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Spinal Cord Injury

SCI: References (2009)

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

 

SCI: Role of the Registered Dietitian

Abel R, Ruf S, Spahn B. Cervical spinal cord injury and deglutition disorders. Dysphagia. 2004; 19 (2): 87-94.

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord. 1997 Feb;35 (2): 116-20.

Barber D, Foster D, and Rogers S. The importance of nutrition in the care of persons with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 26:2; Summer 2003. Commentary.

Block P, Skeels SE, Keys CB, Rimmer JH. Shake-It-Up: Health promotion and capacity building for people with spinal cord injuries and related neurological disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Feb 18; 27(4): 185-190.

Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:82-91.

Croes-Barone SJ, Rolnick RH, Durante D, Zaunbrecher MM, Hackell V, Farias Y. Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important element in complete rehabilitation. Rehab Manag. 1998;56, 59-60, 63.

Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2006;12:160-162.

Mitcho K, Yanko JR. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 1999; 22(2), 60-79.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Murphy M. Traumatic spinal cord injury: an acute care rehabilitation perspective. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1999 Aug;22(2):51-9. Review.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Tomey KM, Chen DM, Wang X, Braunschweig CL. Dietary intake and nutritional status of urban community-dwelling men with paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2005 Apr; 86(4): 664-71.

Vitaz TW, McIlvoy L, Raque GH, Spain DA, Shields CB. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries. J Spinal Disord. 2001 Jun;14(3):271-6.

Zemper ED, Tate DG, Roller S, Forchmeimer M, Chiodo A, Nelson VS, Scelza W. Assessment of a holistic wellness program for persons with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Dec; 82(12): 957-68.

SCI: Nutrition Screening for Persons with SCI Living in the Community

Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism. 1998;47:367-370.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001;24(4):266-277.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Maloney P, Gambino R, Waters RL. Ethnicity effect on the serum lipid profile in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(2):176-80.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Kemp BJ, Walters RL. The effect of residual neurological deficit on serum lipoproteins in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(1):13-17.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Herbert R, Schechter C, Smith D, Kemp BJ, Gambino R, Maloney P, Waters RL. Is immobilization associated with an abnormal lipoprotein profile? Observations from a diverse cohort. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):485-493.

Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, van Kamp GJ, Hollander AP. Changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in persons with spinal cord injuries during the first 2 years post-injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(2):96-102.

Dallmeijer AJ, Hopman MT, van der Woude LH. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in active and sedentary men with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(11):1173-1176.

Demirel S, Demirel G, Tukek T, Erk O, Yilmaz H. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(3):134-138.

Janssen TW, van Oers CA, van Kamp GJ, TenVoorde BJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP. Coronary heart disease risk indicators, aerobic power, and physical activity in men with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):697-705.

Kjaer M. Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T, Galbo H. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(5):R1492-1498.

Lee MY, Myers J, Hayes A, Madan S, Froelicher VF, PerkashI, Kiratli BJ. C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in individuals with spinal cord injury.J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(1):20-25.

Midha M, Schmitt JK, Sclater M. Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(3):258-61.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Ozgurtas T, Alaca R Gulec M, Kutluay T. Do spinal cord injuries adversely affect serum lipoprotein profiles?. Mil Med. 2003;168(7):545-547.

Schmid A, Halle M, Stutzle C, Konig D, Baumstark MW, Storch MJ, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Lehmann M, Berg A, Keul J. Lipoproteins and free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord-injured men with different injury levels. Clin Physiol. 2000; 20(4): 304-310.

Sorg RJ. HDL-cholesterol: exercise formula. Results of long-term (6-year) strenuous swimming exercise in a middle-aged male with paraplegia. J Orthopadic Sports/Physical Therapy. 1993;17:195-199.

Stewart BG, Tarnopolsky MA, Hicks AL, McCartney N, Mahoney DJ, Staron RS, Phillips SM. Treadmill training-induced adaptations in muscle phenotype in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 30(1): 61-68.

Storch MJ, Konig D, Bultermann D, Blum A, Vogt S, Baumstark M, Berg A, Schmid A. Lipid profile in spinal cord-injured women with different injury levels. Prev Med. 2005;40(3):321-325.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Vidal J, Javierre C, Curia FJ, Garrido E, Lizarraga M-A, Segura R: Long-term evolution of blood lipid profiles and glycemic levels in patients after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:178-181

Zhong YG, Levy E, Bauman WA. The relationships among serum uric acid, plasma insulin, and serum lipoprotein levels in subjects with spinal cord injury. Horm Metab Res. 1995;27(6):283-6.

Zlotolow SP, Levy E, Bauman WA. The serum lipoportein in veterans with paraplegia: The relationship to nutritional factors and body mass index. J Am Paraplegia Society. 1992; 15(3): 158-162.

SCI: Nutrition Assessment in Acute Care, Rehabilitation and Community Settings

Abel R, Ruf S, Spahn B. Cervical spinal cord injury and deglutition disorders. Dysphagia. 2004; 19 (2): 87-94.

Barber D, Foster D, and Rogers S. The importance of nutrition in the care of persons with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 26:2; Summer 2003. Commentary.

Mitcho K, Yanko JR. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 1999; 22(2), 60-79.

Murphy M. Traumatic spinal cord injury: an acute care rehabilitation perspective. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1999 Aug;22(2):51-9. Review.

Vitaz TW, McIlvoy L, Raque GH, Spain DA, Shields CB. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries. J Spinal Disord. 2001 Jun;14(3):271-6.

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord. 1997 Feb;35 (2): 116-20.

Block P, Skeels SE, Keys CB, Rimmer JH. Shake-It-Up: Health promotion and capacity building for people with spinal cord injuries and related neurological disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Feb 18; 27(4): 185-190.

Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:82-91.

Croes-Barone SJ, Rolnick RH, Durante D, Zaunbrecher MM, Hackell V, Farias Y. Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important element in complete rehabilitation. Rehab Manag. 1998;56, 59-60, 63.

Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2006;12:160-162.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Tomey KM, Chen DM, Wang X, Braunschweig CL. Dietary intake and nutritional status of urban community-dwelling men with paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2005 Apr; 86(4): 664-71.

Zemper ED, Tate DG, Roller S, Forchmeimer M, Chiodo A, Nelson VS, Scelza W. Assessment of a holistic wellness program for persons with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Dec; 82(12): 957-68.

Eyer, SD, Micon, LT, Konstantinides, FN, et al: Early Enteral Feeding Does Not Attenuate Metabolic Response After Blunt Trauma. J Trauma 34:5, 1993

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Ibrahim EH, et al. Early versus late enteral feeding of mechanically ventilated patients: results of a clinical trial. JPEN 2002; 26:174-181.

Lewis S., Egger M., Sylvester P., Thomas S. (2001). Early enteral feeding versus “nil by mouth” after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. BMJ Vol 323 October: 773-776 (2001).

Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: A systematic review. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29: 2,246-2,270.

Minard G, Kudsk KA, Melton S, Patton JH, Tolley EA. Early versus delayed feeding with an immune-enhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2000; 24: 1,445-1,449.

Singh G, et al. Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis. J Am Coll Surg 1998;187:142-146.

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

Yanagawa T, Bunn F, Roberts I, Wentz R, Pierro A. Nutritional support for head-injured patients (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; (3): CD001530. Review.

Eyer, SD, Micon, LT, Konstantinides, FN, et al: Early Enteral Feeding Does Not Attenuate Metabolic Response After Blunt Trauma. J Trauma 34:5, 1993

Grahm TW, Zadrozny DB, Harrington T. The benefits of early jejeunal hyperalimentation in the head-injured patient. Neurosurgery 1989; 25:729-735

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Ibrahim EH, et al. Early versus late enteral feeding of mechanically ventilated patients: results of a clinical trial. JPEN 2002; 26:174-181.

Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO. Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN, Fabian TC. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma: an immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg 1996:224(4);531-543.

Lewis S., Egger M., Sylvester P., Thomas S. (2001). Early enteral feeding versus “nil by mouth” after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. BMJ Vol 323 October: 773-776 (2001).

Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: A systematic review. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29: 2,246-2,270.

Minard G, Kudsk KA, Melton S, Patton JH, Tolley EA. Early versus delayed feeding with an immune-enhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2000; 24: 1,445-1,449.

Moore, E, Jones, T. Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma: A prospective, randomized study, The Journal of Trauma 26.19 (1986): 874-881.

Singh G, et al. Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis. J Am Coll Surg 1998;187:142-146.

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

Yanagawa T, Bunn F, Roberts I, Wentz R, Pierro A. Nutritional support for head-injured patients (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; (3): CD001530. Review.

Eyer, SD, Micon, LT, Konstantinides, FN, et al: Early Enteral Feeding Does Not Attenuate Metabolic Response After Blunt Trauma. J Trauma 34:5, 1993

Grahm TW, Zadrozny DB, Harrington T. The benefits of early jejeunal hyperalimentation in the head-injured patient. Neurosurgery 1989; 25:729-735

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN 2003; 27:355-373.

Ibrahim EH, et al. Early versus late enteral feeding of mechanically ventilated patients: results of a clinical trial. JPEN 2002; 26:174-181.

Kompan, L, Kremzar, B, Gadzijev, E, Prosek, M. Effects of early enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability and the development of multiple organ failure after multiple injury. Intensive Care Medicine. 1999; 25: 157-161.

Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO. Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN, Fabian TC. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma: an immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg 1996:224(4);531-543.

Lewis S., Egger M., Sylvester P., Thomas S. (2001). Early enteral feeding versus “nil by mouth” after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. BMJ Vol 323 October: 773-776 (2001).

Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: A systematic review. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29: 2,246-2,270.

Minard G, Kudsk KA, Melton S, Patton JH, Tolley EA. Early versus delayed feeding with an immune-enhancing diet in patients with severe head injuries. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2000; 24: 1,445-1,449.

Moore, E, Jones, T. Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma: A prospective, randomized study, The Journal of Trauma 26.19 (1986): 874-881.

Neumayer LA, Smout RJ, Horn HGS, Horn SD. Early and sufficient feeding reduces length of stay and charges in surgical patients. J Surg Res. 2001 Jan; 95 (1): 73-77.

Singh G, et al. Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis. J Am Coll Surg 1998;187:142-146.

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

Yanagawa T, Bunn F, Roberts I, Wentz R, Pierro A. Nutritional support for head-injured patients (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; (3): CD001530. Review.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities, 2008. Medical Rehabilitation Standards Manual, Section 3.1, Spinal Cord System of Care.

Escott-Stump. Nutrition and Diagnosis-Related Care, 6th edition. 2008; 918.

SCI: Nutrition Assessment of Lipid Abnormalities

Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism. 1998;47:367-370.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001;24(4):266-277.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Maloney P, Gambino R, Waters RL. Ethnicity effect on the serum lipid profile in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(2):176-80.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Kemp BJ, Walters RL. The effect of residual neurological deficit on serum lipoproteins in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(1):13-17.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Herbert R, Schechter C, Smith D, Kemp BJ, Gambino R, Maloney P, Waters RL. Is immobilization associated with an abnormal lipoprotein profile? Observations from a diverse cohort. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):485-493.

Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, van Kamp GJ, Hollander AP. Changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in persons with spinal cord injuries during the first 2 years post-injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(2):96-102.

Dallmeijer AJ, Hopman MT, van der Woude LH. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in active and sedentary men with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(11):1173-1176.

Demirel S, Demirel G, Tukek T, Erk O, Yilmaz H. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(3):134-138.

Janssen TW, van Oers CA, van Kamp GJ, TenVoorde BJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP. Coronary heart disease risk indicators, aerobic power, and physical activity in men with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):697-705.

