Critical Illness

CI: References (2006)

References analyzed for this guideline are listed below. References are also listed by topic, in the Major Recommendations section.

Enteral versus Parenteral Nutrition - Critical Illness

Abou-Assi S, et al. Hypocaloric jejunal feeding is better than total pareneteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: results of a randomized comparative study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2255-2262.

Adams S, Dellinger EP, Wertz MJ, Oreskovich MR, Simonowitz D, Johansen K. J of Trauma; 1986;26(10);882-891

Borzotta, AP, et al. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition after severe closed head injury. J of Trauma. 1994;37(3):459-468.

Braunschweig CL, et al. Enteral compared with parenteral nutrition: A meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:534-542.

Cerra FB, et al. Enteral nutrition does not prevent multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) after sepsis. Surgery. 1988;104:272-33.

Hadley MN, Grahm TW, Harrington T, Schiller WR, McDermott MK, Posillico DB. Nutritional Support and Neurotrauma: A Critical Review of Early Nutrition in Forty-Five Acute Head Injury Patients. Neurosurgery 1986; 19: 367-373

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Kalfarentzos, F, Kehagias N, Kokkinis MK, Gogos CA. Enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis: results of a randomized prospective trial. BJN; 1997, 84:1665-1669.

Kudsk KA, et al. Enteral versus parenteral feeding: Effects on septic morbidity after blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Ann Surg. 1992;215(5):503-511.

Moore FA, et al. TEN versus TPN following major abdominal trauma--reduced septic morbidity. J Trauma. 1989;29:916-923.

Moore FA, Feliciano DV, Andrassy RJ, McArdle AH, Booth FV, MOrgenstein-Wagner T B, Kellum, JM, Welling RE and Moore EE. Early Enteral Feeding, Compared with Parenteral, Reduces Postoperative Septic Complications, The results of a Meta-analysis. Ann Surg, 1992, vol 16 (2) p 172-183

Woodcock NP, et al. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition: a pragmatic study. Nutrition 2001;17:1-21.

Trice S, Melnik G, Page G. Complications and Costs of Early Postoperative Parenteral Versus enteral Nturition in Trauma Patients. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 1997 12(3) 114-119.

Young B, Ott L, Twyman D, Norton J, Rapp R, Tibbs P, Haack D, Brivins B, Dempsey R. The effect of nutritional support on outcome from severe head injury. Journal of Neurosurgery 1987; 67:668-76.

Hadfield RJ, et al. Effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition on gut mucosal permeability in the critically ill. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:1545-1548.

Citations not used in Evidence Analysis

Kattelmann K, Hise M, Russell M, Charney P, Stokes M, Compher C. Preliminary Evidence for a Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocol: Enteral Feedings for Critically Ill Patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Aug; 106 (8): 1, 226-1, 241. Review.

Rubinson L, Diette GB, Song X, Brower RG, Krishnan JA. Low caloric intake is associated with nosocomial bloodstream infections in patients in the medical intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2004; 32(2); 350-357.

Villet S, Chiolero RL, Bollmann MD, Revelly JP et al. Negative impact of hypocaloric feeding and energy balance on clinical outcome in ICU patients. Clin Nut. 2005; 24(4); 502-509.

Timing of Enteral Nutrition - Critical Illness

Eyer, SD, Micon, LT, Konstantinides, FN, et al: Early Enteral Feeding Does Not Attenuate Metabolic Response After Blunt Trauma. J Trauma 34:5, 1993

Grahm TW, Zadrozny DB, Harrington T. The benefits of early jejeunal hyperalimentation in the head-injured patient. Neurosurgery 1989; 25:729-735

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Ibrahim EH, et al. Early versus late enteral feeding of mechanically ventilated patients: results of a clinical trial. JPEN 2002; 26:174-181.

Kompan, L, Kremzar, B, Gadzijev, E, Prosek, M. “Effects of early enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability and the development of multiple organ failure after multiple injury.” Intensive Care Medicine 25 (1999): 157-161.

Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO. Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN, Fabian TC. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma: an immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg 1996:224(4);531-543.

Lewis S., Egger M., Sylvester P., Thomas S. (2001). Early enteral feeding versus “nil by mouth” after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. BMJ Vol 323 October: 773-776 (2001).

Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Early enteral nutrition in actuely ill patients: A systematic review. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29:2246-2270

Minard G, Kudsk KA, Melton S, Patton JH, Tolley EA. Early versus delayed feeding with an immune-enhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2000; 24: 1445-149.

Moore, E, Jones, T. Benefits of Immediate Jejunostomy Feeding after Major Abdominal Trauma-A Prospective, Randomized Study, The Journal of Trauma 26.19 (1986): 874-881

Neumayer LA, Smout RJ, Horn HGS, Horn SD. Early and Sufficient Feeding Reduces Length of Stay and Charges in Surgical Patients. Journal of Surgical Research 95, 73-77 (2001).

Singh G, et al. Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis. J Am Coll Surg 1998;187:142-146.

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

Yanagawa T, Bunn F, Roberts I, Wentz R, Pierro A. Nutritional support for head-injured patients (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2002. Oxford: Updated Software.

Citations not used in Evidence Analysis

Kattelmann K, Hise M, Russell M, Charney P, Stokes M, Compher C. Preliminary Evidence for a Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocol: Enteral Feedings for Critically Ill Patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Aug; 106 (8): 1, 226-1, 241. Review.

Lawlor DK, Inculet RI, Malthaner RA. Small-bowel necrosis associated with jejunal tube feeding. Can J Surg. 1998 Dec; 41 (6): 459-462.

Melis M, Fichera A, Ferguson MK. Bowel necrosis associated with early jejunal tube feeding: A complication of postoperative enteral nutrition. Arch Surg. 2006 Jul; 141 (7): 701-704.

Rai J, Flint LM, Ferrara JJ. Small bowel necrosis in association with jejunostomy tube feedings. Am Surg. 1996 Dec; 62 (12): 1, 050-1, 054.

Immune-Enhancing Enteral Nutrition - Critical Illness

Atkinson S, Sieffert E, Bihari D. A prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial of enteral immunonutrition in the critically ill. Critical Care Medicine, Vol 26(7) July 1998: 1164-1172

Beale RJ, Bryg DJ, Bihari, MB. Immunonutrition in the critically ill: a systematic review of clinical out. Critical Care Med. 1999 vol 27(12) pp 2799-2805

Bertolini G, Iapichino G, Radrizzani D, Facchini B, Simini B, Bruzzone P, Zanforlin G, Tognoni G. Early enteral immunonutrition in patients with severe sepsis. Intensive Care Medicine. 29:834-840, 2003.

Bower, RH, Cerra FB, Bershadsky B, Licari, JJ, Hoyt DB, Jensen GL, Van Buren CT, Rothkpf MM, Daly JM, Adelsberg BR. Early enteral administration of a formula (Impact Registered Trademark) supplemented with arginine, nucleotides, and fish oil intensive care unit patients: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Critical Care Medicine, Volue 23(3) March 1995 pp 436-449.

Brown RO, Hunt H, Mowatt-Larssen CA, Wojtysiak SL, Henningfield MF, Kudsk KA. Comparison of specialized and standard enteral formulas in trauma patients. Pharmacotherapy. 14(3):314-320, 1994.

Caparros T, Lopez J, Grau T. Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with a high-protien diet enriched with arginine, fiber, and antioxidants compared with a standard high-protein diet. The effect on nosocomial infections and outcome. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 25(6): 299-308. 2001

Cerra FB, Lehman S, Konstantinides N, Konstantinides F, Shronts EP, Holman R. Effect of enteral nutrient on in vitro tests of immune function in ICU patients: A preliminary report. Nutrition. 6(1):84-87, 1990.

