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Energy Expenditure

EE: References (2014)

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.
To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

Major Recommendations References

Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline for Measuring Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) in the Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Nutrition Assessment

Preparation for Measurement Recommendations

EE: Rest Period Duration in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Frankenfield DC, Coleman A. Recovery to resting metabolic state after walking. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1,914-1,916.

Fredrix EWHM, Soeters PB, vonMeyenfeldt MF, Saris WHM. Measurement of resting energy expenditure in a clinical setting. Clin Nutr. 1990; 9: 299-304.

Kashiwazaki H, Dejima Y, Suzuki T. Influence of upper and lower thermoneutral room termperatures (20°C) on fasting and post-prandial resting metabolism under different outdoor temperatures. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990; 44: 405-413.

Schols AMWJ, Schoffelen PFM, Ceulemans H, Wouters EFM, Saris WHM. Measurement of resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a clinical setting. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992; 16(4): 364-368.

Turley KR, McBride PJ, Wilmore JH. Resting metabolic rate measured after subjects spent the night at home vs. at a clinic. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 58 (2): 141-144.

Mellecker RR, McManus AM. Measurement of resting energy expenditure in healthy children. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Nov-Dec; 33(6): 640-645.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

None.

EE: Resting Activities in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

Buchowski MS, Majchrzak KM, Blomquist K, Chen KY, Byrne DW, Bachorowski JA. Energy expenditure of genuine laughter. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Jan;31(1):131-137. Epub 2006 May 2. PMID: 16652129.

Levine JA, Schleusner SJ, Jensen MD. Energy expenditure of non-exercise activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 1,451-1,454.

Snell B, Fullmer S, Eggett DL. Reading and Listening to Music Increase Resting Energy Expenditure during an Indirect Calorimetry Test. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Apr 29. pii: S2, 212-S2,122, 672(14)00356-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.03.013. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24794837.

 

EE: Body Positions in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Brandi LS, Bertolini R, Janni A, Gioia A, Angeletti CA. Energy metabolism of thoracic surgical patients in the early postoperative period. Effect of posture. Chest. 1996;109:630-637.

Levine JA, Schleusner SJ, Jensen MD. Energy expenditure of non-exercise activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 1,451-1,454.

Sujatha T, Shatrugna V, Venkataramana Y, Begum N. Energy expenditure on household, childcare and occupational activities of women from urban poor households. Br J Nutr. 2000; 83: 497-503.

Taguri E, Tanaka S, Ohkawara K, Ishikawa-Takata K, Hikihara Y, Miyake R, Yamamoto S, Tabata I. Validity of physical activity indices for adjusting energy expenditure for body size: Do the indices depend on body size? J Physiol Anthropol. 2010; 29(3): 109-117.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

None.

 

EE: Gas Collection Devices in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Forse RA. Comparison of gas exchange measurements with a mouthpiece, face mask, and ventilated canopy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1993;17:388-391.

McAnena OJ, Harvey LP, Katzeff HL, Daly JM. Indirect calorimetry: Comparison of hood and mask systems for measuring resting energy expenditure in healthy volunteers. J Parenter Enteral Nutri. 1986; 10: 555-557.

Mellecker RR, McManus AM. Measurement of resting energy expenditure in healthy children. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Nov-Dec; 33(6): 640-645.

Segal KR. Comparison of indirect calorimetric measurements of resting energy expenditure with a ventilated hood, face mask, and mouthpiece. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:1420-1423. (Not used in Conclusion Statement Grade)

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

Brandi, L.S., Bertolini, R. and Calafa M. Indirect Calorimetry in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Applications and Practical Advice. Nutrition, 1997 13, 349-358.

Matarese LE. Indirect calorimetry: technical aspects. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Oct; 97(10 Suppl 2): S154-S160. Review. PMID: 9336580.

 

EE: Diurnal Variation (Time of Day) in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Leff ML, Hill JO, Yates AA, Cotsonis GA, Heymsfield SB. Resting metabolic rate: Measurement reliability. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1987; 11: 354-359.

Weststrate JA, Weys PJM, Poortvliet EJ, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGAJ. Diurnal variation in postabsoprtive resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 58(5): 592-601.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

None.

 

EE: Room Conditions in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Claessens-van Ooijen AM, Westerterp KR, Wouters L, Schoffelen PF, van Steenhoven AA, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD. Heat production and body temperature during cooling and rewarming in overweight and lean men. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006; 14(11): 1,914-1,920.