Kjaer M. Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T, Galbo H. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(5):R1492-1498.

Lee MY, Myers J, Hayes A, Madan S, Froelicher VF, PerkashI, Kiratli BJ. C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in individuals with spinal cord injury.J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(1):20-25.

Midha M, Schmitt JK, Sclater M. Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(3):258-61.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Ozgurtas T, Alaca R Gulec M, Kutluay T. Do spinal cord injuries adversely affect serum lipoprotein profiles?. Mil Med. 2003;168(7):545-547.

Schmid A, Halle M, Stutzle C, Konig D, Baumstark MW, Storch MJ, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Lehmann M, Berg A, Keul J. Lipoproteins and free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord-injured men with different injury levels. Clin Physiol. 2000; 20(4): 304-310.

Sorg RJ. HDL-cholesterol: exercise formula. Results of long-term (6-year) strenuous swimming exercise in a middle-aged male with paraplegia. J Orthopadic Sports/Physical Therapy. 1993;17:195-199.

Stewart BG, Tarnopolsky MA, Hicks AL, McCartney N, Mahoney DJ, Staron RS, Phillips SM. Treadmill training-induced adaptations in muscle phenotype in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 30(1): 61-68.

Storch MJ, Konig D, Bultermann D, Blum A, Vogt S, Baumstark M, Berg A, Schmid A. Lipid profile in spinal cord-injured women with different injury levels. Prev Med. 2005;40(3):321-325.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Vidal J, Javierre C, Curia FJ, Garrido E, Lizarraga M-A, Segura R: Long-term evolution of blood lipid profiles and glycemic levels in patients after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:178-181

Zhong YG, Levy E, Bauman WA. The relationships among serum uric acid, plasma insulin, and serum lipoprotein levels in subjects with spinal cord injury. Horm Metab Res. 1995;27(6):283-6.

Zlotolow SP, Levy E, Bauman WA. The serum lipoportein in veterans with paraplegia: The relationship to nutritional factors and body mass index. J Am Paraplegia Society. 1992; 15(3): 158-162.

SCI: Nutrition Assessment of Body Composition

Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. The use of bioelectric impedance analysis to measure fluid compartments in subjects with chronic paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:854-861.

Desport JC, Preux PM, Guinvarc'h S, Rousset P, Salle JY, Daviet JC, Dudognon P, Munoz M, Ritz P. Total body water and percentage fat mass measurements using bioelectrial impedance analysis and anthropometry in spinal cord-injury patients. Clinical Nutrition 2000;19(3):185-190.

Jones LM, Legge M, Goulding A. Healthy body mass index values often underestimate body fat in men with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:1068-1071.

Maggioni M, Bertoli S, Margonato V, Merati G, Veicsteinas A, Testolin G. Body composition assessment in spinal cord injury subjects. Acta Diabetol 2003;40:S183-S186.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Olle MM, Pivarnik JM, Klish WJ, Morrow JR. Body Composition of Sedentary and Physically Active Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Estimated from Total Body Electrical Conductivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1993; 74: 706-710.

Spungen AM, Adkins RH, Stewart CA, Wang J, Pierson RN, Waters RL, Bauman WA. Factors influencing body composition in persons with spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional study. J Appl Physiol 2003; 95:2398-2407.

Spungen AM, Bauman WA, Wang J, Pierson Jr RN. Measurement of body fat in individuals with tetraplegia: a comparison of eight clinical methods. Paraplegia 1995;33:402-408.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Claus-Walker J, Halstead LS. Metabolic and Endocrine Changes in Spinal Cord Injury: I. The Nervous System Before and After Transection of the Spinal Cord. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981;62:595-601.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Kocina P. Body Composition of Spinal Cord Injured Adults. Sports Med. 1997;23(1): 48-60.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Olle MM, Pivarnik JM, Klish WJ, Morrow JR. Body Composition of Sedentary and Physically Active Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Estimated from Total Body Electrical Conductivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1993; 74: 706-710.

Peiffer SC, Blust P, Leyson JF. Nutritional Assessment of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient. J Am Diet Assoc, 1981; 78: 501-505.

Tharion G, Prasad KR, Gopalan L, Bhattacharji S. Glucose Intolerance and Dyslipidaemias in Persons with Paraplegia and Tetraplegia in South India. Spinal Cord, 1998; 36: 228-230.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

O’Brien, R. Nutrition Management in Rehabilitation. Rockville, Maryland: Aspen Publishers, Inc.; 1990, 164-165.
American Dietetic Association. ADA Pocket Guide to Nutrition Assessment. Chicago, IL: ADA; 2004.

SCI: Assessment of Energy Needs in Acute and Rehabilitation Phases

Barco KT, Smith RA, Peerless JR, Plaisier BR, Chima CS. Energy expenditure assessment and validation after acute spinal cord injury. Nutr Clin Prac. 2002;17:309-313.

Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. Differences in resting metabolic rate between paraplegic and able-bodied subjects are explained by differences in body composition. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:371-378.

Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. Physical activity levels are low in free-living adults with chronic paraplegia. Obes Res 2003;11(4):563-570

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Houda B. Evaluation of Nutritional Status in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Prerequisite for Successful Rehabilitation. SCI Nursing 1993;10(7):4-7.

Kearns PJ, Thompson JD, Werner PC, Pipp TL, Wilmot CB. Nutritional and Metabolic Response to Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 1992; 16(1): 11-15.

Laven GT, Huang CT, DeVivo MJ, Stover SL, Kuhlemeier KV, Fine PR. Nutrition Status During the Acute Stage of Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70: 277-282.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Rodriguez DJ, Benzel EC, Clevenger FW. The Metabolic Response to Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord, 1997; 35: 599-604.

Brandi LS, Bertolini R, Santini L. Calculated and measured oxygen consumption in mechanically ventilated surgical patients in the early post-operative period. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1999;16(1):53-61.