Galban, C., Montejo, J.C., Mesejo,P.,Celaya,S., Sandchez-Segura, J., Farre, M., Bryg, D.J., An immune-enhancing enteral diet reduces mortality rate adn episodes of bacterimia in septic intensive care unit patients. Critical Care Medicine, Vol 28(3) pp643-648. 2000.

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Heyland DK, Novak F, Drover JW, Jain M, Su X, Suchner U. Should Immunonutrition become routine in critically ill patients? A systematic review of the evidence. (Caring for the critically ill patients). JAMA 2001; 286 p944.

Heys SD, Walker LG, Smith I, Eremin O. Enteral nutritional supplementation with key nutrients in patients with critical illness and cancer; a meta-analysis randomized controlled clinical trials. Annals Surgery, vol 229 (4), 1999 pp467-477.

Kieft H, Roos AN, van Drunen JDE, Bindels AJGH, Bindels JG, Hofman Z. Clinical outcomes of immunonutrition in a heterogeneous intensive care population. Intensive Care Med (2005) 31:524-532.

Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO. Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN, Fabian TC. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma: an immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg 1996:224(4);531-543.

Montejo JC, Zarazaga A, Lopez-Martinez J, Urrutia G, Roque M, Blesa AL, Celaya S, Conejero R, Galban C, Garcia de Lorenzo A, Grau T, Mesejo A, Ortiz-Leyba C, Planas M, Ordonez J, Jimenez FJ. Immunonutrition in the intensive care unit. A systematic review and consensus statement. Clinical Nutrition. 22(3):221-233, 2003.

Moore FA, Moore EE, Kudsk KA, Brown RO, Bower RH, Koruda MJ, Baker CC, Barbul A. Clinical benefits of an immune-enhancing diet for early post injury enteral feeding. J Trauma 37:607-615, 1994.

Weimann A, Bastian L, Bischoff W, Grotz M, Hansel M, Lotz J, Trautwein C, Tusch G, Schlitt HJ, Regel G. Influence of Arginine, Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Nucleotide-Supplemented Enteral Support on Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Multiple Organ Failure in Patients After Sever Trauma. Nutrition 14:165-172, 1998.

Gastric versus Small Bowel Feeding Tube Placement - Critical Illness

Boivin MA, Levy H. Gastric feeding with erythromycin is equivalent to transpyloric feeding in the critically ill. Crit Care Med 2001; 39(10):1916-19.

Davies AR, Froomes PRA, French CJ, et al. Randomized comparison of nasojejunal and nasogastric feeding in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:586-590

Esparza J, Boivin MA, Hartshorne MF, Levy H. Equal aspiration rates in gastrically and transpylorically fed critically ill patients. Intens Care Med 2001; 27:660-664.

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Heyland DK, Drover JW, Dhaliwal R, Greenwood J. Optimizing the benefits and minimizing the risks of enteral nutrition in the critically ill: role of small bowel feeding. JPEN 2002; 26(6):S51-S57.

Heyland DK, Drover JW, MacDonald S, et al. Effect of postpyloric feeding on gastroesophageal regurgitation and pulmonary microaspiration: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med 2001; 29(8):1495-1501

Kearns PJ, Chin D, Mueller L, Wallace K, Jensen WA, Kirsch CM. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and success in nutrient delivery with gastric vs small intestinal feeding: A randomized clinical trial. Crit Med 2000;28:1742-1746.

Kortbeek JB, Haigh PI, Doig C. Duodenal vs gastric feeding in ventilated blunt trauma patients: A randomized controlled trial. J Trauma 1999; 46:992-998.

Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Gastric versus post-pyloric feeding: a systematic review. Crit Care 2003; 7:46-51.

McClave SA, DeMeo MT, DeLegge MH, DiSario JA, Heyland DK, Maloney JP, Metheney NA, Moore FA, Scolapio JS, Spain DA, Zaloga GP. North American Summit on Aspiration in the Critically Ill Patients: Consensus Statement. J Parent Ent Nutr 2002; 26:S80-S85.

