Energy Expenditure

Energy Expenditure

Welcome to the Energy Expenditure project site. This project was first published in 2006 and updated in 2013-2014 with Guidelines. Highlights of the project include:
  • Target population of Pre-school Child (2 to 5 years), Child (6 to 12 years), Adolescent (13 to 18 years), Adult (19 to 44 years), Middle Age (45 to 64 years), Aged (65 to 79 years), Male, Female
  • The 2006 project located in the bottom left of this page, focused on two main questions:
    • "What is the difference between a measured RMR versus predicted RMR?" (Predictive Equations)
    • "How do you accurately measure RMR using an indirect calorimeter?" (Indirect Calorimetry).
  • An Appendix (bottom left) was created for practical application of the evidence.
  • The 2013-2014 project focused on updating the 2006 evidence analysis on measurement of RMR in both critically ill and healthy and non-critically ill populations. 
    • Evidence-based nutrition practice guidelines - Measuring Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) in the Critically Ill Population - released in 2013.
    • Companion guidelines - Healthy and Non-Critically Ill Population - published October 2014..
  • Use the links to the left to access the sub-topic areas.
  • Project Team (2006)
    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Workgroup Members
    • Ronni Chernoff, PhD, RD, FADA
    • Charlene Compher, PhD, RD, FADA, CNSD, LDN
    • Nancy J. Emenaker, PhD, RD
    • David Frankenfield, MS, RD, CNSD
    • Nancy L. Keim, PhD, MEd, RD
    • Rebecca S. Reeves, DrPH, RD, FADA
    Project Manager
    • Tami Piemonte, MS, RD, LD
    Project Director
    • Esther F. Myers, PhD, RD, FADA
    Lead Analysts
    • Lori Roth-Yousey, MPH, RD, LN
    Evidence Analysts
    • Debby Demory-Luce, PhD, RD, LD
    • Heather Holden, MEd, RD, LDn
    • Lori Neighbors, MS, RD
    • Mikelle C. McCoin, MPH, RD
    • Christopher Taylor, PHD, RD
    • Patricia W. Weber, MS, RD, CSR, CDE
    • Mei-Hun Yeh, MS, RD
    Academy Staff
    • Deborah Cummins, PhD
    • Esther Myers, PhD, RD
    • Kari Kren, MPH, RD, LD
    Financial Contributors
    • American Dietetic Association Foundation
    • HealthTech

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.
    • None of the workgroup members listed above disclosed potential conflicts.

  • Project Team (2014)
    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Expert Workgroup
    • Sue Davies, PhD, DCN, MPH, RD, Chair
    • Carrie Earthman, PhD, RD
    • David Frankenfield, MS, RD, CNSD
    • Susan Fullmer, PhD, RD, CD
    • Abigail Coleman, MS, RD, CNSD (resigned December 2011)
    • Peggy Lee, MSc, RD, CNSC (joined June 2012)
    • Kate Wilcutts, MS, RD, CNSD (resigned September 2012)
    • Jillian Trabulsi, PhD, RD (joined September 2012)
    Project Manager
    • Tami Piemonte, MS, RD, LD/N
    Lead Analysts
    • Erica Gradwell, MS, RD
    • Mei Chung, PhD, MPH
    Evidence Analysts
    • Stacy Briscoe, MS, RD
    • Elizabeth Friedrich, MPH, RD, LDN
    • Deon Gines, RD, CD, PhD, CNSD
    • Charlene Harkins, EdD, RD, LD, FADA
    • Kajuandra Harris Huntley, PhD, MS, RD
    • Kathy Hoy, EdD, RD, LDN
    • Renata (Renee) Korczak, MS, MA
    • Micah Lancman, MS, RD
    • Megan Majernik, MS, RD, LDN
    • Nadia Marzella, MS, RD, LDN
    • Kelly Roehl, MS, RD, CNSC, LDN
    • Christopher Taylor, PhD, RD
    Guideline Reviewers (Critically Ill - 2013)
    • Susan L. Brantley, MS, RD, CNSC, LDN
    • Charlene Compher, PhD, RD, CNSC, LDN, FADA, FASPEN
    • Marion J. Franz, MS, RDN, LD, CDE
    • Linda D. Griffith, PhD, RD, CNSC
    • Ainsley Malone, MS, RD, LD, CNSD
    • Kathleen C. Niedert, PhD, RD, CSG, LD, FADA
    • Rebecca S. Reeves, DrPH, RD, FADA
    • Susan Roberts, MS, RD, LD, CNSD
    • Kim Robien, PhD, RD, CSO, FAND
    • Mary Krystoflak Russell, MS, RDN, LDN
    • Beth E. Taylor, MS, RDN, LD, FCCM
    • Jennifer A. Wooley, MS, RD, CNSC
    Guideline Reviewers (Non-Critically Ill - 2014)
    • Stephanie Dobak, MS, LDN, CNSC
    • Marion J. Franz, MS, RDN, LD, CDE
    • Carol Ireton Jones, PhD, LD, CNSD, FAND
    • Ainsley Malone, MS, RD, LD, CNSD
    • Kathleen C. Niedert, PhD, RD, CSG, LD, FADA
    • Susan Roberts, MS, RD, LD, CNSD
    • Christina Rollins, MS, RD, LDN, CNSC
    • Peter J.M. Weijs, PhD
    • Jennifer A. Wooley, MS, RD, CNSC
    Academy Staff
    • Paula J. Ziegler, PhD, RD, CFSC
    • Grace Whiteford, MS, RD, CSSD
    • Kari Kren, MPH, RD, LD
    • Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, LDN
    Financial Contributor
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics


    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.
    • None of the workgroup members listed above disclosed potential conflicts.


     
  • Project Resources
    This project resulted in the following manuscript:

    Evidence Analysis Library Review of Best Practices for Performing Indirect Calorimetry in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill Individuals

    Abstract

    When measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry is necessary, following evidence-based protocols will ensure the individual has achieved a resting state. The purpose of this project was to update the best practices for measuring RMR by indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill adults and children found the Evidence Analysis Library of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Evidence Analysis process described by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was followed. The Ovid database was searched for papers published between 2003 and 2012 using key words identified by the work group and research consultants, studies used in the previous project were also considered (1980 to 2003), and references were hand searched. The work group worked in pairs to assign papers to specific questions; however, the work group developed evidence summaries, conclusion statements, and recommendations as a group. Only 43 papers were included to answer 21 questions about the best practices to ensure an individual is at rest when measuring RMR in the non-critically ill population. In summary, subjects should be fasted for at least 7 hours and rest for 30 minutes in a thermoneutral, quiet, and dimly lit room in the supine position before the test, without doing any activities, including fidgeting, reading, or listening to music. RMR can be measured at any time of the day as long as resting conditions are met. The duration of the effects of nicotine and caffeine and other stimulants is unknown, but lasts longer than 140 minutes and 240 minutes, respectively. The duration of the effects of various types of exercise on RMR is unknown. Recommendations for achieving steady state, preferred gas-collection devices, and use of respiratory quotient to detect measurement errors are also given. Of the 21 conclusions statements developed in this systemic review, only 5 received a grade I or II. One limitation is the low number of studies available to address the questions and most of the included studies had small sample sizes and were conducted in healthy adults. More research on how to conduct an indirect calorimetry measurement in healthy adults and children and in sick, but not critically ill, individuals is needed. J Acad Nutr Diet 2015;115:1417-1446