Epstein CD, Peerless JR, Martin JE, Malangoni MA. Comparison of methods of measurements of oxygen consumption in mechanically ventilated patients with multiple trauma: the Fick method versus indirect calorimetry. Crit Care Med 2000;28(5):1363-9.

Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC. Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(3):461-6.

Marson F, Martins MA, Coletto FA, Campos AD, Basile-Filho A. Correlation between oxygen consumption calculated using Fick's method and measured with indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients. Arq Bras Cardiol 2003;81:77-81.

Ogawa AM, Shikora SA, Burke LM, Heetderks-Cox JE, Bergren CT, Muskat PC. The thermodilution technique for measuring resting energy expenditure does not agree with indirect calorimetry for the critically ill patient. JPEN 1998;22:347-351.

Alexander E, Susla GM, Burstein AH, Brown DT, Ognibene FP. Retrospective evaluation of commonly used equations to predict energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24(12):1659-1667.

Barak N, Wall-Alonso E, Sitrin MD. Evaluation of stress factors and body weight adjustments currently used to estimate energy expenditure in hospitalized patients. JPEN 2002; 26(4):231-8.

Brandi LS, Santini L, Bertolini R, Malacarne P, Casagli S, Baraglia AM. Energy expenditure and severity of injury and illness indices in multiple trauma patients. Crit Care Med 1999;27(12):2684-9.

Casati A, Colombo S, Leggieri C, Muttini S, Capocasa T, Gallioli G. Measured versus calculated energy expenditure in pressure support ventilated ICU patients. Minerva Anestesiol 1996;62(5):165-170.

Cheng CH, Chen CH, Wong Y, Lee BJ, Kan MN, Huang YC. Measured versus estimated energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 2002;21(2):165-172.

Cutts ME, Dowdy RP, Ellersieck MR, Edes TE. Predicting energy needs in ventilator-dependent critically ill patients: effect of adjusting weight for edema or adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1250-6.

Dickerson RN, Gervasio JM, Riley ML, Murrell JE, Hickerson WL, Kudsk KA, Brown RO. Accuracy of predictive methods to estimate resting energy expenditure of thermally-injured patients. JPEN 2002;26(1):17-29.

Donaldson-Andersen J, Fitzsimmons L. Metabolic requirements of the critically ill, mechanically ventilated trauma patient: measured versus predicted energy expenditure. Nutr Clin Pract 1998;13(1):25-31.

Faisy C, Guerot E, Diehl JL, Labrousse J, Fagon JY. Assessment of resting energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:241-9.

Ireton-Jones C, Jones JD. Improved equations for predicting energy expenditure in patients: the Ireton-Jones equations. Nutr Clin Pract 2002;17(1):29-31.

Jansen MMPM, Heymer F, Leusink JA, de Boer A. The quality of nutrition at an intensive care unit. Nutrition Research 2002;22(4):411-422.

MacDonald A, Hildebrandt L. Comparison of formulaic equations to determine energy expenditure in the critically ill patient. Nutrition 2003;19(3):233-9.

O'Leary-Kelley CM, Puntillo KA, Barr J, Stotts N, Douglas MK. Nutritional adequacy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation who are fed enterally. Am J Crit Care 2005; 14(3):222-31.

Ahmad A, Duerksen DR, Munroe S, Bistrian BR. An evaluation of resting energy expenditure in hospitalized, severely underweight patients. Nutrition 1999;15(5):384-8.

Alexander E, Susla GM, Burstein AH, Brown DT, Ognibene FP. Retrospective evaluation of commonly used equations to predict energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24(12):1659-1667.

Brandi LS, Santini L, Bertolini R, Malacarne P, Casagli S, Baraglia AM. Energy expenditure and severity of injury and illness indices in multiple trauma patients. Crit Care Med 1999;27(12):2684-9.

Campbell CG, Zander E, Thorland W. Predicted vs measured energy expenditure in critically ill, underweight patients. Nutr Clin Pract 2005;20(2):276-80.

Cheng CH, Chen CH, Wong Y, Lee BJ, Kan MN, Huang YC. Measured versus estimated energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 2002;21(2):165-172.

Compher C, Cato R, Bader J, Kinosian B. Harris-Benedict equations do not adequately predict energy requirements in elderly hospitalized African Americans. J National Med Assoc 2004;96(2):209-214.

Dickerson RN, Gervasio JM, Riley ML, Murrell JE, Hickerson WL, Kudsk KA, Brown RO. Accuracy of predictive methods to estimate resting energy expenditure of thermally-injured patients. JPEN 2002;26(1):17-29.

Donaldson-Andersen J, Fitzsimmons L. Metabolic requirements of the critically ill, mechanically ventilated trauma patient: measured versus predicted energy expenditure. Nutr Clin Pract 1998;13(1):25-31.

Faisy C, Guerot E, Diehl JL, Labrousse J, Fagon JY. Assessment of resting energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:241-9.

Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC. Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(3):461-6.

Frankenfield D, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. JPEN 2004;28(4):259-64.

Ireton-Jones C. Comparison of the metabolic response to burn injury in obese and nonobese patients. J Burn Care Rehabil 1997;18(1 Pt 1):82-5.

MacDonald A, Hildebrandt L. Comparison of formulaic equations to determine energy expenditure in the critically ill patient. Nutrition 2003;19(3):233-9.

Campbell CG, Zander E, Thorland W. Predicted vs measured energy expenditure in critically ill, underweight patients. Nutr Clin Pract 2005;20(2):276-80.

Cheng CH, Chen CH, Wong Y, Lee BJ, Kan MN, Huang YC. Measured versus estimated energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 2002;21(2):165-172.

Dickerson RN, Gervasio JM, Riley ML, Murrell JE, Hickerson WL, Kudsk KA, Brown RO. Accuracy of predictive methods to estimate resting energy expenditure of thermally-injured patients. JPEN 2002;26(1):17-29.

Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC. Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(3):461-6.

Frankenfield D, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. JPEN 2004;28(4):259-64.

Ireton-Jones C. Comparison of the metabolic response to burn injury in obese and nonobese patients. J Burn Care Rehabil 1997;18(1 Pt 1):82-5.

MacDonald A, Hildebrandt L. Comparison of formulaic equations to determine energy expenditure in the critically ill patient. Nutrition 2003;19(3):233-9.

Alexander E, Susla GM, Burstein AH, Brown DT, Ognibene FP. Retrospective evaluation of commonly used equations to predict energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24(12):1659-1667.

Frankenfield D, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. JPEN 2004;28(4):259-64.

Ireton-Jones C, Jones JD. Improved equations for predicting energy expenditure in patients: the Ireton-Jones equations. Nutr Clin Pract 2002;17(1):29-31.

Frankenfield D, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. JPEN 2004;28(4):259-64.

Barak N, Wall-Alonso E, Sitrin MD. Evaluation of stress factors and body weight adjustments currently used to estimate energy expenditure in hospitalized patients. JPEN 2002; 26(4):231-8.

Cutts ME, Dowdy RP, Ellersieck MR, Edes TE. Predicting energy needs in ventilator-dependent critically ill patients: effect of adjusting weight for edema or adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1250-6.

Frankenfield D, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. JPEN 2004;28(4):259-64.

Glynn CC, Greene GW, Winkler MF, Albina JE. Predictive versus measured energy expenditure using limits-of agreement analysis in hospitalized, obese patients. JPEN 1999;23:147-154.

Ireton-Jones C. Comparison of the metabolic response to burn injury in obese and nonobese patients. J Burn Care Rehabil 1997;18(1 Pt 1):82-5.

Ireton-Jones C, Jones JD. Improved equations for predicting energy expenditure in patients: the Ireton-Jones equations. Nutr Clin Pract 2002;17(1):29-31.

Frankenfield D, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. JPEN 2004;28(4):259-64.

MacDonald A, Hildebrandt L. Comparison of formulaic equations to determine energy expenditure in the critically ill patient. Nutrition 2003;19(3):233-9.

MacDonald A, Hildebrandt L. Comparison of formulaic equations to determine energy expenditure in the critically ill patient. Nutrition 2003;19(3):233-9.

SCI: Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Needs

Algood SD, Cooper RA, Fitzgerald SG, Cooper R, Boninger ML. Impact of a pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair on the metabolic demands, stroke frequency, and range of motion among subjects with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:1865-1871.

Beekman CE, Miller-Porter L, Schoneberger M. Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. Physical Therapy 1999;79:146-158.

Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:82-91.

Cooper RA, Fitzgerald SG, Boninger ML, Prins K, Rentschler AJ, Arva J, O'Connor TJ. Evaluation of a pushrim-activated, power-assisted wheelchair. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:702-708.

Mukherjee G, Bhowik P, Samanta A. Energy cost of manual wheelchair propulsion at different speeds. International J Rehab Research 2002;25:71-75.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Kocina P. Body Composition of Spinal Cord Injured Adults. Sports Med. 1997;23(1): 48-60. 

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Peiffer SC, Blust P, Leyson JF. Nutritional Assessment of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient. J Am Diet Assoc, 1981; 78: 501-505.

Tharion G, Prasad KR, Gopalan L, Bhattacharji S. Glucose Intolerance and Dyslipidaemias in Persons with Paraplegia and Tetraplegia in South India. Spinal Cord, 1998; 36: 228-230.

SCI: Assessment of Protein Needs

Blissitt PA. Nutrition in Acute Spinal Cord Injury. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 1990;2(3):375-384.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Kearns PJ, Thompson JD, Werner PC, Pipp TL, Wilmot CB. Nutritional and Metabolic Response to Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 1992; 16(1): 11-15.

Laven GT, Huang CT, DeVivo MJ, Stover SL, Kuhlemeier KV, Fine PR. Nutrition Status During the Acute Stage of Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70: 277-282.

Rodriguez DJ, Benzel EC, Clevenger FW. The Metabolic Response to Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord, 1997; 35: 599-604.

Rodriguez DJ, Clevenger FW, Osler TM, Demarest GB, Fry DE. Obligatory Negative Nitrogen Balance Following Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1991; 15(3): 319-322.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis 
Merritt R, ed. in chief. ASPEN Nutrition Support Practice Manual, 2nd edition. ASPEN; 2005.
Charney P, Malone A, eds. ADA Pocket Guide to Nutrition Assessment. Chicago: American Dietetics Association; 2004.
Gottschlich M, ed. in chief. ASPEN Nutrition Support Core Curriculum: A Case-based Approach and the Adult Patient. ASPEN; 2007.
Fuhrman MP, Charney P, Mueller CM. Hepatic proteins and nutrition assessment. JADA. 2004: 104: 1, 258-1, 264.
Gabay C, Kushner I. Acute phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. NEJM. 1999; 340: 448-454.

SCI: Assessment for Prevention of Pressure Ulcers

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines. Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Clinical Practice Guideline for Health-Care Professionals. J Spinal Cord Med 2001;24 Suppl 1:S40 - S101.

Cruse JM, Lewis RE, Roe DL, Dilioglou S, Blaine MC, Wallace WF, Chen RS. Facilitation of immune function, healing of pressure ulcers, and nutritional status in spinal cord injury patients. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 1999;68:38-54.

Krause JS, Broderick L. Patterns of recurrent pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury: identification of risk and protective factors 5 or more years after onset. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85:1257-1264.

Krause JS, Vines CL, Farley TL, Sniezek J, Coker J. An exploratory study of pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury: realtionship to protective behaviors and risk factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:107-113.

Moussavi RM, Garza HM, Eisele SG, Rodriguez G, Rintala DH. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E in persons with chronic spinal cord injury living in the community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:1061-1067.

