NNNS: High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (2010)
What is the evidence from human subject research that consumption of high fructose corn syrup is associated with obesity, metabolic and/or adverse effects in adults?
Four short-term randomized controlled trials (Akhaven 2007, Melanson 2007, Soenen 2008, Stanhope 2008), two longitudinal studies (Monsivais 2007, Streigel-Moore 2006), two cross-sectional studies (Duffey 2008, Mackenzie 2006) and five review articles (Angelopoulos 2009, Bray 2004, Forshee 2007, Melanson 2008, White 2009) examined the effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) compared with other nutritive sweeteners. These studies consistently found little evidence that HFCS differs uniquely from sucrose and other nutritive sweeteners in metabolic effects (circulating glucose, insulin, postprandial triglycerides, leptin and ghrelin), subjective effects (hunger, satiety and energy intake at subsequent meals) and adverse effects such as risk of weight gain. Randomized trials dealing specifically with HFCS were of limited number, short duration and of small sample size; therefore, long-term data is needed.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
Evidence Summary: What is the evidence from human subject research that consumption of high fructose corn syrup is associated with obesity, metabolic and adverse effects in adults?
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Akhavan T, Anderson GH. Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov; 86(5): 1,354-1,363.
- Theodore J. Angelopoulos, Joshua Lowndes, Linda Zukley, Kathleen J. Melanson, Von Nguyen, Anik Huffman, and James M. Rippe The Effect of High-Fructose Corn Syrup Consumption on Triglycerides and Uric Acid. J. Nutr. 2009; 139: 1242S-1245S.
- Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79(4): 537-543. Review. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct; 80(4): 1,090.
- Duffey KJ, Popkin BM. High-fructose corn syrup: Is this what's for dinner? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88(suppl): 1,722S-1.732S.
- Forshee R, Storey M, Allison D, Glinsmann W, Hein G, Lineback D, Miller S, Nicklas T, Weaver G, White J (2007). A Critical Examination of the Evidence Relating High Fructose Corn Syrup and Weight Gain. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 47: (6) 561-582
- Mackenzie T, Brooks B, O'Connor G. Beverage Intake, Diabetes, and Glucose Control of Adults in America. Ann Epidemiol. 2006 Jan 31; [Epub ahead of print].
- Melanson K, Angelopoulos T, Nguyen V, Zukley L, Lowndes J, Rippe J. High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec; 88(6): 1,738S-1,744S.
- Melanson KJ, Zukley L, Lowndes J, Nguyen V, Angelopoulos TJ, Rippe JM. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women. Nutrition. 2007 Feb; 23 (2): 103-112.
- Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86(6): 1,586-1,594.
- Stanhope KL, Griffen SC, Bair BR, Swarbrick MM, Keim NL, Havel PJ. 24-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May; 87 (5): 1,194-1,203.
- Striegel-Moore RH, Thompson D, Affenito SG, Franko DL, Obarzanek E, Barton BA, Schreiber GB, Daniels SR, Schmidt M, Crawford PB. Correlates of beverage intake in adolescent girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Pediatr. 2006 Feb; 148 (2): 183-187.
- White, John S. Misconceptions about High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is It Uniquely Responsible for Obesity, Reactive Dicarbonyl Compounds and Advanced Glycation Endproducts? J. Nutr. 2009 139: 1,219S-1,227S.
Search Plan and Results: High-fructose Corn Syrup - 2009