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Spinal Cord Injury

SCI: Intervention-Monitoring and Evaluation References (2009)

SCI: Nutrition Intervention for Lipid Abnormalities

Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism. 1998;47:367-370.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001;24(4):266-277.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Maloney P, Gambino R, Waters RL. Ethnicity effect on the serum lipid profile in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(2):176-80.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Kemp BJ, Walters RL. The effect of residual neurological deficit on serum lipoproteins in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(1):13-17.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Herbert R, Schechter C, Smith D, Kemp BJ, Gambino R, Maloney P, Waters RL. Is immobilization associated with an abnormal lipoprotein profile? Observations from a diverse cohort. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):485-493.

Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, van Kamp GJ, Hollander AP. Changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in persons with spinal cord injuries during the first 2 years post-injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(2):96-102.

Dallmeijer AJ, Hopman MT, van der Woude LH. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in active and sedentary men with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(11):1173-1176.

Demirel S, Demirel G, Tukek T, Erk O, Yilmaz H. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(3):134-138.

Janssen TW, van Oers CA, van Kamp GJ, TenVoorde BJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP. Coronary heart disease risk indicators, aerobic power, and physical activity in men with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):697-705.

Kjaer M. Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T, Galbo H. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(5):R1492-1498.

Lee MY, Myers J, Hayes A, Madan S, Froelicher VF, PerkashI, Kiratli BJ. C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in individuals with spinal cord injury.J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(1):20-25.

Midha M, Schmitt JK, Sclater M. Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(3):258-61.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Ozgurtas T, Alaca R Gulec M, Kutluay T. Do spinal cord injuries adversely affect serum lipoprotein profiles?. Mil Med. 2003;168(7):545-547.

Schmid A, Halle M, Stutzle C, Konig D, Baumstark MW, Storch MJ, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Lehmann M, Berg A, Keul J. Lipoproteins and free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord-injured men with different injury levels. Clin Physiol. 2000; 20(4): 304-310.

Sorg RJ. HDL-cholesterol: exercise formula. Results of long-term (6-year) strenuous swimming exercise in a middle-aged male with paraplegia. J Orthopadic Sports/Physical Therapy. 1993;17:195-199.

Stewart BG, Tarnopolsky MA, Hicks AL, McCartney N, Mahoney DJ, Staron RS, Phillips SM. Treadmill training-induced adaptations in muscle phenotype in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 30(1): 61-68.

Storch MJ, Konig D, Bultermann D, Blum A, Vogt S, Baumstark M, Berg A, Schmid A. Lipid profile in spinal cord-injured women with different injury levels. Prev Med. 2005;40(3):321-325.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Vidal J, Javierre C, Curia FJ, Garrido E, Lizarraga M-A, Segura R: Long-term evolution of blood lipid profiles and glycemic levels in patients after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:178-181

Zhong YG, Levy E, Bauman WA. The relationships among serum uric acid, plasma insulin, and serum lipoprotein levels in subjects with spinal cord injury. Horm Metab Res. 1995;27(6):283-6.

Zlotolow SP, Levy E, Bauman WA. The serum lipoportein in veterans with paraplegia: The relationship to nutritional factors and body mass index. J Am Paraplegia Society. 1992; 15(3): 158-162.

SCI: Physical Activity and Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism. 1998;47:367-370.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2001;24(4):266-277.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Maloney P, Gambino R, Waters RL. Ethnicity effect on the serum lipid profile in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(2):176-80.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Kemp BJ, Walters RL. The effect of residual neurological deficit on serum lipoproteins in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(1):13-17.

Bauman WA, Adkins RH, Spungen AM, Herbert R, Schechter C, Smith D, Kemp BJ, Gambino R, Maloney P, Waters RL. Is immobilization associated with an abnormal lipoprotein profile? Observations from a diverse cohort. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(7):485-493.

Dallmeijer AJ, van der Woude LH, van Kamp GJ, Hollander AP. Changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profiles in persons with spinal cord injuries during the first 2 years post-injury. Spinal Cord. 1999;37(2):96-102.

Dallmeijer AJ, Hopman MT, van der Woude LH. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in active and sedentary men with tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(11):1173-1176.

Demirel S, Demirel G, Tukek T, Erk O, Yilmaz H. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients with spinal cord injury in Turkey. Spinal Cord. 2001;39(3):134-138.