SCI: Assessment of Nutrition Needs for Pressure Ulcers in SCI

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis
Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment following spinal cord injury: A clinical practice guideline for health care professionals. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine, Paralyzed Veterans of America. 2000.

ASPEN 2005 Nutrition Support Manual. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2005.

ASPEN 2007 Nutrition Support Core Curriculum. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2007.

Nutrients and wound healing: Still searching for the magic bullet. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2005 June; 20: 331-347.

ADA Nutrition Care Manual. Chicago, IL: ADA; 2008.

5 Million Lives Campaign. Available at: http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Programs/Campaign/.

Baranski S, Ayello EA. Wound care essentials: Practice principles. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2008.

SCI: Nutrition Assessment for Prevention and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Claus-Walker J, Halstead LS. Metabolic and Endocrine Changes in Spinal Cord Injury: I. The Nervous System Before and After Transection of the Spinal Cord. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981;62:595-601.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Kocina P. Body Composition of Spinal Cord Injured Adults. Sports Med. 1997;23(1): 48-60.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Olle MM, Pivarnik JM, Klish WJ, Morrow JR. Body Composition of Sedentary and Physically Active Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Estimated from Total Body Electrical Conductivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1993; 74: 706-710.

Peiffer SC, Blust P, Leyson JF. Nutritional Assessment of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient. J Am Diet Assoc, 1981; 78: 501-505.

Tharion G, Prasad KR, Gopalan L, Bhattacharji S. Glucose Intolerance and Dyslipidaemias in Persons with Paraplegia and Tetraplegia in South India. Spinal Cord, 1998; 36: 228-230.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Claus-Walker J, Halstead LS. Metabolic and Endocrine Changes in Spinal Cord Injury: I. The Nervous System Before and After Transection of the Spinal Cord. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981;62:595-601.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Kocina P. Body Composition of Spinal Cord Injured Adults. Sports Med. 1997;23(1): 48-60.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Olle MM, Pivarnik JM, Klish WJ, Morrow JR. Body Composition of Sedentary and Physically Active Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Estimated from Total Body Electrical Conductivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1993; 74: 706-710.

Peiffer SC, Blust P, Leyson JF. Nutritional Assessment of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient. J Am Diet Assoc, 1981; 78: 501-505.

Tharion G, Prasad KR, Gopalan L, Bhattacharji S. Glucose Intolerance and Dyslipidaemias in Persons with Paraplegia and Tetraplegia in South India. Spinal Cord, 1998; 36: 228-230.

SCI: Nutrition Intervention for Lipid Abnormalities

Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism. 1998;47:367-370.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001;24(4):266-277.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Maloney P, Gambino R, Waters RL. Ethnicity effect on the serum lipid profile in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(2):176-80.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Kemp BJ, Walters RL. The effect of residual neurological deficit on serum lipoproteins in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(1):13-17.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Herbert R, Schechter C, Smith D, Kemp BJ, Gambino R, Maloney P, Waters RL. Is immobilization associated with an abnormal lipoprotein profile? Observations from a diverse cohort. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):485-493.

Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, van Kamp GJ, Hollander AP. Changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in persons with spinal cord injuries during the first 2 years post-injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(2):96-102.

Dallmeijer AJ, Hopman MT, van der Woude LH. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in active and sedentary men with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(11):1173-1176.

Demirel S, Demirel G, Tukek T, Erk O, Yilmaz H. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(3):134-138.

Janssen TW, van Oers CA, van Kamp GJ, TenVoorde BJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP. Coronary heart disease risk indicators, aerobic power, and physical activity in men with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):697-705.

Kjaer M. Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T, Galbo H. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(5):R1492-1498.

Lee MY, Myers J, Hayes A, Madan S, Froelicher VF, PerkashI, Kiratli BJ. C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in individuals with spinal cord injury.J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(1):20-25.

Midha M, Schmitt JK, Sclater M. Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(3):258-61.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Ozgurtas T, Alaca R Gulec M, Kutluay T. Do spinal cord injuries adversely affect serum lipoprotein profiles?. Mil Med. 2003;168(7):545-547.

Schmid A, Halle M, Stutzle C, Konig D, Baumstark MW, Storch MJ, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Lehmann M, Berg A, Keul J. Lipoproteins and free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord-injured men with different injury levels. Clin Physiol. 2000; 20(4): 304-310.

Sorg RJ. HDL-cholesterol: exercise formula. Results of long-term (6-year) strenuous swimming exercise in a middle-aged male with paraplegia. J Orthopadic Sports/Physical Therapy. 1993;17:195-199.

Stewart BG, Tarnopolsky MA, Hicks AL, McCartney N, Mahoney DJ, Staron RS, Phillips SM. Treadmill training-induced adaptations in muscle phenotype in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 30(1): 61-68.

Storch MJ, Konig D, Bultermann D, Blum A, Vogt S, Baumstark M, Berg A, Schmid A. Lipid profile in spinal cord-injured women with different injury levels. Prev Med. 2005;40(3):321-325.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Vidal J, Javierre C, Curia FJ, Garrido E, Lizarraga M-A, Segura R: Long-term evolution of blood lipid profiles and glycemic levels in patients after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:178-181

Zhong YG, Levy E, Bauman WA. The relationships among serum uric acid, plasma insulin, and serum lipoprotein levels in subjects with spinal cord injury. Horm Metab Res. 1995;27(6):283-6.

Zlotolow SP, Levy E, Bauman WA. The serum lipoportein in veterans with paraplegia: The relationship to nutritional factors and body mass index. J Am Paraplegia Society. 1992; 15(3): 158-162.

