Nutrition and Physical Activity

Nutrition and Physical Activity

Welcome to the Nutrition and Physical Activity Project

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Council on Exercise (ACE) have collaborated to develop a systematic review on the topic of nutrition and physical activity interventions in the general population.

Nutrition and Physical Activity: General Population

Lifestyle behaviors, including nutrition and physical activity, play an important role in the prevention of cardiometabolic and other diseases. However, most adults living in the United States do not meet recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake or physical activity. Providing interventions to adults who are healthy or have cardiometabolic risk factors may prevent or reverse cardiometabolic risk factors. 

A scoping review conducted in 2020 demonstrated that recent, relevant research was available to guide nutrition and exercise practitioners working with adults who were healthy or had cardiometabolic risk factors, such as overweight or obesity. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to determine the efficacy of nutrition and physical activity interventions in this population on: 

  • Behavioral Outcomes
  • Anthropometric Outcomes
  • Glucose Outcomes
  • Quality of Life and Anxiety/Depression
  • Adverse Events

When possible, sub-group analyses were conducted to determine the influence of intervention components on outcomes of interest. Intervention components examined include: 

  • Practitioner
  • In-person vs remote delivery
  • Individual vs group contacts
  • Number of contacts
  • Study duration
  • Level of nutrition and physical activity interventions

Key Findings:

  • Nutrition and physical activity interventions provided by dietitians or equivalent, qualified exercise practitioners and/or health coaches may increase physical activity amount and fruit and vegetable intake. 
  • Nutrition and physical activity interventions provided by dietitians or equivalent, qualified exercise practitioners and/or health coaches are likely to improve anthropometric outcomes.
  • Nutrition and physical activity interventions provided by dietitians or equivalent, qualified exercise practitioners and/or health coaches may have no effect on quality of life or anxiety/depression.
  • Interventions provided by a dietitian with or without an exercise practitioner resulted in significant improvements for nearly all outcomes measured, but there was little information available on the efficacy of interventions delivered by health coaches. 

Development of the evidence-based nutrition practice guideline is underway with an estimated publication date of January 2022.

Use the links in the left navigation bar to view the results of the systematic review. Expand the section below titled Project Team and Disclosures for a listing of the individuals who contributed to the development of the project, conflict of interest, and project funding information. 

10/21/2021

  • Nutrition and Physical Activity: General Population Systematic Review Project Team and Disclosures (2020-21)

    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Expert Panel

    • Justin A. Robinson, MA, RDN, CSSD, CSCS, TSAC-F, FAFS, Chair
      Adjunct Faculty, Point Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, CA, USA
    • Kimberly Gottesman, DCN, RDN, LDN, CNSC
      Assistant Professor, California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    • Peggy L. Hamlett, PhD, MS
      Owner, Peg Hamlett Fitness, Moscow, ID, USA
    • Lama Mattar, PhD, MS
      Associate Professor of Nutrition, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon
    • Erin M. Nitschke, PhD, MS< NSCA-CPT, NFPT-CPT
      Exercise Science Professor, Laramie County Community College, Cheyenne, WY, USA
    • Ashley P. Tovar, PhD, RDN
      Research Scientist, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA

    Project Leaders

    • Mary R. Rozga, PhD, RDN, Project Manager
      Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Kathryn S. Keim, Lead Analyst (added April 2021)
      Rush University (retired), Chicago, IL, USA
    • Amy Yahiro, MS, RDN, Lead Analyst (resigned July 2021)
      Senior Manager, Evidence-based Medicine, North American Spine Society, Burr Ridge, IL, USA
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RDN, Methodologist
      Senior Scientist, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Michelle Fiander, MA, MLIS
      Fiander Consulting, Halifax, NS, Canada

    Evidence Analysts

    • Megan Baumler, PhD, RD
      Lino Lakes, MN, USA
    • Lyanne Chin, PhD, RD
      Garden City, CA, USA
    • Amy Huang, MPH, RDN
      Basel, Switzerland
    • Telma Moreira, MS, RD, CSO, CNSC
      Houston, TX, USA
    • Maja Redzic, MS, RD
      Chicago, IL, USA
    • Helen Solomon, MBA, RD
      Wildwood, MO, USA

    Financial Contributors

    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
    • American Council on Exercise

    The views or interests of the funding bodies did not influence the development of the systematic review. 

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.

    • Robinson J: received payment from the American Council on Exercise for the development of educational presentations.
    • Mattar L: received payment from UNICEF Lebanon for consultant work.


    updated: 10/21/2021

  • Nutrition and Physical Activity: General Population Scoping Review Team and Disclosures (2020)

    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to the review:

    Project Manager

    • Mary R. Rozga, PhD, RDN
      Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA

    Lead Analyst

    • Amy  M. Yahiro, MS, RD, LDN
      Evidence-Based Medicine Manager, North American Spine Society, Burr Ridge, IL, USA

    Methodologist

    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RDN
      Senior Scientist, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA

    Medical Librarian

    • Michelle Fiander, MA, MLIS
      Fiander Consulting, Halifax, NS, Canada

    Content Advisors

    • Kelly R. Jones, MS, RD, CSSD, LDN
      Owner, Kelly Jones Nutrition, LLC, Newtown, PA, USA
    • Janet Peterson, DrPH, RDN, RCEP, WEMT, FACSM
      Professor, Health and Human Performance, Linfield College, McMinnville, OR, USA
    • Justin Robinson, MA, RDN, CSSD, CSCS. TSAC-F- FAFS
      Human Performance Dietitian, Naval Special Warfare Center, Coronado, CA, USA

    Financial Contributors

    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
    • American Council on Exercise

    The views or interests of the funding bodies did not influence the development of this review.


    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members and content advisors have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members and content advisors are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers:

    • Jones K: Received compensation for speaking services from Honey Stinger, The Wonderful Company, Newtown Athletic Club, and various high school and college teams.
    • Peterson J: received travel reimbursement expenses from ACEND for services as an accreditation reviewer.
    • Robinson J: received travel and meeting reimbursement for Hawaii AND annual meeting speaker (2019) and California AND annual meeting speaker (2020)

     

  • Resources and Articles (2021)
    • Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions for the General Population with and without Cardiometabolic Risk: A Scoping Review: The objective of this scoping review was to examine the research question: In the adults with or without cardiometabolic risk, what is the availability of literature examining interventions to improve or maintain nutrition and physical activity related outcomes? Sub-topics included 1) behavior counseling or coaching from a dietitian/nutritionist or exercise practitioner; 2) mobile applications to improve nutrition and physical activity; and 3) nutritional ergogenic aids. Rozga M, Jones K, Robinson J, et al. Public Health Nutr 2021 May 25;1-49