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Gestational Diabetes

GDM: References (2016)

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Guideline 2016 Major Recommendation References

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline

Screening and Referral 

GDM: Referral to an RDN 

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

American Diabetes Association (ADA). Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Sec. 2. In Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2016. Diabetes Care 2016; 39 (Suppl. 1): S13–S22.

ADA. Management of diabetes in pregnancy. Sec.12. In Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2016. Diabetes Care 2016; 39 (Suppl. 1): S94–S98.

Blumer I, Hadar E, Hadden DR, Jovanovic L, Mestman JH, Murad MH, Yogev Y. Diabetes and pregnancy: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov; 98(11): 4,227-4,249. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2465. PMID:  24194617.

Nutrition Assessment

GDM: Nutrition Assessment  

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Nutrition Terminology Reference Manual (eNCPT): Dietetics Language for Nutrition Care. 2016 edition. Accessed Nov 16, 2016: http://ncpt.webauthor.com.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Committee Opinion No. 650. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126: e135-e142. 

ACOG. Committee on Practice Bulletins--Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 137: Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Aug;122 (2 Pt 1): 406-416. PMID: 23969827.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2016: Summary of Revisions. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jan; 39 Suppl 1:S4-5. doi: 10.2337/dc16-S003. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 26696680.

Coustan DR. Editor. Medical Management of Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes. American Diabetes Association. Alexandria, VA. 2013. 

Institute of Medicine (IOM) and National Research Council. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.

IOM. Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002.

Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic Guideline for Detection and Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy. 9/10/2010: Revised 06-15-11 Accessed Aug 5, 2016: http://www.joslin.org/info/joslin-clinical-guidelines.html.

Kaiser LL, Campbell CG; Academy Positions Committee Workgroup. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Sep; 114 (9): 1,447. PMID: 25699300.

Procter SB, Campbell CG. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul; 114 (7): 1,099-1,103. PMID: 24956993.

Shields, L and Tsay, GS. Editors, California Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Sweet Success Guidelines for Care. Developed with California Department of Public Health; Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Division; revised edition, updated September 2015. Accessed August 9, 2016: http://www.cdappsweetsuccess.org/Portals/0/2015Guidelines/2015__CDAPPSweetSuccessGuidelinesforCare.pdf

Nutrition Diagnosis

None.

Nutrition Intervention

GDM: Medical Nutrition Therapy

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, McPhee AJ, Jeffries WS, Robinson JS, for the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial Group. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 2,477- 2,486.

Landon, M, Spong, C, Thom, E et al. A multicenter, randomized trial of treatment for mild gestational diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009 October 1; 361(14): 1,339-1,348. 

Maher N, McAuliffe F, Foley M. The benefit of early treatment without rescreening in women with a history of gestational diabetes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Feb; 26 (3): 318-320. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.733772. Epub 2012 Oct 18. PMID: 23039851.

Perichart-Perera O, Balas-Nakash M, Parra-Covarrubias A, Rodriguez-Cano A, Ramirez-Torres A, Ortega-Gonzalez C, and Vadillo-Ortega F. A Medical Nutrition Therapy Program improves perinatal outcomes in Mexican pregnant women with gestational diabetes and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The Diabetes Educator. 2009: 35 (6), 1,004-1,013.  

Reader D, Splett P, Gunderson EP, for the Diabetes Care and Education Dietetic Practice Group. Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus nutrition practice guidelines
implemented by registered dietitians on pregnancy outcomes.  J Am Diet Assoc 2006 Sep;106(9):1,426-1,433. 

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic. Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic Guideline for Detection and Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy. 9/10/2010: Revised 06-15-11 Accessed Aug 5, 2016: http://www.joslin.org/info/joslin-clinical-guidelines.html.

GDM: Calories

Ho L, Benzie IFF, Lao TT. Relationship between caloric intake and pregnancy outcome in diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus. Nursing & Health Sci. 2005; 7: 15-20.

Rae A, Bond D, Evans S, North F, Roberman B, Walters B. A randomised controlled trial of dietary energy restriction in the management of obese women with gestational diabetes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2000; 40(4): 416-422.