SCI: Physical Activity and Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism. 1998;47:367-370.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001;24(4):266-277.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Maloney P, Gambino R, Waters RL. Ethnicity effect on the serum lipid profile in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(2):176-80.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Kemp BJ, Walters RL. The effect of residual neurological deficit on serum lipoproteins in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(1):13-17.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Herbert R, Schechter C, Smith D, Kemp BJ, Gambino R, Maloney P, Waters RL. Is immobilization associated with an abnormal lipoprotein profile? Observations from a diverse cohort. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):485-493.

Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, van Kamp GJ, Hollander AP. Changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in persons with spinal cord injuries during the first 2 years post-injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(2):96-102.

Dallmeijer AJ, Hopman MT, van der Woude LH. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in active and sedentary men with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(11):1173-1176.

Demirel S, Demirel G, Tukek T, Erk O, Yilmaz H. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(3):134-138.

Janssen TW, van Oers CA, van Kamp GJ, TenVoorde BJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP. Coronary heart disease risk indicators, aerobic power, and physical activity in men with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):697-705.

Kjaer M. Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T, Galbo H. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(5):R1492-1498.

Lee MY, Myers J, Hayes A, Madan S, Froelicher VF, PerkashI, Kiratli BJ. C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in individuals with spinal cord injury.J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(1):20-25.

Midha M, Schmitt JK, Sclater M. Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(3):258-61.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Ozgurtas T, Alaca R Gulec M, Kutluay T. Do spinal cord injuries adversely affect serum lipoprotein profiles?. Mil Med. 2003;168(7):545-547.

Schmid A, Halle M, Stutzle C, Konig D, Baumstark MW, Storch MJ, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Lehmann M, Berg A, Keul J. Lipoproteins and free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord-injured men with different injury levels. Clin Physiol. 2000; 20(4): 304-310.

Sorg RJ. HDL-cholesterol: exercise formula. Results of long-term (6-year) strenuous swimming exercise in a middle-aged male with paraplegia. J Orthopadic Sports/Physical Therapy. 1993;17:195-199.

Stewart BG, Tarnopolsky MA, Hicks AL, McCartney N, Mahoney DJ, Staron RS, Phillips SM. Treadmill training-induced adaptations in muscle phenotype in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 30(1): 61-68.

Storch MJ, Konig D, Bultermann D, Blum A, Vogt S, Baumstark M, Berg A, Schmid A. Lipid profile in spinal cord-injured women with different injury levels. Prev Med. 2005;40(3):321-325.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Vidal J, Javierre C, Curia FJ, Garrido E, Lizarraga M-A, Segura R: Long-term evolution of blood lipid profiles and glycemic levels in patients after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:178-181

Zhong YG, Levy E, Bauman WA. The relationships among serum uric acid, plasma insulin, and serum lipoprotein levels in subjects with spinal cord injury. Horm Metab Res. 1995;27(6):283-6.

Zlotolow SP, Levy E, Bauman WA. The serum lipoportein in veterans with paraplegia: The relationship to nutritional factors and body mass index. J Am Paraplegia Society. 1992; 15(3): 158-162.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Claus-Walker J, Halstead LS. Metabolic and Endocrine Changes in Spinal Cord Injury: I. The Nervous System Before and After Transection of the Spinal Cord. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981;62:595-601.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Kocina P. Body Composition of Spinal Cord Injured Adults. Sports Med. 1997;23(1): 48-60.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Olle MM, Pivarnik JM, Klish WJ, Morrow JR. Body Composition of Sedentary and Physically Active Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Estimated from Total Body Electrical Conductivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1993; 74: 706-710.

Peiffer SC, Blust P, Leyson JF. Nutritional Assessment of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient. J Am Diet Assoc, 1981; 78: 501-505.

Tharion G, Prasad KR, Gopalan L, Bhattacharji S. Glucose Intolerance and Dyslipidaemias in Persons with Paraplegia and Tetraplegia in South India. Spinal Cord, 1998; 36: 228-230.

SCI: Fluid and Neurogenic Bowel

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corrazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 116-120.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Health-Care Professionals. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1998.

SCI: Fiber and Neurogenic Bowel

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corrazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 116-120.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Health-Care Professionals. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1998.

Yim SY, Yoon SH, Lee IY, Rah EW, Moon HW. A comparison of bowel care patterns in patients with spinal cord injury: upper motor neuron bowel vs lower motor neuron bowel. Spinal Cord 2001;39:204-207.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Han TR, Kim JH, Kwon BS. Chronic gastrointestinal problems and bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998; 36: 485-490.

SCI: Cranberry Juice

Reid G, Hsiehl J, Potter P, Mighton J, Lam D, Warren D, Stephenson J. Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:26-30.

SCI: Cranberry Supplements

Lee BB, Haran MJ, Hunt LM, Simpson JM, Marial O, Rutkowski SB, Middleton JW, Kotsiou G, Tudehope M, Cameron ID. Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial. Spinal Cord. 2007;45:542-550.

Linsenmeyer TA, Harrison B, Oakley A, Kirshblum S, Stock JA, Millis SR. Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004;27:29-34.

Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ. Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2004;27:35-40. PMID: 15156935

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Biering-Sorenen F, Bagi P, Hoiby N. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions. Drugs. 2001;61:1275-1287.

SCI: Nutrition Intervention for Prevention of Pressure Ulcers

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines. Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Clinical Practice Guideline for Health-Care Professionals. J Spinal Cord Med 2001;24 Suppl 1:S40 - S101.

Cruse JM, Lewis RE, Roe DL, Dilioglou S, Blaine MC, Wallace WF, Chen RS. Facilitation of immune function, healing of pressure ulcers, and nutritional status in spinal cord injury patients. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 1999;68:38-54.

Goodman CM, Cohen V, Armenta A, Thornby J, Netscher DT. Evaluation of results and treatment variables for pressure ulcers in 48 veteran spinal cord-injured patients. Ann Plast Surg 1999;42:665-672.

Krause JS, Broderick L. Patterns of recurrent pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury: identification of risk and protective factors 5 or more years after onset. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85:1257-1264.

