Welcome to the Transgender Nutrition Project
Because there are currently no specific nutrition guidelines for transgender patients, the Evidence Analysis Center conducted a scoping review to determine availability of literature examing hormone therapy outcomes and the role of nutrition in transgender individuals. The review found the following:
- There were 187 studies included in the analysis, the vast majority of which had observational study designs. A small portion were experimental and included both non-controlled and randomized controlled trials. Several scoping and systematic reviews were also included. Most studies reported data on adults, with less literature available on adolescents, and few studies reporting data on children ≤9 years of age.
- Approximately two thirds of the included studies reported on intermediate and health effects of hormone therapy. In studies in which adults received feminizing or masculinizing hormone therapies, the most frequently reported outcomes were related to anthropometric measures, lipid profiles, and bone density; long-term effects were related to cardiovascular disease and events, cancer, and mortality. Among studies with adolescents receiving puberty blockers, the most frequently reported outcomes were related to anthropometric measures and bone density, with fewer studies reporting relevant lab values.
- Approximately one third of the included studies reported on nutrition-related health disparities between transgender and cisgender populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were related to mental health concerns such as anxiety, depression, or suicide, as well as alcohol abuse, malnutrition, overweight and obesity, diabetes, eating disorders, and cardiovascular disease.
- A small number of studies examined dietary intake in transgender individuals. Of these, three focused solely on alcohol intake.
- Very few studies reported on the validity and reliability of nutrition assessment methods or nutrition interventions.
Use the link on the left to view the scoping review details and conclusion. Expand the section below titled Scoping Review Project Team and Disclosures for a listing of individuals who contributed to the development of the review, disclosures, and project funding information.
- Scoping Review Project Team and Disclosures (2020)
The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to the scoping review:
- Mary R. Rozga, PhD, RDN, Project Manager
Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
- Erica K. Gradwell, MS, RDN, Lead Analyst
Independent Contractor, Arvada, CO, USA
- Deepa Handu, PhD, RDN, Methodologist
Senior Scientist, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL USA
- Amanda Wanner, MLIS, AHIP, Medical Librarian
Freelance Information Specialist, Kelowna, BC, Canada
- Jennifer Cantwell Wood, MPH, RD, LDN
Family Nutrition of the Triad, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
- Vaughn Darst, MS, RD
Center for Discovery, Los Angeles, CA, USA
- Whitney Linsenmeyer, PhD, RD, LD
Assistant Professor, DPD Director, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA
- Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
The views or interests of the funding bodies did not influence the development of this review.
Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers:
- Darst, V: Co-investigator for a grant for transgender nutrition program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, funded by Cigna Foundation; hired speaker on transgender eating disorder priorities
- Linsenmeyer, W: Consultant on Advisory Roundatable Partiicpant for Midwest Dairy Council regarding DASH Diet; sustainability; health & wellness; milk & dairy imitators. Primary investigator on Transgender Health Collaborative funded by employer. Primary investigator for Spark Micgrant - Diet and Nutrition Considerations of Transgender Patients: A Mixed Methods Cohort Study.. Received reimbursement of travel expenses for FNCE as Academy spokesperson.
- Mary R. Rozga, PhD, RDN, Project Manager