources were developed:
    • Gestational Diabetes (2008) Toolkit - this toolkit is designed to assist the registered dietitian in applying the Academy's 2008 Gestational Diabetes Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline. The toolkit includes material such as interactive sample documentation forms, encounter process instructions, outcomes monitoring forms and three comprehensive case studies. The toolkit incorporates the Academy Nutrition Care Process and Standardized Language for patient/client care. Click to order
       
    • GDM 2016 Guideline Presentation - this 49-slide MS PowerPoint presentation includes all the recommendations and ratings of the 2016 Gestational Diabetes Evidence-based Nutrition Practice Guideline. Ideal for you to use for meetings, in-service presentations and classes (not designed for the consumer). Click to order.         
  • Project Team (2016)
    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Workgroup Members
    • Maria O. Duarte-Gardea, PhD, RDN, LD, Chair
      Professor, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA
    • Diana M. Gonzalez-Pacheco, DCN, RD
      Assistant Professor, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
    • Rebecca P. Gregory, MS, RD, LDN, CDE
      Dietitian, Nutrition Support, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
    • Diane Marie Reader, RD, CDE
      Manager, Diabetes Professional Education, International Diabetes Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    • Alyce M. Thomas, RDN
      Nutrition Consultant, St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, USA
    • Susan Wang, MS, RD, CD, CDE
      MFM Dietitian and Diabetes Educator, EvergreenHealth, Kirkland, WA, USA
    Lead Analysts
    • Ellen K. Bowser, MS, RDN, LDN, RN, FAND
      Associate in Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    • Kyle L. Thompson, MS, RD, LDN, CNSC
      Senior Lecturer in Nutrition/Director, Dietetic Internship, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA
    Project Managers
    • Lisa Moloney, MS, RD, LDN
      Evidence-Based Practice Manager, Academy Staff, Chicago, IL USA
    • Tami A. Piemonte, MS, RDN, LD/N (starting September 2015)
      Consultant, St. Petersburg, FL, USA
    Evidence Analysts
    • Sharon Foley, PhD, RD
      Assistant Professor, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Julie A. Kennel, PhD, RD, LD
      Clinical Assistant Professor, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
    • Renee Korczak, PhD, RD
      Consultant, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    • Micah A. Lancman, MS, RD, CNSC
      Clinical Dietitian, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA
    • Megan Majernik, MS, RD,LDN, CNSC
      Neonatal Dietitian, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, IL, USA
    • Keiy C. Murofushi, MS, RD
      Executive Director, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    • Hope Scott Paul, MS, RD, CDE
      CDE Coach, Weight Watchers, Export, PA, USA
    • Joan A. Pleuss, MS, CDE, CD, RD
      Consultant, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    • Valaree Williams, MS, RD, CSO, LDN, FAND
      Registered Dietitian, University of Colorado Health, Aurora, CO, USA
    Guideline Reviewers
    • Cassandra Boisvert, MS, RDN
      Health Research Interventionist, Kaiser Permanente, Portland, OR, USA
    • Kathryn Boudeman, RDN, LDN, CDE
      Clinical Dietitian II, Geisinge Health Systems, Danville, PA, USA
    • Cara Dolin, MD
      Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellow, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
    • Andrea Domas, RDN, CDE 
      Senior Clinical Dietitian, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Andrea Dunn, RDN, LD, CDE
      Advanced Practice Registered Dietitian, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
    • Susan Harms, MPH, RDN, LD, CDE
      Diabetes Educator, Lee Health, Fort Myers, FL, USA
    • Callie Hicks, RDN, LD, CDE
      Clinical Dietitian, InGenesis/Whiteman Aire Force Base, Whiteman AFB, MO, USA
    • Janice James, MS, RDN, CDN, CDE
      Senior Dietitian, New York Univesity Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
    • Amna Kashif, MSc, RDN
      Self-Employed Dietitian, Karachi, Pakistan
    • Pamela Legowski, MS, RDN, LDN, CSP, CNSC, CDE
      Certified Diabetes Educator/Speciality Dietitian, Orlando Health, Orlando, FL, USA
    • Sandy Pichette, MS, RDN
      Clinical Dietitian, Metrohealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA
    • Margaret Salvia, MS, RDN, CDE
      Dietitian, Walden Behavioral Care and Meg Salvia Nutrition, Cambridge, MA, USA 
    • Jamie Stang, PhD, MPH, RDN
      Associate Professor, University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    • Mylissa Trowbridge, MS, RDN
      Senior Scientist, The Proctor & Gamble Company, Union, KY, USA
    Financial Contributors
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.
    • None of the workgroup members listed above disclosed potential conflicts.