Adult Weight Management

Adult Weight Management

The primary objective of the 2020-21 Adult Weight Management (AWM) systematic review was to identify, characterize, and analyze studies examining weight management interventions provided by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) or international equivalent, in adults with overweight or obesity.

The following sub-topic areas were identified to examine the impact of intervention components:

  • Number and frequency of contacts with the dietitian;
  • Interventions delivered in-person or with telehealth;
  • Interventions delivered individually or in groups;
  • Interventions delivered by a multidisciplinary team or dietitian alone;
  • Intervention duration and efficacy at follow-up.

Because this systematic review was written to inform an evidence-based guideline, interventions for specific sub-populations and in specific settings were examined, including:

  • Adults with Obesity BMI ≥30
  • Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Adults with Cardiovascular Disease
  • Postpartum Individuals
  • Adults identifying as Racial/Ethnic Minorities
  • Adults with Disabilities
  • Adults with Low Socioeconomic Status
  • Interventions in Community Settings
  • Interventions in Workplace Settings
  • Interventions in Primary Care or Outpatient Settings

A secondary objective of this systematic review was to identify, characterize, and analyze studies examining health at every size and non-diet interventions provided by an RDN, or international equivalent, in adults with overweight or obesity.

Key results include:

  • In adults with overweight or obesity, weight management interventions provided by a dietitian result in significantly decreased BMI and waist circumference, and increased percent weight loss and a likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss.
  • In adults with overweight or obesity and T2DM, weight management interventions may reduce fasting blood glucose levels.
  • In adults with overweight or obesity, limited evidence suggested Health at Every Size/Non-Diet interventions provided by a dietitian did not affect cardiometabolic outcomes.

Use the left navigation bar to view the results of the systematic review. Expand the section below titled Project Team and Disclosures for a listing of individuals who contributed to the development of the project, conflict of interest disclosures, and project funding information.

Development of the evidence-based nutrition practice guideline is underway with an estimated publication date of fall 2021. 

  • Project Team and Disclosures (2013-2014)

    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Workgroup Members

    • Rebecca Reeves, DrPH, RD, FADA, Chair
    • Chris Biesemeier, MS, RD, LD, FADA
    • Molly Gee, MEd, RD, LD
    • Patricia Harper, MS, RD, LDN
    • Sachiko St. Jeor, PhD, RD

    Former Workgroup Members

    • Jackie Boucher, MS, RD, LD, CDE
    • Kajuanda H. Huntley, MS, RD

    Project Manager/Lead Analyst

    • Erica K. Gradwell, MS, RD

    Association Position Committee Members

    • Alana Cline, PhD, RD
    • Christine A. Rosenbloom, PhD, RDN, LD, FAND
    • Karen Greathouse, PhD, RD

    Evidence Analysts

    • Lori Brizee, MS, RDN, CSP
    • Laura Cook, PhD, RD
    • Sharon Foley, PhD, RD, LDN
    • Carol Klitzke, PhD, RDN, SNS
    • Kim Bandelier, MPH, LD
    • Helen Solomon, MBA, RD
    • Renee Korczak, PhD, RD
    • Michelle Lee, PhD, RD

    Guideline Reviewers

    • Elizabeth T. Anderson, MS, LDN
    • Kristine Clark, PhD, RDN, FACSM
    • Monica Lebre, MS, RDN, LDN
    • Juliet Mancino, MS, RDN, LDN, CDE
    • Ashley Mullins, RD, LD, CNSC
    • Eileen Stellefson Myers, MPH, RDN, LDN, CEDRD, FADA, FAND
    • Stacy Paine, RDN, LD, CLT
    • Julie Schwartz, MS, RDN, CSSD, LD, ACSM-HFS
    • Kristen N. Smith, MS, RD
    • Anna Tourkakis, MPA, DTR
    • Rebecca J. Threlkeld, MS, RDN
    • Kristin B. Walters, RD
    • Samantha R. Weiss, MPH, RD, LD
    • Christine K. Weithman, MBA, RD, LDN

    Academy Staff

    • Taylor Wolfram, MS, RD, LDN
    • Kari Kren, MPH, RD
    • Deborah Cummins, PhD
    • Joan Schwaba, MS, RD

    Financial Contributors

    • Systematic Review
      • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      • Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group
    • Evidence-Based Guidelines
      • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics


    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.

