Advanced Technology in Food Production

Advanced Technology in Food Production Systematic Review (2013-2015)

Welcome to the Advanced Technology in Food Production project site. Highlights of this project include:
  • Target population of both adults and children. No research on animal or human cell lines was included. 
  • Three (3) sub-topics: Human Consumption of Genetically Engineered Animal Foods; Human Consumption of Genetically Engineered Plant Foods; and Human Consumption of Plant Foods with Pesticide Residues. Use the links on the left to view the evidence analysis questions, conclusions and supporting documentation.
  • Steve Taylor, PhD, an internationally recognized expert on genetically engineered foods and allergenicity, assisted the EAL expert workgroup. Expand the Project Team section for a complete listing of the individuals who contributed their time and expertise to this project.
Considerations when Reviewing the Evidence Analysis
  • Includes research literature published internationally over 20 years (1994-2014). View the search plans for the inclusion/exclusion criteria.
  • Includes research on genetically engineered foods that may currently be under development and not commercially available. At the current time, some genetically engineered food crops have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for human consumption, such as alfalfa, apples, canola, corn, cotton, papaya, potatoes, soybeans, summer squash, and sugar beets.
  • Includes research on all genetic engineering technologies except spontaneous mutations and conventional breeding techniques such as hybridizations and mutagenesis.
  • The majority of research available on human consumption of genetically engineered plant and animal foods relates to allergenicity. Allergenicity research on humans has inherent limitations due to ethical concerns, various testing methodologies, identifying studies with sufficient sample sizes, etc.
Glossary Terms

National Library of Medicine Glossary (accessed June 2015) - Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.

United States Food and Drug Administration (accessed June 2015) - Genetic engineering is the name for certain methods that scientists use to introduce new traits or characteristics to an organism. For example, plants may be genetically engineered to produce characteristics to enhance the growth or nutritional profile of food crops. While these techniques are sometimes referred to as "genetic modifications," FDA considers "genetic engineering" to be the more precise term. Food and food ingredients from genetically engineered plants were introduced into our food supply in the 1990s.
 
  • Project Team
    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to this project:

    Workgroup Members
    • Marianne Smith Edge, MS, RD, LD, FADA, FAND, Chair
    • Eecole Copen, MS, RD, LD
    • Beth Kunkel, PhD, RD, LD, FADA, FAND
    • Jennie Schmidt, MS, RD
    • Robin Thomas, MS, RD
    • Sarah Trist, MS, RD, LDN
    • Suzy Weems, PhD, RDN, CSSSD, LD, FAND
    External Expert on Genetically Engineered Foods and Allergenicity
    • Steve Taylor, PhD
    Project Manager/Lead Analyst
    • Erica Gradwell, MS, RD
    • Deepa Handu*, PhD, RD, LDN
    Evidence Analysts
    • Roseline Jan, MS, RD
    • Vijaya Juturu, PhD, RD, FACN
    • Renee Korczak, PhD, RD
    • Keiy Murofushi, MS, RD
    • Valaree Williams, MS, RD, LDN
    Academy Staff
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RD, LDN
    • Mujahed Khan, MBA, RD (through March 2015)
    • Paula Ziegler, PhD, RD (through June 2015)
    Financial Contributors
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest: In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members are required to disclose potential conflicts of interests by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers.
    • Maryanne Smith Edge - Employed at International Food Information Council; farm owner partner; received an honorarium from National Dairy Council; membership in USDA National Agricultural Research; Education Economic, Extension Advisory Board; Reviewer for IFIC Foundation Consumer Research on Food Technology Insights; IFIC Foundation Food Biotechnology Guide.
    • Eecole Copen - member of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition DPG; project advisor team member to Oregon Healthy Food in Health Care Project; educational presentations on GMOs
    • Beth Kunkel - USDA grant for developing linkages between crop producers and institutional foodservice operations; co-owner of rice farm.
    • Jennie Schmidt - Employment at Schmidt Farms, Inc., Schmidt Vineyard Management, LLC; honorarium from IFIC Foundation; Monsanto America's Farmers Mom of the Year Northeast Region; buys farm supplies from Monsanto, Pioneer/DuPont, Schillinger Seed, Southern States Cooperative; Chesapeake Field, BASF, Syngenta, Aurora Agriculture; membership in Maryland Grain Producers, Maryland Specialty Crops Committee; US Wheat Foods Council
    • Steve Taylor - Co-Investigator of Allergen Online Database Project funded by consortium of agricultural biotechnology companies including Monsanto, Dow, DuPont, BASF, Syngenta, KWS, Limagrain; consultant for AquaBounty (GE salmon), Unilever (ice-structuring protein), Unilever (confidential food ingredient protein), American Egg Board; board membership for ConAgra Foods, Kellogg; royalties from Neogen Corporation-allergen tests; co-authored manuscripts "Challenges in testing of genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety", "Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified crops - what makes sense?", "The safety and allergenicity of genetically modified foods - impact on the global markets for cereals and oilseeds".
    • Robin Thomas - employed at USDA Agricultural Research Service; consultant with USA Rice; commodity group International Tree Nut Council; nutrient data support from Kellogg and General Mills.
    • Sarah Trist - member of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition DPG; authored White paper on antibiotic use in food systems; Review on Buyer Power in U.S.. Hog Markets; Policy update (online) for HEN on GMO labeling and Time to Pass the Food and Farm Bill
    • Suzy Weems - none