Montecalvo MA, Steger KA, Farber HW, et al. Nutritional outcome and pneumonia in critical care patients randomized to gastic vs jejunal tube feedings. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:1377-87.

Montejo JC, Grau T, Acosta J, et al .Multicenter, prospective, randomized, single-blind study comparing the efficacy and gastrointestinal complications of early jejunal feeding in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:796-800.

Neumann DA, DeLegge MH. Gastric vs small bowel tube feeding in the intensive care unit: A prospective comparison of efficacy. Crit Med 2002;30:1436-1438.

Citations not used in Evidence Analysis

Drakulovic MB, Torres A, et al. Supine body position as a risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomized trial. Lancet, 1999; 354: 1, 851-1, 858.

Kattelmann K, Hise M, et al. Preliminary Evidence for a Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocol: Enteral Feedings for Critically Ill Patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Aug; 106 (8): 1, 226-1, 241. Review.

Blue Dye Use - Critical Illness

Czop M, Herr D. Green skin discoloration associated with multiple organ failure. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:598-601

File TM, Tan JS, Thomson RB, Stephens C, Thompson P. An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ventilator-Associated Respiratory Infection Due to Contaminated Food Coloring Dye-Further Evidence of the Significance of Gastric Colonization Preceding Nosocomial Pneumonia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995; 16:417-418.

Maloney JP, Ryan TA, Brasel KJ, Binion DG, Johnson DR, Halbower AC, Frankel EH, Nyffeler M, Moss M. Food Dye Use in Enteral Feedings: A Review and a Call for a Moratorium. Nutr Clin Prac 2002; 17:169-181.

McClave SA, DeMeo MT, DeLegge MH, DiSario JA, Heyland DK, Maloney JP, Metheney NA, Moore FA, Scolapio JS, Spain DA, Zaloga GP. North American Summit on Aspiration in the Critically Ill Patients: Consensus Statement. J Parent Ent Nutr 2002; 26:S80-S85.

Metheny NA, Clouse RE. Bedside Methods for Detecting Aspiration in Tube-Fed Patients. Chest 1997; 111:724-731.

Metheny NA, Dahms TE, Stewart BJ, Stone KS, Edwards SJ, Defer JE, Clouse RE Efficacy of Dye-Stained Enteral Formula in Detecting Pulmonary Aspiration. Chest 2002; 122:276-281

Potts RG, Zariukian MH, Guerrero PA, Baker CD. Comparison of Blue Dye Visualization and Glucose Oxidase Test Strip Methods for Detecting Pulmonary Aspiration of Enteral Feedings in Intubated Adults. Chest 1993; 103:117-121.

Sills MR, Zinkham WH. Methylene blue-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia. Arch Ped Adolesc Med 1994; 148:306-310.

Thompson-Henry S, Braddock B. The Modified Evan’s Blue Dye Procedure Fails to Detect Aspiration in the Tracheostomized Patient: Five Case Reports. Dysphagia 1995; 10:172-174.

Zillich AJ, Kuhn RJ, Petersen TJ. Skin discoloration with Blue Food Coloring. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34:868-870

Citations not used in Evidence Analysis

FDA Public Health Advisory: Reports of blue discoloration and death in patients receiving enteral feedings tinted with the dye, FD&C Blue No. 1. USDA, September 29, 2003.

Kattelmann K, Hise M, Russell M, Charney P, Stokes M, Compher C. Preliminary Evidence for a Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocol: Enteral Feedings for Critically Ill Patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Aug; 106 (8): 1, 226-1, 241. Review.

Monitoring Criteria in Critical Illness -Critical Illness

Davies AR, Froomes PRA, French CJ, et al. Randomized comparison of nasojejunal and nasogastric feeding in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:586-590

Esparza J, Boivin MA, Hartshorne MF, Levy H. Equal aspiration rates in gastrically and transpylorically fed critically ill patients. Intens Care Med 2001; 27:660-664.

