Recommendations Summary

Search Plan and Results


Evidence Analysis Question(s)

What is the association between family participation and weight status outcomes in multi-component pediatric weight management interventions?

What is the association between length of treatment and weight status outcomes in multi-component pediatric weight management interventions?

What is the association between treatment setting (clinic vs. outside the clinic) and weight status outcomes in multi-component pediatric weight management interventions?

What is the association between including group sessions (vs. individual sessions only) and weight status outcomes in multi-component pediatric weight management interventions?

What is the effectiveness of multi-component pediatric weight management interventions to treat overweight in children and teens?

Date of Literature Review

April 2012

Inclusion Criteria

School age (6-18 years)
  • Outpatient weight management program or program that has weight management as a primary goal, (e.g., diabetes type 2 treatment program)
  • Intervention must last at least 12 weeks
  • Intervention must be multi-component and include a nutrition component
  • Intervention must have an adiposity measure as an outcome
Health Status
  • Otherwise healthy, though may have type 2 diabetes or obesity-related hypertension
  • Not on weight loss medications
  • Not following bariatric surgery
Problem/Condition Obesity or overweight
Study Design Preferences Clinical trial
Size of Study Groups ≥10 individuals for each study group
Study Drop Out Rate <20%
Year Range July 2005 to April 2012
  • If an author is included on more than one review article or primary research article that is similar in content, the most recent review or article will be accepted and earlier versions will be rejected
  • If an author is included on more than one review article or primary research article and the content is different, then both reviews may be accepted.
Based on recent IOM funded study, will attempt to use Google Translate to convert non-English studies published in languages shown to have acceptable translation results (German, Portugese, French, etc.)

Exclusion Criteria

Age <6 years; >18 years
  • School-based (if all students are targeted)
  • No nutrition intervention
Health Status Pregnant
Problem/Condition None
Study Design Preferences Observational, non-controlled trials
Size of Study Groups <10 per comparison group
Study Drop Out Rate >20%
Year Range Prior to July 2005*
Authorship Not meeting the inclusion criteria
Language Languages shown to not have acceptable translation results in recent IOM funded study (e.g., Chinese) will be excluded from translation attempts

*Note: Studies included in the previous Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis on related topics (PWM: Treatment Format: Family Format 2004; PWM: Behavioral Interventions for Pediatric Weight Management 2005; PWM: Treatment Format: Individual versus Group Format 2006) and the 2007 PWM Guideline Recommendations on Multicomponent interventions were not considered for this project. Because the standards of practice of pediatric weight management have changed over the past several decades, it was decided that only the most recent articles (July 2005 through April 2012) meeting inclusion criteria would be included, to increase similarity among treatment protocols.

Search Terms: Search Vocabulary

  • Condition: ((obesity) or (overweight))
  • Population: ((child):ti, ab, kw or (adolescent):ti, ab, kw) not (adult):kw
  • Intervention/treatment (very broad, screened from abstracts and full text): (treatment):ti, ab, kw.

Electronic Databases 

Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials
((obesity) or (overweight)) and ((child):ti, ab, kw or (adolescent):ti, ab, kw) and (treatment):ti, ab, kw not (adult):kw
Limits: After July 2005 (through April 2012)

  • Number of hits: 219
  • Number of articles to review: 98
  • Included articles: 73.


