FNCE 2023
Session 357. Providing MNT for the Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Population: What Does the Evidence Show?
Monday, October 9, 8:30 AM - 9:30 AM

See session information ♦ See EAL review results

  • Assessment
    Is there a relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in African Americans?
    • Conclusion

      Five RCTs, which included African American or black (United Kingdom) subjects, assessed the blood pressure response to sodium intake. All six analyses concluded that in the absence of antihypertensive medication, blood pressure was significantly decreased in African American or black subjects when they consumed a lower sodium (10 to 100mmol Na per day) vs. a higher sodium diet.

    • Grade: I
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
    Is there a relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in children (2-18 years)?
    • Conclusion

      One meta analysis (nine RCTs and one non-randomized control trial, N=966) assessing the effect of sodium or salt on blood pressure (BP), found an increase in sodium or salt intake resulted in an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure. One cross-sectional study determined sodium intake is positively correlated with BP levels and mean arterial pressure. A second cross-sectional study showed a positive correlation with BP levels and pulse pressure. One cohort study found a weak correlation between sodium excretion and SBP.  

    • Grade: I
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
    Is there a relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in Asian Americans?
    • Conclusion

      Six epidemiologic studies demonstrate a positive association between higher sodium intake and elevated blood pressure in Asian populations residing in China and India. No evidence meeting our criteria was available on Asian American subjects residing in the United States. More research is needed in this population. 

       

    • Grade: II
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
    Is there a relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in Hispanics?
    • Conclusion

      Limited evidence exists related to this question. One RCT reported that 92 Hispanics who were hypertensive and salt-sensitive experienced increased blood pressure (BP) with higher dietary sodium intake (200mmol to 250mmol per day of sodium) vs. a low sodium intake (50mmol to 80mmol per day of sodium). More research is needed regarding the relationship between sodium intake and BP in Hispanic subjects.

    • Grade: III
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.