Kearns PJ, Chin D, Mueller L, Wallace K, Jensen WA, Kirsch CM. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and success in nutrient delivery with gastric vs small intestinal feeding: A randomized clinical trial. Crit Med 2000;28:1742-1746.

Kortbeek JB, Haigh PI, Doig C. Duodenal vs gastric feeding in ventilated blunt trauma patients: A randomized controlled trial. J Trauma 1999; 46:992-998.

McClave SA, DeMeo MT, DeLegge MH, DiSario JA, Heyland DK, Maloney JP, Metheney NA, Moore FA, Scolapio JS, Spain DA, Zaloga GP. North American Summit on Aspiration in the Critically Ill Patients: Consensus Statement. J Parent Ent Nutr 2002; 26:S80-S85.

Montecalvo MA, Steger KA, Farber HW, et al. Nutritional outcome and pneumonia in critical care patients randomized to gastic vs jejunal tube feedings. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:1377-87.

Montejo JC, Grau T, Acosta J, et al .Multicenter, prospective, randomized, single-blind study comparing the efficacy and gastrointestinal complications of early jejunal feeding in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:796-800.

Neumann DA, DeLegge MH. Gastric vs small bowel tube feeding in the intensive care unit: A prospective comparison of efficacy. Crit Med 2002;30:1436-1438.

Pinilla JC, Samphire J, Arnold C, et al. Comparison of gastrointestinal tolerance to two enteral feeding protocols in critically ill patients: A prospective, randomized controlled trial. JPEN 2001; 25:81-86.

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

Bowton D. Nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU-year 2000 and beyond. Chest 1999; 115(3): 28S-33S.

Collard HR, Saint S, Matthay MA. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: An evidence-based systematic review. Ann Int Med 2003; 138(6): 494-501.

Drakulovic MB, Torres A, Bauer TT, et al. Supine body position as a risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomized trial. Lancet 1999; 354: 1851-1858.

Ibanez J, Penafiel A, Raurich JM, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux in intubated patients receiving enteral nutrition: Effect of supine and semirecumbent positions. J Parent Ent Nutr 1992; 16:419-422

Orozco-Levi M, Torres A, Ferrer M, et al. Semirecumbent position protects from pulmonary aspiration but not completely from gastroesophageal reflux in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 152:1387-1390.

Torres A, Serra-Batlles J, Ros E, et al. Pulmonary aspiratin of gastric contents in patients receiving mechanical ventilation: The effect of body position. Ann Int Med 1992; 116: 540-543.

Boivin MA, Levy H. Gastric feeding with erythromycin is equivalent to transpyloric feeding in the critically ill. Crit Care Med 2001; 39(10):1916-19.

Booth CM, Heyland DK, Paterson WG. Gastrointestinal promotility drugs in the critical care setting: A systematic review of the evidence. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:1429-1435.

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Yavagal DR, Karnad DR, Oak JL. Metoclopramide for preventing pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving enteral tube feeding: A randomized controlled trial. Crit Med 2000;28:1401-1411.

Citations no used in Evidence Analysis

Kattelmann K, Hise M, Russell M, Charney P, Stokes M, Compher C. Preliminary Evidence for a Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocol: Enteral Feedings for Critically Ill Patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Aug; 106 (8): 1226-1241. Review.

Metoclopramide Injection, USP. [package insert]. Faulding Pharmaceutical Co, A Mayne Group Company, Paramus, NJ 07652.

Pasricha PJ 2006 Mar;3(3):138-48, Pehlivanov N, Sugumar A, Jankovic J. Drug Insight: from disturbed motility to disordered movement--a review of the clinical benefits and medicolegal risks of metoclopramide. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol.