Romon M, Nuttens MC, Vambergue A, Verier-Mine O, Biausque S, Lemaire C, Fontaine P, Salomez JL, Beuscart R. Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with decreased incidence of newborn macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101(8): 897-902.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC, The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online February 03, 2016: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.
 
Institute of Medicine (IOM) and National Research Council (NRC). 2009. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

GDM Macronutrients 

Afaghi A, Ghanei L, Ziaee A. Effect of low glycemic load diet with and without wheat bran on glucose control in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2013; 17: 689-692.

Asemi Z, Tabassi Z, Samimi M, Fahiminejad T. Favorable effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet on glucose tolerance and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomised clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2013 Jun; 109(11): 2,024-2,030.

Asemi Z, Samimi M, Tabassi Z, Sabihi SS, Esmaillzadeh A. A randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of DASH diet n insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress in gestational diabetes. 2013, Nutrition, 29: 619-624.

Asemi Z, Samimi M, Tabassi Z, Esmaillzadeh A. The effect of DASH diet on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68: 490-495.

Cypryk K, Kaminska P, Kosinski M, Pertynska-Marczewska M, Lewinski A. A comparison of the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of high and low carbohydrate diets in women with gestational diabetes. Polish Journal of Endocrinology, 2007; 58: 314-319.

Grant SM, Wolever TMS, O'Connor DL, Nisenbaum R, Josse RG. Effect of a low glycaemic index diet on blood glucose in wowen with gestational hyperglycaemia. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011, 91: 15-22.

Hernandez TL, Van Pelt RE, Anderson MA, Daniels LJ, West NA, Donahoo WT, Friedman JE, Barbour LA. A higher-complex carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes achieves glucose targets and lowers postprandial lipids: a randomized crossover study. Diabetes Care (2014) DOI: 10.2337/dc13-2411.

Louie, J.C.Y.; Markovic, T.P.; Ross, G.P.; Foote, D.; Brand-Miller, J.C. Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1-9.

Louie JCY, Markovic TP, Perera N, Foote D, Petocz P, Ross GP, Brand-Miller JC. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a low-glycemic index diet on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care (2011), 34: 2,341-2,346.

Moreno-Castilla C, Hernandez M, Bergua M, Alvarez MC, Arce MA, Rodriguez K, Martinez-Alonso M, Iglesias M, Mateu M, Santos MD, Pacheco LR, Blasco Y, Martin E, Balsells N, Aranda N, Mauricio D. Low-carbohydrate diet for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug; 36(8): 2,233-2,238. 
PMID: 23564917.

Moses RG, Barker M, Winter M, Petocz P, Brand-Miller JC. Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32(6): 996-1,000.

Perichart-Perera O, Balas-Nakash M, Rodriguez-Cano A. Legorreta-Legorreta J, Parra-Covarrubias A, Vadillo-Ortega F. Low glycemic index carbohydrates versus all types of carbohydrates for treating diabetes in pregnancy: A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of glycemic control. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2012; 2012: 296017.

Romon M, Nuttens MC, Vambergue A, Verier-Mine O, Biausque S, Lemaire C, Fontaine P, Salomez JL, Beuscart R. Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with decreased incidence of newborn macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes.  J Am Diet Assoc 2001; 101(8): 897-902.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

Augustin LS, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ, Willett WC, Astrup A, Barclay AW, Björck I, Brand-Miller JC, Brighenti F, Buyken AE, Ceriello A, La Vecchia C, Livesey G, Liu S, Riccardi G, Rizkalla SW, Sievenpiper JL, Trichopoulou A, Wolever TM, Baer-Sinnott S, Poli A. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response: An International Scientific Consensus Summit from the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC). Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Sep; 25(9): 795-815. PMID: 26160327.

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2002.

Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic. Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic Guideline for Detection and Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy. 9/10/2010: Revised 06-15-11 Accessed Aug 5, 2016: http://www.joslin.org/info/joslin-clinical-guidelines.html.