List of Included Articles  

  • Adam S, Westenhofer J, Rudolphi B, Kraaibeek H. Effects of a combined inpatient-outpatient treatment of obese children and adolescents. Obesity Facts, 2009; 2: 286-293.
  • Atabek M, Pirgon O. Use of metformin in obese adolescents with hyperinsulinemia: a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM. 2008; 21: 339-348.
  • Berkowitz R, Fujioka K, Daniels S, Hoppin A, Owen S, Perry A, Sothern M, Renz C, Pirner M, Walch J, Jasinsky O, Hewkin A, Blakesley V. Effects of sibutramine treatment in obese adolescents: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2006; 145: 81-90.
  • Berkowitz R, Wadden T, Gehrman C, Bishop-Gilyard C, Moore R, Womble L, Cronquist J, Trumpikas N, Levitt Katz L, Xanthopoulos M. Meal replacements in the treatment of adolescent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 2011; 19: 1, 193-1, 199.
  • Bravender T, Russell A, Chung R, Armstrong S. A "novel" intervention: a pilot study of children's literature and healthy lifestyles. Pediatrics, 2010; 125: e513-e517.
  • Budd G, Hayman L, Crump E, Pollydore C, Hawley K, Cronquist J, Berkowitz R. Weight loss in obese African American and Caucasian adolescents: secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of behavioral therapy plus sibutramine. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 2007; 22: 288-296.
  • Burgert T, Duran E, Goldberg-Gell R, Dziura J, Yeckel C, Katz S, Tamborlane W, Caprio S. Short-term metabolic and cardiovascular effects of metformin in markedly obese adolescents with normal glucose tolerance. Pediatric Diabetes, 2008; 9: 567-576.
  • Chanoine J, Richard M. Early weight loss and outcome at one year in obese adolescents treated with orlistat or placebo. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity: IJPO: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 2011; 6: 95-101.
  • Clarson C, Mahmud F, Baker J, Clark H, McKay W, Schauteet V, Hill D. Metformin in combination with structured lifestyle intervention improved body mass index in obese adolescents, but did not improve insulin resistance. Endocrine, 2009; 36: 141-146.
  • Collins C, Okely A, Morgan P, Jones R, Burrows T, Cliff D, Colyvas K, Warren J, Steele J, Baur L. Parent diet modification, child activity, or both in obese children: an RCT. Pediatrics, 2011; 127: 619-627.
  • Coppins D, Margetts B, Fa J, Brown M, Garrett F, Huelin S. Effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary family-based programme for treating childhood obesity (the Family Project). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2011; 65: 903-909.
  • Croker H, Viner R, Nicholls D, Haroun D, Chadwick P, Edwards C, Wells J, Wardle J. Family-based behavioural treatment of childhood obesity in a UK National Health Service setting: randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity (Lond). 2012; 36: 16-26.
  • Demol S, Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Shalitin S, Nagelberg N, Gillon-Keren M, Phillip M. Low-carbohydrate (low & high-fat) versus high-carbohydrate low-fat diets in the treatment of obesity in adolescents. Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). 2009; 98: 346-351.
  • Díaz R, Esparza-Romero J, Moya-Camarena S, Robles-Sardín A, Valencia M. Lifestyle intervention in primary care settings improves obesity parameters among Mexican youth. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2010; 110: 285-290.
  • Doyle A, Goldschmidt A, Huang C, Winzelberg A, Taylor C, Wilfley D. Reduction of overweight and eating disorder symptoms via the Internet in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2008; 43: 172-179.
  • Doyle-Baker P, Venner A, Lyon M, Fung T. Impact of a combined diet and progressive exercise intervention for overweight and obese children: the B.E. H.I.P. study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme, 2011; 36: 515-525.
  • Eliakim A, Nemet D, Balakirski Y, Epstein Y. The effects of nutritional-physical activity school-based intervention on fatness and fitness in preschool children. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM. 2007; 20: 711-718.
  • Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Beecher MD, Roemmich JN. Increasing healthy eating vs. reducing high energy-dense foods to treat pediatric obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2008; 16: 318-326.