Krause JS, Vines CL, Farley TL, Sniezek J, Coker J. An exploratory study of pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury: realtionship to protective behaviors and risk factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:107-113.

Moussavi RM, Garza HM, Eisele SG, Rodriguez G, Rintala DH. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E in persons with chronic spinal cord injury living in the community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:1061-1067.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Goodman CM, Cohen V, Armenta A, Thornby J, Netscher DT. Evaluation of results and treatment variables for pressure ulcers in 48 veteran patients with spinal cord injury. Ann Plast Surg. 1999; 42: 665-672.

SCI: Nutrition Prescription for SCI Persons with Pressure Ulcers

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment following spinal cord injury: A clinical practice guideline for health care professionals. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine, Paralyzed Veterans of America, 2000.

ASPEN 2005 Nutrition Support Manual. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 2005.

ASPEN 2007 Nutrition Support Core Curriculum. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 2007.

Nutrients and wound healing: Still searching for the magic bullet. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2005 June; 20: 331-347.

ADA Nutrition Care Manual. Chicago, IL: ADA, 2008.

5 Million Lives Campaign. Available at: http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Programs/Campaign/.

Baranski S and Ayello EA. Wound care essentials: Practice principles, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

SCI: Coordination of Care in Spinal Cord Injury

Croes-Barone SJ, Rolnick RH, Durante D, Zaunbrecher MM, Hackell V, Farias Y. Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important element in complete rehabilitation. Rehab Manag. 1998;56, 59-60, 63.

Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2006;12:160-162.

Mitcho K, Yanko JR. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 1999; 22(2), 60-79.

Murphy M. Traumatic spinal cord injury: an acute care rehabilitation perspective. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1999 Aug;22(2):51-9. Review.

Vitaz TW, McIlvoy L, Raque GH, Spain DA, Shields CB. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries. J Spinal Disord. 2001 Jun;14(3):271-6.

Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:82-91.

SCI: Monitoring and Evaluation in the Acute Care Setting

Abel R, Ruf S, Spahn B. Cervical spinal cord injury and deglutition disorders. Dysphagia. 2004; 19 (2): 87-94.

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord. 1997 Feb;35 (2): 116-20.

Barber D, Foster D, and Rogers S. The importance of nutrition in the care of persons with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 26:2; Summer 2003. Commentary.

Block P, Skeels SE, Keys CB, Rimmer JH. Shake-It-Up: Health promotion and capacity building for people with spinal cord injuries and related neurological disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Feb 18; 27(4): 185-190.

Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:82-91.

Croes-Barone SJ, Rolnick RH, Durante D, Zaunbrecher MM, Hackell V, Farias Y. Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important element in complete rehabilitation. Rehab Manag. 1998;56, 59-60, 63.

Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2006;12:160-162.

Mitcho K, Yanko JR. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 1999; 22(2), 60-79.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Murphy M. Traumatic spinal cord injury: an acute care rehabilitation perspective. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1999 Aug;22(2):51-9. Review.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Tomey KM, Chen DM, Wang X, Braunschweig CL. Dietary intake and nutritional status of urban community-dwelling men with paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2005 Apr; 86(4): 664-71.

Vitaz TW, McIlvoy L, Raque GH, Spain DA, Shields CB. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries. J Spinal Disord. 2001 Jun;14(3):271-6.

Zemper ED, Tate DG, Roller S, Forchmeimer M, Chiodo A, Nelson VS, Scelza W. Assessment of a holistic wellness program for persons with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Dec; 82(12): 957-68.

SCI: Monitoring and Evaluation of Protein Intake in Acute Care Setting - Overfeeding

Blissitt PA. Nutrition in Acute Spinal Cord Injury. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 1990;2(3):375-384.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Kearns PJ, Thompson JD, Werner PC, Pipp TL, Wilmot CB. Nutritional and Metabolic Response to Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 1992; 16(1): 11-15.

Laven GT, Huang CT, DeVivo MJ, Stover SL, Kuhlemeier KV, Fine PR. Nutrition Status During the Acute Stage of Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70: 277-282.

Rodriguez DJ, Benzel EC, Clevenger FW. The Metabolic Response to Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord, 1997; 35: 599-604.

Rodriguez DJ, Clevenger FW, Osler TM, Demarest GB, Fry DE. Obligatory Negative Nitrogen Balance Following Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1991; 15(3): 319-322.

SCI: Monitoring Energy Needs in the Rehabilitation Phase

Barco KT, Smith RA, Peerless JR, Plaisier BR, Chima CS. Energy expenditure assessment and validation after acute spinal cord injury. Nutr Clin Prac. 2002;17:309-313.

Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. Differences in resting metabolic rate between paraplegic and able-bodied subjects are explained by differences in body composition. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:371-378.

Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. Physical activity levels are low in free-living adults with chronic paraplegia. Obes Res 2003;11(4):563-570

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Houda B. Evaluation of Nutritional Status in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Prerequisite for Successful Rehabilitation. SCI Nursing 1993;10(7):4-7.

Kearns PJ, Thompson JD, Werner PC, Pipp TL, Wilmot CB. Nutritional and Metabolic Response to Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 1992; 16(1): 11-15.

Laven GT, Huang CT, DeVivo MJ, Stover SL, Kuhlemeier KV, Fine PR. Nutrition Status During the Acute Stage of Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70: 277-282.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Rodriguez DJ, Benzel EC, Clevenger FW. The Metabolic Response to Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord, 1997; 35: 599-604.

SCI: Nutrition Monitoring: Fiber and Neurogenic Bowel

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corrazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 116-120.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Health-Care Professionals. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1998.

Han TR, Kim JH, Kwon BS. Chronic gastrointestinal problems and bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 485-490.

Yim SY, Yoon SH, Lee IY, Rah EW, Moon HW. A comparison of bowel care patterns in patients with spinal cord injury: upper motor neuron bowel vs lower motor neuron bowel. Spinal Cord 2001;39:204-207.