Shields, L and Tsay, GS. Editors, California Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Sweet Success Guidelines for Care. Developed with California Department of Public Health; Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Division; revised edition, updated September 2015. Accessed August 9, 2016: http://www.cdappsweetsuccess.org/Portals/0/2015Guidelines/2015__CDAPPSweetSuccessGuidelinesforCare.pdf

GDM: Vitamins and Minerals

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

Academy Quality Management Committee and Scope of Practice Subcommittee of Quality Management Committee. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Scope of Practice for the Registered Dietitian. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jun;113 (6 Suppl): S17-S28. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.12.008. PMID: 23454020.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: Estimated Average Requirements, Recommended Intakes, Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges, and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. NAS. Food and Nutrition Board. 1997-2011. Accessed November 1, 2016: https://fnic.nal.usda.gov/sites/fnic.nal.usda.gov/files/uploads/recommended_intakes_individuals.pdf

Kaiser LL, Campbell CG; Academy Positions Committee Workgroup. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Sep; 114 (9): 1,447. PMID: 25699300.

Marra MV, Boyar AP. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrient supplementation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Dec; 109 (12): 2,073-2,085. PMID: 19957415.

Procter SB, Campbell CG. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul; 114 (7): 1,099-1,103. PMID: 24956993.

Shields, L and Tsay, GS. Editors, California Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Sweet Success Guidelines for Care. Developed with California Department of Public Health; Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Division; revised edition, updated September 2015. Accessed August 9, 2016: http://www.cdappsweetsuccess.org/Portals/0/2015Guidelines/2015__CDAPPSweetSuccessGuidelinesforCare.pdf.  

Siu AL; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Iron Deficiency Anemia and Iron Supplementation in Pregnant Women to Improve Maternal Health and Birth Outcomes: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Oct 6; 163 (7): 529-536. doi: 10.7326/M15-1707. PMID: 26344176.

GDM: Distribution of Meals and Snacks

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process


Al-Arouj M, Assaad-Khalil S, Buse J, et al. Recommendations for Management of Diabetes During Ramadan: Update 2010. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(8): 1,895-1,902. 

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee on Practice Bulletins--Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 137: Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Aug;122 (2 Pt 1): 406-416. PMID: 23969827.

Buchanan TA, Metzger BE, Freinkel N. Accelerated starvation in late pregnancy: a comparison between obese women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Apr;162 (4): 1,015-1,020. PMID: 2327442.

Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic Guideline for Detection and Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy. 9/10/2010: Revised 06-15-11 Accessed Aug 5, 2016: http://www.joslin.org/info/joslin-clinical-guidelines.html.

Metzger BE, Ravnikar V, Vileisis RA, Freinkel N. "Accelerated starvation" and the skipped breakfast in late normal pregnancy. Lancet. 1982 Mar 13;1 (8272): 588-592. PMID: 6121184.

Mills JL, Jovanovic L, Knopp R, Aarons J, Conley M, Park E, Lee YJ, Holmes L, Simpson JL, Metzger B. Physiological reduction in fasting plasma glucose concentration in the first trimester of normal pregnancy: the diabetes in early pregnancy study. Metabolism. 1998 Sep; 47(9): 1,140-1,144. PMID: 9751245.

Shields, L and Tsay, GS. Editors, California Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Sweet Success Guidelines for Care. Developed with California Department of Public Health; Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Division; revised edition, updated September 2015. Accessed August 9, 2016: http://www.cdappsweetsuccess.org/Portals/0/2015Guidelines/2015__CDAPPSweetSuccessGuidelinesforCare.pdf

GDM: High-Intensity Sweeteners

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Diabetes Type 1 and 2 (2015) Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline, Chicago (IL): Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2016 from: http://www.andeal.org/template.cfm?template=guide_summary&key=4332

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007; 30 Suppl 1: S48-65.

Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. Saccharin: Review of safety issues. JAMA 1985; 254(18): 2,622-2,624.

Federal Register. Substances Generally Recognized as Safe (2016, September 8). Retrieved September 14, 2016 from: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/08/17/2016-19164/substances-generally-recognized-as-safe

Fitch, C and Keim, K. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Use of Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012; 112: 739-758.