    • None of the workgroup members listed above disclosed potential conflicts.
  • Project Resources

    The following resources were developed: 
     

    • Adult Weight Management Guideline Presentation - this 59-slide MS PowerPoint presentation includes all the recommendations and ratings of the AWM 2014 Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline. Ideal for you to use for meetings, in-service presentations and classes (this product is not designed for the consumer). Click to order.
       
    • Academy Position Paper: Interventions for the Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults - It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that successful treatment of overweight and obesity in adults requires adoption and maintenance of lifestyle behaviors contributing to both dietary intake and physical activity. These behaviors are influenced by many factors; therefore, interventions incorporating more than one level of the socioecological model and addressing several key factors in each level may be more successful than interventions targeting any one level and factor alone. Registered dietitian nutritionists, as part of a multidisciplinary team, need to be current and skilled in weight management to effectively assist and lead efforts that can reduce the obesity epidemic. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence on intrapersonal influences, such as dietary approaches, lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and surgery, is provided. Factors related to treatment, such as intensity of treatment and technology, are reviewed. Community-level interventions that strengthen existing community assets and capacity and public policy to create environments that support healthy energy balance behaviors are also discussed. Interventions for the Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults J Acad Nutr Diet January 2016;116 (1):29-147 (PDF
  • Project Team and Disclosures (2005-2007)

    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Workgroup Members

    • Christina W. Biesesmeier, MS, RD, LD, FADA, Chair
    • Ruth Ann Carpenter, MS, RD, LD
    • Molly Gee, MEd, RD, LD
    • Patricia H. Harper, MS, RD, LDN
    • Cathy A. Nonas, MS, RD, CDE
    • Rebecca S. Reeves, DrPH, RD, FADA
    • Sachiko T. St. Jeor, PhD, RD

    Project Manager/Lead Analyst

    • Erica K. Gradwell, MS, RD

    Evidence Analysts

    • Sheila Campbell, PhD, RD, LD
    • Mei Chung, PhD, MPH
    • Linda H. Clemens, EdD, RD
    • Mary Ann Cockram, MS, RD
    • Debby Demory-Luce, PhD, RD, LD
    • Erica K. Gradwell, MS, RD
    • Haewook Han, PhD, RD, LDN
    • Mary Katherine Hoy, EdD, RD, CDE
    • Kelly K.Leonard, MS, RD
    • Lynda M. March, PhD, RD, LD
    • Susan B. Moyers, PhD, MPH, MBA, LDN
    • Lisa M. Varner, PhD, RD

    Association Positions Committee Members

    • Helen W. Lane, PhD, RD
    • Naomi Trostler, PhD, RD

    Guideline Reviewers

    • George Blackburn, MD, PhD
    • Linda Boeckner
    • Susan Burke, MS, RD, LDN, CDE
    • Susan Cummings
    • Anne Daly, MS, RD, CDE
    • David Frankenfield, MS, RD
    • Jessye A. Goertz
    • Marion J. Franz, MS, RD, CDE
    • Elvira Q. Johnson, MS, RD, LDN, CDE
    • Rita M. Johnson, PhD, RD, LDN, FADA
    • Lee M. Kaplan, MD, PhD
    • Susan H. Laramee, MS, RD, LDN, FADA
    • Kim Larson,, MS, RD, LN
    • Nancy M. Lewis, PhD, RD, FADA
    • Anne Mathews, MS, RD
    • Emily Mitchell, RD, RD
    • Kathleen C. Niedert, MBA, RD, LD, FADA
    • Monica A. Penkilo, MPH, RD, CNSD, FADA
    • Kimberly Robien, PhD, RD, CNSD, FADA
    • Dorene Robinson, RD, CDN
    • Debra K. Sullivan, PhD, RD
    • Margaret J. Tate, MS, RD
    • Melanie Wilder, RD, LD

    Academy Staff

    • Deborah Cummins, PhD
    • Kari Kren, MPH, RD
    • Esther Myers,PhD, RD

    Financial Contributors

    • Evidence Analysis Work
      • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      • Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group
      • Commission on Dietetic Registration
    • Evidence-Based Guideline
      • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics


    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.

