SCI: Preventing Overweight (2007)
Kocina P. Body Composition of Spinal Cord Injured Adults. Sports Med. 1997;23(1): 48-60.PubMed ID: 9017859
To provide an overview of:
- prevalence of diseases associated with physical inactivity and obesity in SCI population,
- alterations in body composition following SCI,
- recommendations for assessing body composition of SCI individuals in clinical settings
- None given.
- None given.
Methods of study inclusion not specified.
Blinding Used (if applicable):
Intervention (if applicable):
Statistical analysis not performed.
Timing of Measurements
Initial N: 87 references cited.
Attrition (Final N): 87
Age: not mentioned
Ethnicity: not mentioned
Other relevant demographics:
Location: Worldwide studies
Disease Risk Factors higher in SCI
- Cardiovascular disease (lipid abnormality)
- Type 2 diabetes (glucose intolerance)
Fat-free composition changes following SCI
- Mineral (bone mineral content decreases 25-50% depending on level, completeness and direction of SCI)
- Protein (total body protein is reduced by 30%
- Water (total body water relative to body weight decreases by 15%)
Body Composition Assessment Techniques
- Hydrostatic weighting
- Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry
- Skinfold methods
- Bioelectrical impedance.
- Obesity is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obstructive pulmonary disease, hypercholesterolemia, osteoarthritis, renal disease, and certain cancers. NIH defines obesity as bodyweight exceeding 20% of the desirable for a given age, sex, skeletal frame (this definition does not take into account relative amounts of fat and fat-free mass). A more useful definition is an excessive amount of total body fat for a given bodyweight. Ideal = 15% for adult men and 23% for adult women. Obesity >25% for men and >32% for women.
- Cited studies found that fatness is related to level of spinal cord injury; that paraplegic athletics had lower fat mass;, and that sedentary SCI men had > 25% fat mass and physically active SCI men had 16-24% compared to 15% for able bodied males. Effect of physical activity on body fat in women is not well documented.
- Body fat needs to be routinely evaluated as a part of the health profile of SCI individuals.
- Methods for body composition assessment in SCI are problematic.
|University/Hospital:||University of New Mexico|
- Comprehensive coverage of topic.
- Done in “traditional” review style without mention of method for search, selection, or critique of sources.
Quality Criteria Checklist: Review Articles
|1.||Will the answer if true, have a direct bearing on the health of patients?||???|
|2.||Is the outcome or topic something that patients/clients/population groups would care about?||Yes|
|3.||Is the problem addressed in the review one that is relevant to dietetics practice?||Yes|
|4.||Will the information, if true, require a change in practice?||???|
|1.||Was the question for the review clearly focused and appropriate?||Yes|
|2.||Was the search strategy used to locate relevant studies comprehensive? Were the databases searched and the search termsused described?||???|
|3.||Were explicit methods used to select studies to include in the review? Were inclusion/exclusion criteria specified andappropriate? Wereselectionmethods unbiased?||???|
|4.||Was there an appraisal of the quality and validity of studies included in the review? Were appraisal methodsspecified,appropriate, andreproducible?||No|
|5.||Were specific treatments/interventions/exposures described? Were treatments similar enough to be combined?||???|
|6.||Was the outcome of interest clearly indicated? Were other potential harms and benefits considered?||N/A|
|7.||Were processes for data abstraction, synthesis, and analysis described? Were they applied consistently acrossstudies and groups? Was thereappropriate use of qualitative and/or quantitative synthesis? Was variation in findings among studies analyzed? Were heterogeneity issued considered? If data from studies were aggregated for meta-analysis, was the procedure described?||???|
|8.||Are the results clearly presented in narrative and/or quantitative terms? If summary statistics are used, are levels ofsignificance and/or confidence intervals included?||Yes|
|9.||Are conclusions supported by results with biases and limitations taken into consideration? Are limitations ofthe review identified anddiscussed?||No|
|10.||Was bias due to the review's funding or sponsorship unlikely?||Yes|