  • Epstein LH, Roemmich JN, Stein RI, Paluch RA, Kilanowski CK. The challenge of identifying behavioral alternatives to food: clinic and field studies. Annals of Behavioral Medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 2005; 30: 201-209 (Study 1 and 2).
  • Ford A, Bergh C, Södersten P, Sabin M, Hollinghurst S, Hunt L, Shield J. Treatment of childhood obesity by retraining eating behaviour: randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2010; 340: b5388.
  • Garipagaoglu M, Sahip Y, Darendeliler F, Akdikmen O, Kopuz S, Sut N. Family-based group treatment versus individual treatment in the management of childhood obesity: randomized, prospective clinical trial. European Journal of Pediatrics, 2009; 168: 1, 091-1, 099.
  • Godoy-Matos A, Carraro L, Vieira A, Oliveira J, Guedes E, Mattos L, Rangel C, Moreira R, Coutinho W, Appolinario J. Treatment of obese adolescents with sibutramine: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2005; 90: 1, 460-1, 465.
  • Golan M, Kaufman V, Shahar D. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children. The British Journal of Nutrition, 2006; 95: 1, 008-1, 015.
    Goldschmidt A, Stein R, Saelens B, Theim K, Epstein L, Wilfley D. Importance of early weight change in a pediatric weight management trial. Pediatrics, 2011; 128: e33-e39.
  • Hart C, Jelalian E, Raynor H, Mehlenbeck R, Lloyd-Richardson E, Kaplan J, Flynn-O'Brien K, Wing R. Early patterns of food intake in an adolescent weight loss trial as predictors of BMI change. Eating Behaviors, 2010; 11: 217-222.
  • Hughes A, Stewart L, Chapple J, McColl J, Donaldson M, Kelnar C, Zabihollah M, Ahmed F, Reilly J. Randomized, controlled trial of a best-practice individualized behavioral program for treatment of childhood overweight: Scottish Childhood Overweight Treatment Trial (SCOTT). Pediatrics, 2008; 121: e539-e546.
  • Jelalian E, Hart C, Mehlenbeck R, Lloyd-Richardson E, Kaplan J, Flynn-O'Brien K, Wing R. Predictors of attrition and weight loss in an adolescent weight control program. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 2008; 16: 1, 318-1, 323.
  • Jelalian E, Lloyd-Richardson E, Mehlenbeck R, Hart C, Flynn-O'Brien K, Kaplan J, Neill M, Wing R. Behavioral weight control treatment with supervised exercise or peer-enhanced adventure for overweight adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 2010; 157: 923-928. e1.
  • Jelalian E, Mehlenbeck R, Lloyd-Richardson E, Birmaher V, Wing R. 'Adventure therapy' combined with cognitive-behavioral treatment for overweight adolescents. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 2006; 30: 31-39.
  • Jiang J, Xia X, Greiner T, Lian G, Rosenqvist U. A two year family based behaviour treatment for obese children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2005; 90: 1, 235-1, 238.
  • Johnston C, Tyler C, Palcic J, Stansberry S, Gallagher M, Foreyt J. Smaller weight changes in standardized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases. The Journal of Pediatrics, 2011; 158: 624-627.
  • Jones M, Luce K, Osborne M, Taylor K, Cunning D, Doyle A, Wilfley D, Taylor C. Randomized, controlled trial of an internet-facilitated intervention for reducing binge eating and overweight in adolescents. Pediatrics, 2008; 121: 453-462.
  • Kalarchian M, Levine M, Arslanian S, Ewing L, Houck P, Cheng Y, Ringham R, Sheets C, Marcus M. Family-based treatment of severe pediatric obesity: randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 2009; 124: 1, 060-1, 068.
  • Kalavainen M, Korppi M, Nuutinen O. Clinical efficacy of group-based treatment for childhood obesity compared with routinely given individual counseling. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 2007; 31: 1, 500-1, 508.
  • Kalavainen M, Korppi M, Nuutinen O. Long-term efficacy of group-based treatment for childhood obesity compared with routinely given individual counselling. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 2011; 35: 530-533.
  • Klesges R, Obarzanek E, Kumanyika S, Murray D, Klesges L, Relyea G, Stockton M, Lanctot J, Beech B, McClanahan B, Sherrill-Mittleman D, Slawson D. The Memphis Girls' health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): an evaluation of the efficacy of a 2-year obesity prevention program in African American girls. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2010; 164: 1, 007-1, 014.
  • Krebs N, Gao D, Gralla J, Collins J, Johnson S. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 2010; 157: 252-258.