Janssen TW, van Oers CA, van Kamp GJ, TenVoorde BJ, van der Woude LH, Hollander AP. Coronary heart disease risk indicators, aerobic power, and physical activity in men with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(7):697-705.

Kjaer M. Dela F, Sorensen FB, Secher NH, Bangsbo J, Mohr T, Galbo H. Fatty acid kinetics and carbohydrate metabolism during electrical exercise in spinal cord-injured humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(5):R1492-1498.

Lee MY, Myers J, Hayes A, Madan S, Froelicher VF, PerkashI, Kiratli BJ. C-reactive protein, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in individuals with spinal cord injury.J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28(1):20-25.

Midha M, Schmitt JK, Sclater M. Exercise effect with the wheelchair aerobic fitness trainer on conditioning and metabolic function in disabled persons: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999;80(3):258-61.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Ozgurtas T, Alaca R Gulec M, Kutluay T. Do spinal cord injuries adversely affect serum lipoprotein profiles?. Mil Med. 2003;168(7):545-547.

Schmid A, Halle M, Stutzle C, Konig D, Baumstark MW, Storch MJ, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Lehmann M, Berg A, Keul J. Lipoproteins and free plasma catecholamines in spinal cord-injured men with different injury levels. Clin Physiol. 2000; 20(4): 304-310.

Sorg RJ. HDL-cholesterol: exercise formula. Results of long-term (6-year) strenuous swimming exercise in a middle-aged male with paraplegia. J Orthopadic Sports/Physical Therapy. 1993;17:195-199.

Stewart BG, Tarnopolsky MA, Hicks AL, McCartney N, Mahoney DJ, Staron RS, Phillips SM. Treadmill training-induced adaptations in muscle phenotype in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 30(1): 61-68.

Storch MJ, Konig D, Bultermann D, Blum A, Vogt S, Baumstark M, Berg A, Schmid A. Lipid profile in spinal cord-injured women with different injury levels. Prev Med. 2005;40(3):321-325.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Vidal J, Javierre C, Curia FJ, Garrido E, Lizarraga M-A, Segura R: Long-term evolution of blood lipid profiles and glycemic levels in patients after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:178-181

Zhong YG, Levy E, Bauman WA. The relationships among serum uric acid, plasma insulin, and serum lipoprotein levels in subjects with spinal cord injury. Horm Metab Res. 1995;27(6):283-6.

Zlotolow SP, Levy E, Bauman WA. The serum lipoportein in veterans with paraplegia: The relationship to nutritional factors and body mass index. J Am Paraplegia Society. 1992; 15(3): 158-162.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Claus-Walker J, Halstead LS. Metabolic and Endocrine Changes in Spinal Cord Injury: I. The Nervous System Before and After Transection of the Spinal Cord. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1981;62:595-601.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Kocina P. Body Composition of Spinal Cord Injured Adults. Sports Med. 1997;23(1): 48-60.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Olle MM, Pivarnik JM, Klish WJ, Morrow JR. Body Composition of Sedentary and Physically Active Spinal Cord Injured Individuals Estimated from Total Body Electrical Conductivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1993; 74: 706-710.

Peiffer SC, Blust P, Leyson JF. Nutritional Assessment of the Spinal Cord Injured Patient. J Am Diet Assoc, 1981; 78: 501-505.

Tharion G, Prasad KR, Gopalan L, Bhattacharji S. Glucose Intolerance and Dyslipidaemias in Persons with Paraplegia and Tetraplegia in South India. Spinal Cord, 1998; 36: 228-230.

SCI: Fluid and Neurogenic Bowel

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corrazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 116-120.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Health-Care Professionals. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1998.

SCI: Fiber and Neurogenic Bowel

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corrazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 116-120.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Health-Care Professionals. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1998.

Yim SY, Yoon SH, Lee IY, Rah EW, Moon HW. A comparison of bowel care patterns in patients with spinal cord injury: upper motor neuron bowel vs lower motor neuron bowel. Spinal Cord 2001;39:204-207.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Han TR, Kim JH, Kwon BS. Chronic gastrointestinal problems and bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998; 36: 485-490.

SCI: Cranberry Juice

Reid G, Hsiehl J, Potter P, Mighton J, Lam D, Warren D, Stephenson J. Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:26-30.

