Diabetes Type 1 and 2

Diabetes Type 1 and 2

Welcome to the Diabetes Mellitus Types 1 and 2 Systematic Review and Guideline
 
The focus of the 2015 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Guideline is on medical nutrition therapy for adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Special objectives include: to guide decisions that integrate medical nutritional and behavioral strategies; reduce variations in practice among RDNs; and development of guidelines for interventions that have measurable clinical outcomes.

For the Systematic Review, the workgroup concentrated its efforts on four sub-topics:
  • Medical Nutrition Therapy
  • Carbohydrates (Carbohydrate Amount, Carbohydrate Management, Fiber, Glycemic Index, Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Sweeteners)
  • Fat (Fat Amount, Types of Fat, Omega-3 Fatty Acids)
  • Protein (Protein Amount, Types of Protein [Vegetable-based vs. Animal-based])
View the results of 40 evidence analysis questions by using the links on the left.

The Guideline includes recommendations based on the systematic review plus recommendations from other resources including the American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Major outcomes considered include:
  • Glycemia (A1C or glucose)
  • Medication usage (insulin or other glucose-lowering medications)
  • Cardiovascular disease risk factors (lipids or blood pressure)
  • Quality of Life
  • Weight management (pounds, waist circumference or body mass index)
The guideline focuses on adults diagnosed with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.  For recommendations on the prevention of diabetes, visit the Diabetes (Type 2) Prevention EAL Guideline. Mouse-over the Projects tab to access the prevention project.

Please use the left navigation bar to view the guideline and supporting evidence.  Expand the sections below for a listing of individuals who contributed to the development of these projects.
 
 
 
  • Project Resources
    The following resources were developed for this project:
     
    • Diabetes Mellitus Toolkit - This toolkit is designed to assist the registered dietitian in applying the Academy's Diabetes Type 1 and 2 Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guidelines. The toolkit includes material such as interactive sample documentation forms, encounter process instructions, case study, and outcomes monitoring forms. It also incorporates the Academy's Nutrition Care Process and Standardized Language for patient/client care. Click to purchase.
       
    • Diabetes Guideline Presentation - This 56-slide MS PowerPoint presentation includes all recommendations and ratings of the Diabetes Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline (2008). Ideal for use for meetings, in-service presentations and classes (not designed for the consumer). Click to purchase.
       
    • Diabetes Type 2 - Tips on How to Live Healthy with Diabetes - this brochure, designed for the general public, uses scientific information to provide tips on living healthy with diabetes. Includes information on what blood glucose means, what foods to eat when you have diabetes, treatment options, exercise and more. Click to purchase.
       
    • Educator Module on Diabetes 1 and 2 - This resource is designed for the busy educator. It includes Word documents and PowerPoint files with the following content overview and instructions for navigating the EAL; student assignments including case studies and questions for classroom discussion or take-home exam; guaduate or advanced assignment onevaluating a research article using the evidence analysis process; grading key for both assignments; and 3-week access to the EAL for 30 students. Click to purchase.


     
  • Project Team (2006-2008)
    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to the 2006-2008 project:

    Workgroup Members
    • Carolyn J. Leontos, MS, RD, CDE, Chair
    • Marion J. Franz, MS, RD, CDE
    • Lea Ann Holzmeister, RD, CDE
    • Karmeen Kulkarni, MS, RD, CDE
    • Arlene M. Monk, RD, LD, CDE
    • Margaret A. Powers, MS, RD
    • Naomi Wedel, MS, RD
    Project Manager/Lead Analyst
    • Erica K. Gradwell, MS, RD
    Evidence Analysts
    • Cynthia A. Cassell, PhD, RD, LD
    • Eric Ciappio, MS, RD
    • Erica Rae Dean, MS, RD, LD
    • Elizabeth Droke, MS, RD
    • Lori F. Greene, MS, RD
    • Samia M. Hamdan, MPH, RD
    • Keecha S. Harris, DrPH, RD
    • Carol J. Klitzke, MS, RD
    • Mamie J. Lausch, MS, RD, RN, CDE
    • Debby Demory-Luce, PhD, RD, LD
    • Barbara A. Mark, PhD, RD
    • Linda K. Massey, PhD, RD
    • Melissa C. Reutimann, RD, LDN
    • Lee S. Wallace, MS, RD, FADA
    • Madelyn L. Wheeler, MS, RD, FADA
    • Jane Ziegler, MS, RD, LDN, CNSD
    Guideline Reviewers
    • Linda Siminerio, RN, PhD, CDE
    • Judy Wylie-Rosett, EdD, RD
    • Linda Haas, PhC, RN, CDE
    • Sandra burke, PhD, RN, ANP, CDE
    • Gregg Simonson, PhD
    • Nathaniel Clark, MD, MS, RD
    Academy Staff
    • Deborah Cummins, PhD
    • Kari Kren, MPH, RD
    • Esther F. Myers, PhD, RD
    • Laurie E. Sweet, MS, MHA, RD, LD
    Financial Contributor
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Disclosures of Potential Conflict of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.
    • Carolyn Leontos - received honorariums from Takeda, Roche Diagnostics, Aventis, Novartis, shareholder in Johnson and Johnson and Abbott Laboratories, Inc. stock.
    • Marion Franz - employed with Nutrition Concept by Franz, Inc., consulted for General Mills, Nestle; has receive honorariums from General Mills, Nestle and Kraft..
    • Karmeen Kulkarni - employed by Abbott Diabetes Care.
  • Project Team (2013-2015)
    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise on this project:

    Workgroup Members
    • Marion Franz, MS, RD, LD, CDE, Chair
    • Catherine Brown, MS, RD, LDN, CDE
    • Alison Evert, MS, RD, CDE
    • Janice MacLeod, MA, RD, CDE
    • Adam Reppert, MS, RD, CDE
    • Megan Robinson, MS, RD, LD, CDE
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RD (resigned)
    Lead Analyst
    • Erica Gradwell, MS, RD
    • Deepa Handu*, PhD, RD
    Project Manager
    • Deepa Handu*, PhD, RD
    Evidence Analysts
    • Kimberley Bandelier, MPH, LD, RDN
    • Lori Brizee, MS, RDN, LD, CDE
    • Chandra B. Carty, MMSC, LD, RD
    • Roseline Jan, MS, RDN
    • Lisa A. Johnson, MS, RD, CSG, LD, CDE
    • Renata Korczak, PhD, RD
    • Holly Larson, MS, RD
    • Nichole McGrath, MS, RD
    • Patricia Mendoza, MS, RD
    • Hope Paul, MS, RD, CDE, CNSC
    • Joan Pleuss, MS, CD, RD
    • Jennifer Shoemaker, MS, LDN, RD
    Guideline Reviewers
    • Karen Chapman-Novakofski, PhD, RDN
    • Andrea Vegh Dunn, RD, LD, CDE
    • Linda B. Haas, PhC, RN, CDE
    • Karmeen Kulkarni, MS, RD, BC-ADM, CDE
    • Melinda D. Marynuik, RD, MEd, CDE
    • Arlene M. Monk, RD, LD, CDE
    • Lucia M. Novak, MSN, ANP-BC, BC-ADM, CDTC
    • Joshua J. Neumiller, PharmD, CDE
    • Patti Urbanski, MEd, RD, LD, CDE
    • Hope Warshaw, MMSc, RD, CDE, BC-ADM, FAADE
    Academy Staff
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RD
      • Deepa Handu resigned from the workgroup to join the staff at the Academy.

    Financial Contributor
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
       
    Disclosures of Potential Conflict of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.
    • Alison Evert - received an honorarium for serving on Editorial Board of Journal of American Diabetes Association
    • Janice MacLeod - employed at Johnson & Johnson Diabetes Care