  • Magarey A, Perry R, Baur L, Steinbeck K, Sawyer M, Hills A, Wilson G, Lee A, Daniels L. A parent-led family-focused treatment program for overweight children aged 5 to 9 years: the PEACH RCT. Pediatrics, 2011; 127: 214-222.
  • Munsch S, Roth B, Michael T, Meyer A, Biedert E, Roth S, Speck V, Zumsteg U, Isler E, Margraf J. Randomized controlled comparison of two cognitive behavioral therapies for obese children: mother versus mother-child cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 2008; 77: 235-246.
  • Naar-King S, Ellis D, Kolmodin K, Cunningham P, Jen K, Saelens B, Brogan K. A randomized pilot study of multisystemic therapy targeting obesity in African-American adolescents. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2009; 45: 417-419.
  • Nemet D, Barkan S, Epstein Y, Friedland O, Kowen G, Eliakim A. Short- and long-term beneficial effects of a combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 2005; 115: e443-e449.
  • Nemet D, Barzilay-Teeni N, Eliakim A. Treatment of childhood obesity in obese families. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM. 2008; 21: 461-467.
  • Nowicka P, Lanke J, Pietrobelli A, Apitzsch E, Flodmark C. Sports camp with six months of support from a local sports club as a treatment for childhood obesity. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2009; 37: 793-800.
  • O'Brien P, Sawyer S, Laurie C, Brown W, Skinner S, Veit F, Paul E, Burton P, McGrice M, Anderson M, Dixon J. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in severely obese adolescents: a randomized trial. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association, 2010; 303: 519-526.
  • Okely A, Collins C, Morgan P, Jones R, Warren J, Cliff D, Burrows T, Colyvas K, Steele J, Baur L. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary-modification program, or both in overweight children: the HIKCUPS study. The Journal of Pediatrics, 2010; 157: 388-394, 394. e1.
  • Pedrosa C, Oliveira B, Albuquerque I, Simões-Pereira C, Vaz-de-Almeida M, Correia F. Metabolic syndrome, adipokines and ghrelin in overweight and obese schoolchildren: results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention programme. European Journal of Pediatrics, 2011; 170: 483-492.
  • Reinehr T, de Sousa G, Toschke A, Andler W. Long-term follow-up of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children after an obesity intervention. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006; 84: 490-496.
  • Reinehr T, Kleber M, Toschke A. Lifestyle intervention in obese children is associated with a decrease of the metabolic syndrome prevalence. Atherosclerosis 2009; 207: 174-180.
  • Rezvanian H, Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Tavakoli N, Poursafa P. A randomized, triple masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial for controlling childhood obesity. World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP. 2010; 6: 317-322.
  • Ribeiro M, Silva A, Santos N, Guazzelle I, Matos L, Trombetta I, Halpern A, Negrão C, Villares S. Diet and exercise training restore blood pressure and vasodilatory responses during physiological maneuvers in obese children. Circulation, 2005; 111: 1, 915-1, 923.
  • Robinson T, Matheson D, Kraemer H, Wilson D, Obarzanek E, Thompson N, Alhassan S, Spencer T, Haydel K, Fujimoto M, Varady A, Killen J. A randomized controlled trial of culturally tailored dance and reducing screen time to prevent weight gain in low-income African American girls: Stanford GEMS. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2010; 164: 995-1, 004.
  • Rooney B, Gritt L, Havens S, Mathiason M, Clough E. Growing healthy families: family use of pedometers to increase physical activity and slow the rate of obesity. WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin, 2005; 104: 54-60.
  • Rosado J, del R Arellano M, Montemayor K, García O, Caamaño M. An increase of cereal intake as an approach to weight reduction in children is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 2008; 7: 28.
  • Sacher P, Kolotourou M, Chadwick P, Cole T, Lawson M, Lucas A, Singhal A. Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: a family-based community intervention for childhood obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 2010; 18: S62-S68.
  • Saelens B, Grow H, Stark L, Seeley R, Roehrig H. Efficacy of increasing physical activity to reduce children's visceral fat: a pilot randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity: IJPO: an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 2011; 6: 102-112.