SCI: Cranberry Supplements

Lee BB, Haran MJ, Hunt LM, Simpson JM, Marial O, Rutkowski SB, Middleton JW, Kotsiou G, Tudehope M, Cameron ID. Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial. Spinal Cord. 2007;45:542-550.

Linsenmeyer TA, Harrison B, Oakley A, Kirshblum S, Stock JA, Millis SR. Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004;27:29-34.

Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ. Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2004;27:35-40. PMID: 15156935

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Biering-Sorenen F, Bagi P, Hoiby N. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions. Drugs. 2001;61:1275-1287.

SCI: Nutrition Intervention for Prevention of Pressure Ulcers

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines. Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Clinical Practice Guideline for Health-Care Professionals. J Spinal Cord Med 2001;24 Suppl 1:S40 - S101.

Cruse JM, Lewis RE, Roe DL, Dilioglou S, Blaine MC, Wallace WF, Chen RS. Facilitation of immune function, healing of pressure ulcers, and nutritional status in spinal cord injury patients. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 1999;68:38-54.

Goodman CM, Cohen V, Armenta A, Thornby J, Netscher DT. Evaluation of results and treatment variables for pressure ulcers in 48 veteran spinal cord-injured patients. Ann Plast Surg 1999;42:665-672.

Krause JS, Broderick L. Patterns of recurrent pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury: identification of risk and protective factors 5 or more years after onset. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85:1257-1264.

Krause JS, Vines CL, Farley TL, Sniezek J, Coker J. An exploratory study of pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury: realtionship to protective behaviors and risk factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:107-113.

Moussavi RM, Garza HM, Eisele SG, Rodriguez G, Rintala DH. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E in persons with chronic spinal cord injury living in the community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:1061-1067.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Goodman CM, Cohen V, Armenta A, Thornby J, Netscher DT. Evaluation of results and treatment variables for pressure ulcers in 48 veteran patients with spinal cord injury. Ann Plast Surg. 1999; 42: 665-672.

SCI: Nutrition Prescription for SCI Persons with Pressure Ulcers

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment following spinal cord injury: A clinical practice guideline for health care professionals. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine, Paralyzed Veterans of America, 2000.

ASPEN 2005 Nutrition Support Manual. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 2005.

ASPEN 2007 Nutrition Support Core Curriculum. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 2007.

Nutrients and wound healing: Still searching for the magic bullet. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2005 June; 20: 331-347.

ADA Nutrition Care Manual. Chicago, IL: ADA, 2008.

5 Million Lives Campaign. Available at: http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Programs/Campaign/.

Baranski S and Ayello EA. Wound care essentials: Practice principles, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

SCI: Coordination of Care in Spinal Cord Injury

Croes-Barone SJ, Rolnick RH, Durante D, Zaunbrecher MM, Hackell V, Farias Y. Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important element in complete rehabilitation. Rehab Manag. 1998;56, 59-60, 63.

Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2006;12:160-162.

Mitcho K, Yanko JR. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 1999; 22(2), 60-79.

Murphy M. Traumatic spinal cord injury: an acute care rehabilitation perspective. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1999 Aug;22(2):51-9. Review.

Vitaz TW, McIlvoy L, Raque GH, Spain DA, Shields CB. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries. J Spinal Disord. 2001 Jun;14(3):271-6.

Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:82-91.

SCI: Monitoring and Evaluation in the Acute Care Setting

Abel R, Ruf S, Spahn B. Cervical spinal cord injury and deglutition disorders. Dysphagia. 2004; 19 (2): 87-94.

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord. 1997 Feb;35 (2): 116-20.

Barber D, Foster D, and Rogers S. The importance of nutrition in the care of persons with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 26:2; Summer 2003. Commentary.

Block P, Skeels SE, Keys CB, Rimmer JH. Shake-It-Up: Health promotion and capacity building for people with spinal cord injuries and related neurological disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Feb 18; 27(4): 185-190.

Chen Y, Henson S, Jackson AB, Richards JS. Obesity intervention in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2006;44:82-91.

Croes-Barone SJ, Rolnick RH, Durante D, Zaunbrecher MM, Hackell V, Farias Y. Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important element in complete rehabilitation. Rehab Manag. 1998;56, 59-60, 63.

Galea M, Tumminia J, Garback LM. Telerehabilitation in spinal cord injury persons: a novel approach. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2006;12:160-162.

Mitcho K, Yanko JR. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 1999; 22(2), 60-79.