Shaffer D 2004 Nov-Dec;44(6):661-5., Butterfield M, Pamer C, Mackey AC. Tardive dyskinesia risks and metoclopramide use before and after U.S. market withdrawal of cisapride. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash DC).

Silva CCR, Saconato H, Atallah AN. Metoclopramide for migration of naso-enteral tube. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issure 4. Art. No.:CD003353. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003353

Monitoring Delivery of Energy - Critical Illness

Atkinson S, Sieffert E, Bihari D. A prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial of enteral immunonutrition in the critically ill. Critical Care Medicine, Vol 26(7) July 1998: 1164-1172

Bower, RH, Cerra FB, Bershadsky B, Licari, JJ, Hoyt DB, Jensen GL, Van Buren CT, Rothkpf MM, Daly JM, Adelsberg BR. Early enteral administration of a formula (Impact Registered Trademark) supplemented with arginine, nucleotides, and fish oil intensive care unit patients: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Critical Care Medicine, Volue 23(3) March 1995 pp 436-449.

Dickerson RN, Boschert KJ, Kudsk KA, et al. Hypocaloric enteral tube feeding in critically ill obese patients. Nutrition 2002; 18:241-246.

Krishnan JA, Parce PB, Martinez, Dietz GB, Brower RG. Caloric intake in medical ICU patients: consistency of care with guidelines and relationship to clinical outcomes. Chest 2003;124:297-305.

Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO. Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN, Fabian TC. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma: an immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg 1996:224(4);531-543.

Neumayer LA, Smout RJ, Horn HGS, Horn SD. Early and Sufficient Feeding Reduces Length of Stay and Charges in Surgical Patients. Journal of Surgical Research 95, 73-77 (2001).

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

Citations not used in Evidence Analysis

Kattelmann K, Hise M, Russell M, Charney P, Stokes M, Compher C. Preliminary Evidence for a Medical Nutrition Therapy Protocol: Enteral Feedings for Critically Ill Patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Aug; 106 (8): 1226-1241. Review.

Lawlor DK, Inculet RI, Malthaner RA. Small-bowel necrosis associated with jejunal tube feeding. Can J Surg. 1998 Dec;41(6):459-462.

Melis M, Fichera A, Ferguson MK. Bowel necrosis associated with early jejunal tube feeding: A complication of postoperative enteral nutrition. Arch Surg. 2006 Jul; 141(7):701-704.

Rai J, Flint LM, Ferrara JJ. Small bowel necrosis in association with jejunostomy tube feedings. Am Surg. 1996 Dec;62(12):1050-1054.

Blood Glucose Control - Critical Illness

Furnary AP, Zerr KJ, Grunkemeier GL, Starr A. Continuous intravenous insulin infusion reduces the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients after cardiac surgical procedures, Ann Thorac Surg 1999;67:352-62.

Grey NJ, Perdrizet GA. Reduction of nosocomial infections in the surgical intensive-care unit by strict glycemic control. Endocr Pract. 2004 Mar-Apr;10 Suppl 2:46-52.

Krinsley JS. Association between hyperglycemia and increased hospital mortality in a heterogeneous population of critically ill patients? Mayo Clin Proc. 2003. Dec;78(12):1472-8.

Krinsley JS Effect of an intensive glucose management protocol on the mortality of critically ill patients. Mayo Clin Proc Nov 15, 2004. 2004;79(8):992-1000.

Van Den Berghe G, Wouter P. Bouillon R, et al. Outcome benefit of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill: Insulin dose versus glycemic control. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(2):359-366.

Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, Schetz M, Vlasselaers D, Ferdinande P, Lauwers P and Bouillon R. Intensive Insulin Therapy in Critically Ill Patients. NEJM. 2001;345(19):1359-1367.

Van den Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Meersseman W, Wouters PJ, Milants I, Wijngaerden EV, Bobbaers H, Bouillon R. Intensive insulin therapy in the medical icu. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:449-61.