  • Sato A, Jelalian E, Hart C, Lloyd-Richardson E, Mehlenbeck R, Neill M, Wing R. Associations between parent behavior and adolescent weight control. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2011; 36: 451-460.
  • Savoye M, Nowicka P, Shaw M, Yu S, Dziura J, Chavent G, O'Malley G, Serrecchia J, Tamborlane W, Caprio S. Long-term results of an obesity program in an ethnically diverse pediatric population. Pediatrics, 2011; 127: 402-410.
  • Shalitin S, Ashkenazi-Hoffnung L, Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Nagelberg N, Karni Y, Hershkovitz E, Loewenthal N, Shtaif B, Gat-Yablonski G, Phillip M. Effects of a twelve-week randomized intervention of exercise and/or diet on weight loss and weight maintenance, and other metabolic parameters in obese preadolescent children. Hormone Research, 2009; 72: 287-301.
  • Simon C, Schweitzer B, Oujaa M, Wagner A, Arveiler D, Triby E, Copin N, Blanc S, Platat C. Successful overweight prevention in adolescents by increasing physical activity: a 4-year randomized controlled intervention. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 2008; 32: 1, 489-1, 498.
  • Stice E, Marti C, Spoor S, Presnell K, Shaw H. Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: long-term effects from a randomized efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2008; 76: 329-340.
  • Tjønna A, Stølen T, Bye A, Volden M, Slørdahl S, Odegård R, Skogvoll E, Wisløff U. Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents. Clinical Science (London, England: 1979), 2009; 116: 317-326.
  • Van Mil E, Westerterp K, Kester A, Delemarre-van de Waal H, Gerver W, Saris W. The effect of sibutramine on energy expenditure and body composition in obese adolescents. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2007; 92: 1, 409-1, 414.
  • Wafa S, Talib R, Hamzaid N, McColl J, Rajikan R, Ng L, Ramli A, Reilly J. Randomized controlled trial of a good practice approach to treatment of childhood obesity in Malaysia: Malaysian Childhood Obesity Treatment Trial (MASCOT). International Journal of Pediatric Obesity: IJPO: an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 2011; 6: e62-e69.
  • Wake M, Baur L, Gerner B, Gibbons K, Gold L, Gunn J, Levickis P, McCallum Z, Naughton G, Sanci L, Ukoumunne O. Outcomes and costs of primary care surveillance and intervention for overweight or obese children: the LEAP 2 randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 2009; 339: b3, 308.
  • Weigel C, Kokocinski K, Lederer P, Dötsch J, Rascher W, Knerr I. Childhood obesity: concept, feasibility, and interim results of a local group-based, long-term treatment program. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 40: 369-373.
  • Wilfley D, Stein R, Saelens B, Mockus D, Matt G, Hayden-Wade H, Welch R, Schechtman K, Thompson P, Epstein L. Efficacy of maintenance treatment approaches for childhood overweight: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2007; 298: 1, 661-1, 673.
  • Williams C, Strobino B, Brotanek J. Weight control among obese adolescents: a pilot study. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2007; 58: 217-230.
  • Williamson D, Martin P, White M, Newton R, Walden H, York-Crowe E, Alfonso A, Gordon S, Ryan D. Efficacy of an internet-based behavioral weight loss program for overweight adolescent African-American girls. Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD. 2005; 10: 193-203.
  • Williamson D, Walden H, White M, York-Crowe E, Newton R, Alfonso A, Gordon S, Ryan D. Two-year internet-based randomized controlled trial for weight loss in African-American girls. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 2006; 14: 1, 231-1, 243.
  • Wilson D, Abrams S, Aye T, Lee P, Lenders C, Lustig R, Osganian S, Feldman H. Metformin extended release treatment of adolescent obesity: a 48-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 48-week follow-up. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2010; 164: 116-123.
  • Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Nagelberg N, Demol S, Phillip M, Shalitin S. Influence of weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on health-related quality of life in obese youth. Appetite, 2008; 51: 697-703.
  • Yu C, Sung R, So R, Lui K, Lau W, Lam P, Lau E. Effects of strength training on body composition and bone mineral content in children who are obese. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 2005; 19: 667-672.

