DFA: Linoleic Acid (LA) and Intermediate Health Outcomes (2011)
What is the effect of linoleic acid on the risk of diabetes mellitus and/or insulin resistance in adults?
There is fair evidence that linoleic acid (LA) status is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Limited studies have shown an inverse relationship between LA status and risk factors for DM including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, nerve function/neuropathy, and the liver enzyme, ALT, as a marker of liver fat.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
Evidence Summary: What is the effect of linoleic acid on reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus and/or insulin resistance in adults?
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Wang L, Folsom AR, Zheng ZJ, Pankow JS, Eckfeldt JH. Plasma fatty acid composition and incidence of diabetes in middle-ages adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003. PMID: 12816776.
- Fernandez-Real JM, Broch M, Vendrell J, Ricart W. Insulin resistance, inflammation, and serum fatty acid composition. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26: 1,362-1,368. PMID: 12716789.
- Freire RD, Cardoso MA, Gimeno SG, Ferreira SR for the Japanese-Brazilian Diabetes Study Group. Dietary fat is associated with metabolic syndrome in Japanese Brazilians. Diabetes Care, 2005; 28 (7): 1,779-1,785.
- Hodge AM, English DR, O'Dea K, Sinclair AJ, Makrides M, Gibson RA, Giles GG. Plasma phospholipid and dietary fatty acids as predictors of type 2 diabetes: interpreting the role of linoleic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul; 86 (1): 189-197. PMID: 17616780
- Kawashima A, Sugawara S, Okita M, et al. Plasma fatty acid composition, estimated desaturase activities, and intakes of energy and nutrient in Japanese men with abdominal obesity or metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2009: 55 (5); 400-406.
- Kotronen A, Velagapudi VR, Yetukuri L, et al. Serum satrurated fatty acids containing triacylglycerols are better markers of insulin resistance than total serum triacylglycerol concentrations, Diabetologia, 2009; 52: 684-690. PMID: 19214471.
- Krachler B, Norberg M, Eriksson, et al. Fatty acid profile of the erythrocyte membrane preceding development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008; 18: 503-510. PMID: 18042359.
- Kusunoki M, Tsutsumi K, Nakayama M, et al. Relationship between serum concentrations of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids and the moemeostasis model insulin-resistance index in Japanese patients with typt 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Invest. 2007, 54 (3-4): 243-247. PMID: 17878672.
- Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Lakka HM, Nyyssonen K, Rissanent LK, Salonen JT. Serum fatty acid composition predicts development of impaired fasting glycaemia and diabetes in middle-aged men. Diabet Med. 2002 Jun; 19 (6): 456-464. PMID: 12060056.
- Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Bartali B et al. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons. Eur J Neurol. 2007: 14: 801-808. PMID: 17594339.
- Madigan C, Ryan M, Owens D, Collins P, Tomkin GH. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: Higher levels of postprandial lipoprotein on a linoleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet compared with an oleic acid-rich olive oil diet. Diabetes Care. 2000 Oct; 23 (10): 1,472-1,477.
- Pelikanova T, Kazdova L, Chvojkova, Base J. Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and insulin action in type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolism. 2001; 50: 1,472-1,478. PMID: 11735096.
- Peterson H, Arnlov J, Zethelius B, Riserus U. Serum fatty acid composition and insulin resistance are independently associated with liver fat markers in elderly men. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2010; 87: 379-384. PMID: 20022128.
- Tao M, McDowell MA, Saydah SH, Eberhardt MS. Relationship of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to peripheral neuropathy amongy adults with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Sruvey (NHANES) 1999-2004. (2008). Diabetes Care, 31(1), 93-95. PMID: 179.
- Van Dam RM, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 2002 Mar; 25 (3): 417-424. PMID: 11874924.
- Warensjö E, Sundström J, Lind L, Vessby B. Factor analysis of fatty acids in serum lipids as a measure of dietary fat quality in relation to the metabolic syndrome in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 442– 448.
Search Plan and Results: DFA: Linoleic Acid and Diabetes and Insulin Resistance 2010