Food and Drug Administration. Additional Information about High-Intensity Sweeteners Permitted for use in Food in the United States. (2015, May 26). Retrieved September 12, 2016, from http://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients/ucm397716.htm

Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic. Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic Guideline for Detection and Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy. 9/10/2010: Revised 06-15-11 Retrieved September 12, 2016 from http://www.joslin.org/bin_from_cms/Preg_guideline_5_10_11_(2)-0615-11.pdf

Kaiser LL, Campbell CG; Academy Positions Committee Workgroup. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Sep; 114(9): 1,447. PMID: 25699300.

Shields, L and Tsay, GS. Editors, California Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Sweet Success Guidelines for Care. Developed with California Department of Public Health; Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Division; revised edition, updated September 2015. Accessed August 9, 2016: http://www.cdappsweetsuccess.org/Portals/0/2015Guidelines/2015__CDAPPSweetSuccessGuidelinesforCare.pdf
 

GDM: Alcohol

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Alcohol abuse and other substance use disorders: ethical issues in obstetric and gynecologic practice. Committee Opinion No. 633. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2015; 125: 1,529–1,537.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. Web page updated Oct 14, 2016. Accessed Nov 3, 2016 at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/index.html.  

March of Dimes. Alcohol During Pregnancy. Web page reviewed April, 2016. Accessed October 5, 2016 at http://www.marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/alcohol-during-pregnancy.aspx.

O'Leary CM, Bower C. Guidelines for pregnancy: what's an acceptable risk, and how is the evidence (finally) shaping up? Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012 Mar; 31(2):170-183. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2011.00331.x. Epub 2011 Sep 29. Review. PMID: 21955332.

Procter SB, Campbell CG. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul; 114(7): 1,099-1,103. PMID: 24956993.

Williams JF, Smith VC and the Committee on Substance Abuse. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2015; 135(5): e1,395-e1,406.

GDM: Physical Activity

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Academy Quality Management Committee and Scope of Practice Subcommittee of Quality Management Committee. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Scope of Practice for the Registered Dietitian. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jun; 113(6 Suppl): S17-S28. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.12.008. PMID: 23454020.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Committee Opinion No. 650. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 126: e135-e142. 

ACOG. Committee on Practice Bulletins--Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 137: Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Aug; 122 (2 Pt 1): 406-416. PMID: 23969827.

Blumer I, Hadar E, Hadden DR, Jovanovic L, Mestman JH, Murad MH, Yogev Y. Diabetes and pregnancy: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov; 98(11): 4,227-4,249. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2465. PMID: 24194617.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Additional Considerations for some adults. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Accessed October 3, 2016 from: https://health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/chapter7.aspx.

Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

GDM: Nutrition M&E 

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process
 

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Nutrition Terminology Reference Manual (eNCPT): Dietetics Language for Nutrition Care. 2016 edition. Accessed Nov 16, 2016: http://ncpt.webauthor.com.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Committee on Practice Bulletins--Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 137: Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol.2013 Aug; 122 (2 Pt 1): 406-416. PMID: 23969827.

ACOG. Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Committee Opinion No. 650. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 126: e135-e142. 

American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2016: Summary of Revisions. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jan;39 Suppl 1: S4-S5. doi: 10.2337/dc16-S003. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 26696680. 

Coustan DR. Editor. Medical Management of Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes. American Diabetes Association. Alexandria, VA. 2013. 

Institute of Medicine (IOM) and National Research Council. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.

IOM. Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002.

Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic Guideline for Detection and Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy. 9/10/2010: Revised 06-15-11 Accessed Aug 5, 2016: http://www.joslin.org/info/joslin-clinical-guidelines.html.

Kaiser LL, Campbell CG; Academy Positions Committee Workgroup. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Sep; 114(9): 1,447. PMID: 25699300.

Procter SB, Campbell CG. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul; 114(7): 1,099-1,103. PMID: 24956993.

Shields, L and Tsay, GS. Editors, California Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Sweet Success Guidelines for Care. Developed with California Department of Public Health; Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Division; revised edition, updated September 2015. Accessed August 9, 2016: http://www.cdappsweetsuccess.org/Portals/0/2015Guidelines/2015__CDAPPSweetSuccessGuidelinesforCare.pdf