Articles Considered, but Excluded

List of Excluded Articles with Reason 

Reference Reason for Exclusion
Chen J, Weiss S, Heyman M, Lustig R. Efficacy of a child-centred and family-based program in promoting healthy weight and healthy behaviors in Chinese American children: a randomized controlled study. Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England), 2010; 32: 219-229. No nutrition intervention described
Burrows T, Warren JM, Collins CE. The impact of a child obesity treatment intervention on parent child-feeding practices. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010; 5 (1): 43-50. No comparison of group weight status changes
Byrd-Williams CE, Belcher BR, Spruijt-Metz D, Davis JN, Ventura EE, Kelly L, Berhane K, Azen S, Goran MI. Increased physical activity and reduced adiposity in overweight Hispanic adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Mar; 42 (3): 478-484. Combined treatment and control groups for analysis
Daniels S, Long B, Crow S, Styne D, Sothern M, Vargas-Rodriguez I, Harris L, Walch J, Jasinsky O, Cwik K, Hewkin A, Blakesley V. Cardiovascular effects of sibutramine in the treatment of obese adolescents: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pediatrics, 2007; 120: e147-e157. No evidence of multi-component weight loss intervention, drug only
Iannuzzi A, Licenziati M, Vacca M, De Marco D, Cinquegrana G, Laccetti M, Bresciani A, Covetti G, Iannuzzo G, Rubba P, Parillo M. Comparison of two diets of varying glycemic index on carotid subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children. Heart and Vessels, 2009; 24: 419-424. Only a diet component, no apparent exercise or behavioral intervention
Kaitosaari T, Rönnemaa T, Viikari J, Raitakari O, Arffman M, Marniemi J, Kallio K, Pahkala K, Jokinen E, Simell O. Low-saturated fat dietary counseling starting in infancy improves insulin sensitivity in 9-year-old healthy children: the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Children (STRIP) study. Diabetes Care, 2006; 29: 781-785. Do not report baseline measures and only report 9-year differences between groups
Tsiros M, Sinn N, Brennan L, Coates A, Walkley J, Petkov J, Howe P, Buckley J. Cognitive behavioral therapy improves diet and body composition in overweight and obese adolescents. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008; 87: 1, 134-1, 140. Diet intervention, but no behavioral component or physical activity
van der Heijden G, Wang Z, Chu Z, Sauer P, Haymond M, Rodriguez L, Sunehag A. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 2010; 18: 384-390. Metabolic study, not weight loss study
Vos RC, Wit JM, Pijl H, Kruyff CC, Houdijk EC. The effect of family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment in children with obesity: study
protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 2011 May 6; 12: 110.
Protocol description; does not include a results section
Cali A, Pierpont B, Taksali S, Allen K, Shaw M, Savoye M, Caprio S. Rosiglitazone improves glucose metabolism in obese adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2011; 19: 94-99. Sample size was too small (N=9)
Duggins M, Cherven P, Carrithers J, Messamore J, Harvey A. Impact of family YMCA membership on childhood obesity: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM. 2010; 23: 323-333. Insufficient detail on outcome measures
Ellis D, Janisse H, Naar-King S, Kolmodin K, Jen K, Cunningham P, Marshall S. The effects of multisystemic therapy on family support for weight loss among obese African-American adolescents: findings from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP. 2010; 31: 461-468. Authors collapsed treatment groups for the final analysis
Fritsch P, Kleber M, Schlagenhauf A, Laschnik B, Fritsch M, Muntean W, Mangge H, Reinehr T. Normalization of haemostatic alterations in overweight children with weight loss due to lifestyle intervention. Atherosclerosis. 2011; 216: 170-173. Before-after study (one arm trial) for weight status