Krinsley JS and Jones RL, Cost analysis of initensive glycemic control in critically ill adult patients. Chest. 2006. 129:644-650.

Golden SH, Peart-Vigilance C, Kao WH, Brancati FL. Perioperative glycemic control and the risk of infectious complications in a cohort of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(9):1408-1414.

Zerr KJ, Furnary AP, Grunkemeier GL, Bookin S, Kanhere V, Starr A. Glucose control lowers the risk of wound infection in diabetics after open heart operations. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:356-61.

Gas Collection Devices - Critical Illness

Askanazi J, Silverberg PA, Foster RJ, Hyman AI, Milic-Emili J, Kinna JM. Effects of respiratory apparatus on breathing pattern. J Appl Physiol. (Respir Environ Exercise Physiol). 1980;48:577-580.

Forse RA. Comparison of gas exchange measurements with a mouthpiece, face mask, and ventilated canopy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1993;17:388-391.

Isbell TR, Klesges RC, Meyers AW, Klesges LM. Measurement reliability and reactivity using repeated measurements of resting energy expenditure with a face mask, mouthpiece, and ventilated canopy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 1991;15:165-168.

McAnena OJ, Harvey LP, Katzeff HL, Daly JM. Indirect calorimetry: Comparison of hood and mask systems for measuring resting energy expenditure in healthy volunteers. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1986;10:555-557.

Schols AMWJ, Schoffelen PFM, Ceulemans H, Wouters EFM, Saris WHM. Measurement of resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a clinical setting. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992;16(4):364-368.

Citations not used in Evidence Analysis

Compher C, Frankenfield D, Keim N, Roth-Yousey L; Evidence Analysis Working Group. Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jun;106(6):881-903. Review.
 

Impact of Thermic Effect of Feeding on Resting Metabolic Rate - Critical Illness

Heymsfield SB, Hill JO, Evert M, Casper K, DiGirolamo M. Energy expenditure during continuous intragastric infusion of fuel. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:526-33.

Bissoli L, Armellini F, Zamboni M, Mandragona R, Ballarin A, Bosello O. Resting metabolic rate and thermogenic effect of food in vegetarian diets compared with Mediterranean diets. Ann Nutr Metab. 1999;43:140-144.

Kinabo, JL, Durnin JVGA. Thermic effect of food in man: effect of meal composition, and energy content. Br J Nutr. 1990; 64:37-44.

Kinabo, JL, Durnin JVGA. Effect of meal frequency on the thermic effect of food in women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990; 44: 389-395.

Levine JA, Harris MM, Morgan MY. Energy expenditure in chronic alcohol abuse. Eur J Clin Invest 2000;39:779-786.

Raben A, Agerholm, Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A. Meals with similar densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):91-100.

Reed GW, Hill JO. Measuring the thermic effect of food. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:164-169.

Citations not used in Evidence Analysis

Compher C, Frankenfield D, Keim N, Roth-Yousey L; Evidence Analysis Working Group. Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jun;106(6):881-903. Review.
 

Effects of Different Length Rest Periods on Resting Metabolic Rate - Critical Illness

Feurer I, Mullen JL. Bedside measurement of resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient via indirect calorimetry. Nutr Clin Prac 1986;1:43-49.

McClave SA, Snider HL. Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Prac. 1992;7:207-221.

Swinamer DL, Phang PT, Jones RL, Grace M, Garner King E. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1987;15(7):637-643.

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Impact of Environmental Factors on Resting Metabolic Rate Measurement: Noise, Lighting and Temperature  - Critical Illness

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Impact of Environmental Factors on Resting Metabolic Rate Measurement: Physical Comfort/Posture - Critical Illness

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Steady State Measurement Conditions and Number of Measurements in a 24-Hour Period - Critical Illness

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Respiratory Quotient as a Method to Detect Measurement Error - Critical Illness

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Determination of Resting Metabolic Rate - Critical Illness

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