Adult Weight Management (AWM) Portion Control
Click here to see the explanation of recommendation ratings (Strong, Fair, Weak, Consensus, Insufficient Evidence) and labels (Imperative or Conditional). To see more detail on the evidence from which the following recommendations were drawn, use the hyperlinks in the Supporting Evidence Section below.
AWM: Portion Control
Portion control should be included as part of a comprehensive weight management program. Portion control at meals and snacks results in reduced energy intake and weight loss.
Risks/Harms of Implementing This Recommendation
Conditions of Application
No conditions specified.
Potential Costs Associated with Application
- Two positive-quality RCTs have shown that portion control results in weight loss (Hannum et al, 2004; Waller et al, 2004)
- Two neutral-quality RCTs and 3 nonrandomized clinical trials (two positive-quality, one-neutral quality) demonstrate that as portion size increases at a meal, energy intake also increases (Levitsky and Youn, 2004; Rolls et al, 2002; Rolls et al, 2004; Wansink and Kim, 2005, Wansink et al, 2005)
- Two positive-quality nonrandomized clinical trials have shown that increased energy intake at one meal does not result in decreased energy intake at subsequent meals, resulting in significant increases in daily energy intake (Kral et al, 2004; Rolls et al, 2004)
Recommendation Strength Rationale
- Conclusion statement given a Grade III
- Consistent findings among a variety of study designs
- Risks/Harms of Implementing This Recommendation
The recommendations were created from the evidence analysis on the following questions. To see detail of the evidence analysis, click the blue hyperlinks below (recommendations rated consensus will not have supporting evidence linked).
Hannum SM, Carson LA, Evans EM, Canene KA, Petr EL, Bui L, Erdman JW. Use of portion-controlled entrees enhances weight loss in women. Obes Res 2004; 12: 538-546.
Kral TVE, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:962-8.
Levitsky DA, Youn T. The more food young adults are served, the more they overeat. J Nutr 2004; 134: 2546-2549.
Rolls BJ, Morris EL, Roe LS. Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 1207-1213.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Kral TVE, Meengs JS, Wall DE. Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite 2004; 42: 63-69.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS, Wall DE. Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104: 367-372.
Waller SM, Vander Wal JS, Klurfeld DM, McBurney MI, Cho S, Bijlani S, Dhurandhar NV. Evening ready-to-eat cereal consumption contributes to weight management. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(4):316-21.
Wansink B, Kim J. Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste. J Nutr Educ Behav 2005; 37: 242-245.
Wansink B, Painter JE, North J. Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obes Res 2005; 13(1): 93-100.