Meyers K, Lieberman K, Solar-Yohay S, Han G, Shi V. The efficacy and safety of valsartan in obese and non-obese pediatric hypertensive patients. Journal of Clinical Hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.). 2011; 13: 758-766. Drug study. No weight loss intervention.
Pedrosa C, Oliveira B, Albuquerque I, Simões-Pereira C, Vaz-de-Almeida M, Correia F. Markers of metabolic syndrome in obese children before and after 1-year lifestyle intervention program. European Journal of Nutrition, 2011; 50: 391-400. Duplicate study; companion study included more complete anthropometric data
Dalton W, Johnston C, Foreyt J, Tyler C. Brief report: weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2008; 33: 673-677. Before-after study design
Davis, Ann McGrath; James, Rochelle L; Boles, Richard E; Goetz, Jeannine R; Belmont, John; Malone, Brett. The use of TeleMedicine in the treatment of paediatric obesity: feasibility and acceptability. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 2011; 7: 71-79. Sample too small; groups were <10 subjects
Hofsteenge GH, Chinapaw MJ, Weijs PJ, van Tulder MW, Delemarre-van de Waal HA. Go4it; study design of a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a multidisciplinary group intervention for obese adolescents for prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2. BMC Public Health, 2008 Dec 16; 8: 410. Protocol paper
Ibáñez L, López-Bermejo A, Díaz M, Marcos M, de Zegher F. Metformin treatment for four years to reduce total and visceral fat in low birth weight girls with precocious pubarche. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2008; 93: 1, 841-1, 845. Drug study, not a multi-component study. Study does not have any diet, physical activity nor behavior intervention associated with the metformin drug.
Martos-Moreno G, Barrios V, Martínez G, Hawkins F, Argente J. Effect of weight loss on high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese children. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2010; 18: 2, 288-2, 294. Weight status changes reported only in overweight group (so, in essence, a one arm study for this outcome)
Sacher PM, Kolotourou M, Chadwick PM, Cole TJ, Lawson MS, Lucas A, Singhal A. Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: a family-based community intervention for childhood obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Feb; 18 Suppl 1: S62-S68. Duplicate article
Tjønna A, Stølen T, Bye A, Volden M, Slørdahl S, Odegård R, Skogvoll E, Wisløff U. Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents. Clinical Science (London, England: 1979), test 2009; 116: 317-326. Duplicate article
Ventura E, Davis J, Byrd-Williams C, Alexander K, McClain A, Lane C, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg M, Goran M. Reduction in risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in response to a low-sugar, high-fiber dietary intervention in overweight Latino adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2009; 163: 320-327. The comparison groups were combined
Weintraub D, Tirumalai E, Haydel K, Fujimoto M, Fulton J, Robinson T. Team sports for overweight children: the Stanford Sports to Prevent Obesity Randomized Trial (SPORT). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2008; 162: 232-237. <10 subjects per group

Search Methods and Results


Articles Identified Through Database Searching:
Additional Articles Identified Through Other Sources: 0


Articles Screened After Removing Duplicates: 219
Articles Excluded During the Screening Process: 121


Full-text Articles Assessed for Eligibility:
Full-text Articles Excluded: 25


Articles Included in Qualitative Synthesis:
Articles Included in Quantitative Synthesis (Meta-analysis): 73