This Academy member benefit temporarily has been made public to allow all practitioners access to content that may assist in patient care during the national pandemic response. Click here for information on joining the Academy. 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD: Energy and Macronutrient Intake (2019)

Nine studies reported energy intake and related energy intake to outcomes. Seven of these studies also reported intake of either protein or all three macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat). Five studies reported intake of protein (Forli and Boe, 2005; Renvall et al, 2009, Sugawara et al, 2012; Weekes et al, 2009; Yazdanapah et al, 2010) and two studies reported intake of all three macronutrients (Benton et al, 2010; Lee et al, 2013). Out of these seven studies, only four reported macronutrient intake in relation to outcomes of interest (Benton et al, 2010; Sugawara et al, 2012; Weekes et al, 2009; Yazdanapah et al, 2010). The evidence analysis for macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, fat) is examined in separate questions.