• Assessment
    For the clinically stable HF patient, what is the protein level needed to maintain lean body mass in underweight (BMI24.9) individuals?
    • Conclusion

      Limited evidence was available to determine protein needs for HF patients. Two studies cross-sectional studies reported that patients with HF have significantly higher protein needs than those without HF, as measured by negative nitrogen balance. One study indicated at least daily intake of 1.37 g protein/kg for clinically stable depeleted patients with HF and daily intake 1.12 g protein/kg for normally nourished patients can preserve actual body composition or limit the effects of hypercatabolism. Further research is needed to support the appropriate protein levels for HF patients.



    • Grade: III
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.