Is there a specific amount, type, form of carbohydrate, fat and protein for women with gestational diabetes?
Ten studies were evaluated to investigate the consumption of macronutrients in pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate intake affects postprandial blood glucose levels; Increased postprandial blood glucose levels are associated with increased incidence of large-for-gestational age infants and increased rate of Cesarean sections. Three studies showed improved outcomes at carbohydrate intakes of less than 45% of energy . Research is limited regarding protein, fat, fiber and glycemic index in women with gestational diabetes mellitus; further research is needed in these areas.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.