Moussavi RM, Ribas-Cardus F, Rintala DH, Rodriguez GP. Dietary and serum lipids in individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2001;38(2):225-233.

Murphy M. Traumatic spinal cord injury: an acute care rehabilitation perspective. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1999 Aug;22(2):51-9. Review.

Szlachic Y, Adkins R, Adal T, Yee F, Bauman W, Waters RL. The effects of dietary intervention on lipid profiles in individuals with spinal cord injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Injury. 2001; 24 (1): 26-29. [#82]

Tomey KM, Chen DM, Wang X, Braunschweig CL. Dietary intake and nutritional status of urban community-dwelling men with paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2005 Apr; 86(4): 664-71.

Vitaz TW, McIlvoy L, Raque GH, Spain DA, Shields CB. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway for spinal cord injuries. J Spinal Disord. 2001 Jun;14(3):271-6.

Zemper ED, Tate DG, Roller S, Forchmeimer M, Chiodo A, Nelson VS, Scelza W. Assessment of a holistic wellness program for persons with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Dec; 82(12): 957-68.

SCI: Monitoring and Evaluation of Protein Intake in Acute Care Setting - Overfeeding

Blissitt PA. Nutrition in Acute Spinal Cord Injury. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 1990;2(3):375-384.

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Kearns PJ, Thompson JD, Werner PC, Pipp TL, Wilmot CB. Nutritional and Metabolic Response to Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 1992; 16(1): 11-15.

Laven GT, Huang CT, DeVivo MJ, Stover SL, Kuhlemeier KV, Fine PR. Nutrition Status During the Acute Stage of Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70: 277-282.

Rodriguez DJ, Benzel EC, Clevenger FW. The Metabolic Response to Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord, 1997; 35: 599-604.

Rodriguez DJ, Clevenger FW, Osler TM, Demarest GB, Fry DE. Obligatory Negative Nitrogen Balance Following Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1991; 15(3): 319-322.

SCI: Monitoring Energy Needs in the Rehabilitation Phase

Barco KT, Smith RA, Peerless JR, Plaisier BR, Chima CS. Energy expenditure assessment and validation after acute spinal cord injury. Nutr Clin Prac. 2002;17:309-313.

Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. Differences in resting metabolic rate between paraplegic and able-bodied subjects are explained by differences in body composition. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:371-378.

Buchholz AC, McGillivray CF, Pencharz PB. Physical activity levels are low in free-living adults with chronic paraplegia. Obes Res 2003;11(4):563-570

Chin DE, Kearns P. Nutrition in the Spinal-Injured Patient. NCP. 1991; 6(6):213-222.

Cox SAR, Weiss SM, Posuniak EA, Worthington P, Prioleau M, Heffley G. Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury: Evaluation of Stable Rehabilitating Patients. J Trauma 1985; 25: 419-423.

Houda B. Evaluation of Nutritional Status in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Prerequisite for Successful Rehabilitation. SCI Nursing 1993;10(7):4-7.

Kearns PJ, Thompson JD, Werner PC, Pipp TL, Wilmot CB. Nutritional and Metabolic Response to Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 1992; 16(1): 11-15.

Laven GT, Huang CT, DeVivo MJ, Stover SL, Kuhlemeier KV, Fine PR. Nutrition Status During the Acute Stage of Spinal Cord Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70: 277-282.

Monroe MB, Tataranni PA, Pratley R, Manore MM, Skinner JS, Ravussin E. Lower Daily Energy Expenditure as Measured by a Respiratory Chamber in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury Compared with Control Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998; 68: 1223-1227.

Rodriguez DJ, Benzel EC, Clevenger FW. The Metabolic Response to Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord, 1997; 35: 599-604.

SCI: Nutrition Monitoring: Fiber and Neurogenic Bowel

Badiali D, Bracci F, Castellano V, Corrazziari E, Fuoco U, Habib FI, Scivoletto G. Sequential treatment of chronic constipation in paraplegic subjects. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 116-120.

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Neurogenic Bowel Management in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Health-Care Professionals. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1998.

Han TR, Kim JH, Kwon BS. Chronic gastrointestinal problems and bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 485-490.

Yim SY, Yoon SH, Lee IY, Rah EW, Moon HW. A comparison of bowel care patterns in patients with spinal cord injury: upper motor neuron bowel vs lower motor neuron bowel. Spinal Cord 2001;39:204-207.