DM: Physical Activity (2001)
Nutrition Practice Guidelines for Type 1 and 2 Diabetes: Physical Activity (2001)
Regular physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, enhances weight loss, lowers blood pressure and improves A1C in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Regular physical activity improves cardiovascular fitness and reduces serum lipids and blood pressure in individuals with type 1 diabetes; adjustments in carbohydrate intake and/or insulin are necessary to avoid hypoglycemia during exercise. Studies that show a benefit of physical activity report intensities of 50% to 80% VO2max, 3 to 4 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes per session. Randomized control trials examining long-term glycemic control through exercise in individuals with diabetes are lacking. (2001)
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
Evidence Summary: Type 1 and 2 Diabetes: Physical Activity
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- American Diabetes Association. Diabetes mellitus and exercise (Position Statement). Diabetes Care. 2002;25 (Suppl 1):S64-S68.
- Boule NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 2001;286:1218-1227.
- Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, Blumenthal J, Caspersen C, Chaitman B, Epstein S, Froelicher ESS, Froelicher VF, Pina IL, Pollock ML. Statement on Exercise: Benefits and Recommendations for Physical Activity Programs for all Americans. Circulation. 1996;94:857-862.
- Hu FB, Sigal RJ, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Solomon CG, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Manson JE. Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. A prospective study. JAMA. 1999;282:1433-1439.
- Larsen JJS, Dela F, Madsbad S, Galbo H. The effect of intense exercise on postprandial glucose homeostasis in type II diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 1999;42:1282-1292.
- Mayer-Davis EJ, D'Agostino R, Karter AJ, Haffner SM, Rewers MJ, Saad M, Bergman RN. Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity. The Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). JAMA. 1998;279:669-674.
- Wei M, Gibbons LW, Kampert JB, Nichaman MZ, Blair SN. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and physical inactivity in men with type 2 diabetes. Annals of Intern Med 2000;132:605-611.
- Yamanouchi K, Shinozaki T, Chikada K, Nishikawa T, Ito K, Shimizu S, Ozawa N, Suzuki Y, Maeno H, Kato K, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Daily walking combined with diet therapy is a useful means for obese NIDDM patients not only to reduce body weight but also to improve insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care 1995;18:775-778.