    • Molly Gee - consulted for the American Council for Fitness and Nutrition; American Academy of Family Physicians, Enovia Oil, Aspartame & Wrigley Science Institute; received an honorarium from General Mills; authored in the field of interest with Krause's Food Nutrition & Diet Therapy
    • Rebecca Reeves - consulted for Overall Nutrition Quality Index; Slim Fast; authored papers for Nontraditional/Treatment Approaches for Obesity & Topics in Clinical Nutrition Jan 2006
  • Scoping Review Project Team and Disclosures (2019)

    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to the 2019 Adult Weight Management Scoping Review:

    Project Team

    • Feon Cheng, PhD, MPH, RDN, CHTS-CP, Project Manager
      Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Jessica Redmond, PhD, RD, FAND, Lead Analyst
      Utica College, Cazenovia, NY, USA
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RDN, Methodologist
      Senior Scientist, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Amanda Wanner, MLS, AHIP, Medical Librarian
      Freelance Information Specialist, Kelowna, BC, Canada

    Content Advisors

    • Allison A. Childress, PhD, RDN, CSSD, LD
      Assistant Professor and Chief Clinical Dietitian, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA
    • Hollie A. Raynor, PhD, RD, LDN
      Professor, Department of Nutrition and Interim Assistant Dean of Research, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, USA

    Financial Contributors

    • Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members and content advisors have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members and content advisors are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers:

    • Raynor H: NIH grants on childhood obesity, consultant work for Board Certified Specialist in Obesity and Weight Management (CSOWM)

     

  • Systematic Review Project Team and Disclosures (2021)

    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project: 

    Expert Workgroup Members

    • Maria E. Morgan-Bathke, MBA, PhD, RDN, CD, FAND, Chair
      Associate Professor, Viterbo University, LaCrosse, WI, USA
    • Suzanne Domel Baxter, PhD, RD, LD, FADA, FAND
      Affiliate Research Professor, University of South Carolina, College of Social Work, Columbia, SC, USA
    • Tanya M. Halliday, PhD, RD
      Assistant Professor, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    • Amanda I. Lynch, PhD, RDN
      Associate Professor, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, USA
    • Neal G. Malik, DrPH, MPH, RDN, CHES, ACSM-EP
      Assistant Professor, California State University San Bernardino, San Bernardino, CA, USA
    • Hollie A. Raynor, PhD, RDN
      Associate Dean of Research, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, USA

    Project Leaders

    • Mary R. Rozga, PhD, RDN, Project Manager
      Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Jessica Garay, PhD, RDN, CSCS, FAND
      Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RDN, Methodologist
      Senior Scientist, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL  USA
    • Amanda Wanner, MLIS, AHIP

    Evidence Analysts

    • Megan Baumler, PhD, RD, Lino Lakes, MN, USA
    • Lyanne Chin, PhD, RD, Garden, CA, USA
    • Amy Huang, Basel, Switzerland
    • Telma Moreira, MS, RD, CSO, CNSC, Houston, TX, USA
    • Keiy Murofushi, MS, RD, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    • Maja Redzic, MS, RD, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Helen Solomon, MBA, RD, Wildwood, MO, USA

    Financial Contributors

    • Systematic Review
      • Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group
      • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation
    • Evidence-Based Guideline
      • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    The views or interests of the funding bodies did not influence the development of the systematic review.


    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.

    • Baxter - received speaker funding from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for presentation at FNCE; meeting expenses from Research DPG to attend FNCE 2016 and FNCE 2017; meeting expenses from Academy Foundation for Diversity Leader Training and Diversity Leaders Program; Co-investigator on grant from Pediatric Nutrition DPG.
    • Halliday - grant funding from NIH R21 through June 2021; NIH KL2 award through September 2022
    • Malik - funding from Optimal Healthy daily, LLC for podcast
    • Raynor - principal investigator on NIH grant on child weight management; principal investigator on adult weight management project funded by Weight Watchers.

    7/12/2021