• Assessment
    What is the evidence from human subject research that consumption of high fructose corn syrup is associated with obesity, metabolic and/or adverse effects in adults?
    • Conclusion

      Four short-term randomized controlled trials (Akhaven 2007, Melanson 2007, Soenen 2008, Stanhope 2008), two longitudinal studies (Monsivais 2007, Streigel-Moore 2006), two cross-sectional studies (Duffey 2008, Mackenzie 2006) and five review articles (Angelopoulos 2009, Bray 2004, Forshee 2007, Melanson 2008, White 2009) examined the effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) compared with other nutritive sweeteners. These studies consistently found little evidence that HFCS differs uniquely from sucrose and other nutritive sweeteners in metabolic effects (circulating glucose, insulin, postprandial triglycerides, leptin and ghrelin), subjective effects (hunger, satiety and energy intake at subsequent meals) and adverse effects such as risk of weight gain. Randomized trials dealing specifically with HFCS were of limited number, short duration and of small sample size; therefore, long-term data is needed. 

    • Grade: II
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.