What are the energy requirements for patients with chronic kidney disease? (2001 CD)
Energy requirements in chronic kidney disease without dialysis are similar to that of healthy individuals and are influenced by age, sex, and physical activity. Resting metabolic rates were similar for patients with chronic kidney disease and controls by direct and indirect calorimetry in one cohort study and one cross-sectional study. Nitrogen balance studies using <0.8 g protein/kg/IBW [the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein] reported a neutral or positive nitrogen balance when energy intakes were 35 to 45 kcal/kg/IBW and a negative nitrogen balance when energy intakes were 15 to 25 kcal/kg/IBW. Therefore, energy intakes should be greater in patients following diets containing less than the RDA for protein.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.