Dietary Approaches and Health Outcomes

Dietary Approaches and Health Outcomes

Welcome to the Dietary Approaches and Health Outcomes Project

Scoping Review

In 2020, the Evidence Analysis Center conducted a scoping review of systematic reviews (SRs) to identify and characterize studies examining diet or fasting [intermittent energy restriction (IER)] interventions among adults who are healthy or who may have chronic disease. While analyzing this evidence there were a few issues that stood out: 

  • Variation in definition of the diets: Inconsistencies in diet terms and definitions include wide variations in CHO content and other macronutrient proportions. 
  • Variation in the comparator diets: Similar heterogeneity was observed for the comparator diets. Over half of the SRs did not specify diet controls or comparators of interest or accepted any diet comparators. 
  • Energy restriction:  Weight management was a primary purpose in 53 SRs, but less than half of these specified an energy restriction requirement for the diet intervention.
  • Focus on single macronutrient modification: Most SRs evaluating macronutrient diets focused on modification of a single macronutrient and only a handful specified the proportion of the other two macronutrients. 

Click the Scoping Review link in the left navigation bar to learn more about the scoping review results.

Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Using findings from the scoping review search, the EAC team conducted an umbrella review on the Mediterranean diet and CVD. The review included sub-analysis for the following populations: hypertension, diabetes (type 2), CVD, overweight/obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. All of the systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria and evaluated a Mediterranean diet pattern (as defined by the authors) were included in the umbrella review. Definitions provided by the systematic review authors can be found in the Study Characteristics table available within each evidence summary. Common criteria identified from the systematic review of Mediterranean diet definitions included high fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; low to moderate meat intake; and inclusion of legumes and olive oil.

 The results of the umbrella review found:

  • Mediterranean diet intake may decrease blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol in the general population.
  • Mediterranean diet intake may reduce weight, LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in individuals with overweight or obesity.
  • Mediterranean diet intake may improve dyslipidemia and glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Use the left navigation bar to see the results of the Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk Factors umbrella review. Expand the section below titled Project Team and Disclosures for a listing of individuals who contributed to the development of the review, disclosures and project funding information.

11/24/2021

  • Scoping Review Project Team and Disclosures (2020)

    The following individuals contributed their valuable time and expertise to the scoping review:

    Project Team

    • Tami A. Piemonte, MS, RD, Project Manager
      Independent Contractor, St. Petersburg, FL, USA
    • Feon Cheng, PhD, MPH, RDN, Lead Analyst
      Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RDN, Methodologist
      Senior Scientist, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL, USA
    • Michelle Fiander, MA, MLIS, Medical Librarian
      FIander Consulting, Halifax, NS, Canada

    Content Advisors

    • Amy M. Gross, PhD, RD
      Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Services, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA
    • Lamia Nasrallah, MPH, RD, LDN
      Clinical Dietitian, University of North Carolina Hospitals Medical Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    Financial Contributors

    • Commission on Dietetic Registration
    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    The views or interests of the funding bodies did not influence the development of this scoping review.

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest
    In the interest of full disclosure, the Academy has adopted the policy of revealing relationships workgroup members and content advisors have with companies that sell products or services that are relevant to this topic. Workgroup members and content advisors are required to disclose potential conflicts of interest by completing the Academy Conflict of Interest Form. It should not be assumed that these financial interests will have an adverse impact on the content, but they are noted here to fully inform readers:

    • None of the content advisors listed above disclosed potential conflicts of interest.
  • Mediterranean Diet Umbrella Review Project Team and Disclosures (2021)

    Project Team

    • Lisa Moloney, MS, RDN, Project Manager
      Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL
    • Mary Rozga, PhD, RDN
      Nutrition Researcher, Academy of Nutrition and Dieetics, Chicago, IL
    • Deepa Handu, PhD, RDN, Methodologist
      Senior Scientist, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Chicago, IL

    Financial Contributors

    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest

    • No member of the project team disclosed potential conflicts of interest.