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Energy Expenditure

Energy Expenditure (EE): Predictive Equations (2005)

How Do You Determine Accurate Resting Metabolic Rate?

Individual Accuracy of Predictive Equations

Prediction equations are developed from groups of individuals and so there will always be some individuals who are farther away from the group mean (average) than others.  This leads to the question:  How accurate will each equation be for this particular individual? 

Accuracy in individuals was summarized by answering two questions:

  • How often does a predictive formula estimate within 10% of a measured RMR? All other predictions were considered errors, and are reported as percentages of subjects who were underestimated and overestimated.
  • What are the maximum errors possible for individuals?  (In other words, how much will the formula overestimate or underestimate an individual's actual RMR)?
 Special Populations: Weight, Age, and Race 

Volunteers participating in research were defined as healthy by the researchers conducting the study and based on telephone screening, medical examinations, or self-report.  As these studies were evaluated, specific characteristics of individuals were noted; such as age, weight and ethnicity.

Obese (BMI >29.9)

Older individuals (64 to >85 years)

U.S.-residing ethnic individuals (African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaskan Natives and HIspanic)?

 Which Equations Have We Evaluated? We examined the following equations for estimating RMR:

  • Mifflin-St. Jeor
  • Harris-Benedict
  • Owen
  • WHO/FAO/UNU
  • DRI

Click here, or select the Predictive Equations link from the menu on the left to see the formulas for Miflin St. Jeor, Harris-Benedict, Owen, and WHO/FAO/UNU.

We could not find evidence on every equation for every possible population. In the table below you can find the populations on which we were able to find evidence. Click on the light blue text in the table below to be taken directly to that evidence.

 

Evidence Found by Equation and Population

Equation

Individual or Group Error Statistic

Weight Category of Subjects

Population

    (Select the light blue text to be taken directly to the evidence for a particular population.)

Harris-Benedict

Individual Error

Obese

Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Group Mean Error

Obese

Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Mifflin-St. Jeor

Individual Error

Obese

Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Group Mean Error

Obese

Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Owen et al

Individual Error

Obese

Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adutls

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Group Mean Error

Obese

Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

WHO/FAO/UNU

Individual Error

Obese

Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults 

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Group Mean Error

Obese

Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

DRI

Individual Error

Obese

Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Group Mean Error

Obese

Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Non-Obese

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

Varied or Undefined

Healthy Adults

Ethnicity

Older Adults

 

Educator Module: The EAL® Educator Module can assist you in teaching the topic of assessing energy expenditure using the EAL. Purchase from the online store. Click here