Kashiwazaki H, Dejima Y, Suzuki T. Influence of upper and lower thermoneutral room termperatures (20°C) on fasting and post-prandial resting metabolism under different outdoor temperatures. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990; 44: 405-413.

van Ooijen AMJ, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, van Steenhoven AA, Westerterp KR. Seasonal changes in metabolic and temperature responses to cold air in humans. Physiology & Behavior. 2004; 82: 545-553.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

Snell B, Fullmer S, Eggett DL. Reading and Listening to Music Increase Resting Energy Expenditure during an Indirect Calorimetry Test. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Apr 29. pii: S2, 212-S2,122, 672(14)00356-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.03.013. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24794837.

Wooley JA, Sax HS. Indirect calorimetry: applications to practice. Nutr Clin Pract 2003; 18:434–439. PMID: 16215079.

EE: Fasting Requirements in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Belko AZ, Barbieri TF. Effect of meal size and frequency on the thermic effect of food. Nutrition Res. 1987;7:237-242

Bielinski R, Schutz Y, Jequier E. Energy metabolism during the postexercise recovery in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:69-82.

Bissoli L, Armellini F, Zamboni M, Mandragona R, Ballarin A, Bosello O. Resting metabolic rate and thermogenic effect of food in vegetarian diets compared with Mediterranean diets. Ann Nutr Metab. 1999; 43: 140-144.

Blond E, Maitrepierre C, Normand S, Sothier M, Roth H, Goudable J, Laville. A new indirect calorimeter is accurate and reliable for measuring basal energy expenditure, thermic effect of food and substrate oxidation in obese and healthy subjects. e-SPEN, the European e-Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. 2010;6:e7–e15.

Kinabo, JL, Durnin JVGA. Thermic effect of food in man: effect of meal composition, and energy content. Br J Nutr. 1990; 64:37-44.

Levine JA, Harris MM, Morgan MY. Energy expenditure in chronic alcohol abuse. Eur J Clin Invest 2000; 39: 779-786.

Poehlman ET, Arciero PJ, Melby CL, Badylak SF. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 209-213.

Raben A, Agerholm, Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A. Meals with similar densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77(1): 91-100.

Segal KR, Chun A, Coronel P, Cruz-Noori A, Santos R. Reliability of the measurement of postprandial thermogenesis in men of three levels of body fatness. Metabolism. 1992; 41(7): 754-762.

Segal KR, Gutin B. Thermic effect of food and exercise in lean and obese women. Metabolism. 1983; 32(6): 581-589.

Weststrate JA, Hautvast JG. The effects of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and prior exercise on resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Metabolism. 1990; 39(12): 1,232-1,239.

Weststrate JA, Weys PJM, Poortvliet EJ, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGAJ. Diurnal variation in postabsoprtive resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 58(5): 592-601.

Weststrate JA, Wunnink I, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGA. Alcohol and its acute effects on resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Br J Nutr. 1990; 64: 413-425.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

None.

 

EE: Caffeine and Stimulants in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill 

Arciero PJ, Bougopoulos BC, Nindt, Benowitz NL. Influence of age on the thermic response to caffeine in women. Metabolism.2000;49(1):101-107.

Belza A, Frandsen E, Kondrup J. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: A placebo-controlled, double-blind eight-week intervention in obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007; 31(1): 121-130.

Belza A, Toubro S, Astrup A. The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009; 63(1): 57-64.

Greenway FL, De Jonge L, Blanchard D, Frisard M, Smith SR. Effect of a dietary herbal supplement containing caffeine and ephedra on weight, metabolic rate, and body composition. Obes Res. 2004; 12(7): 1,152-1,127.

Komatsu T, Nakamori M, Komatsu K, Hosoda K, Okamura M, Toyama K, Ishikura Y, Sakai T, Kunii D, Yamamoto S. Oolong tea increases energy metabolism in Japanese females. J Med Invest. 2003; 50(3-4): 170-175.

Yoshida T, Sakane N, Umekawa T, Kondo M. Relationship between basal metabolic rate, thermogenic response to caffeine, and body weight loss following combined low calorie and exercise treatment in obese women. Int J Obesity 1994;18:345-350.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

None.

EE: Smoking and Nicotine in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill 

Collins LC, Walker J, Stamford BA. Smoking multiple high-versus low-nicotine cigarettes: impact on resting energy expenditure.Metabolism. 1996;45(8):923-926.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

None.


EE: Physical Activity in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Frankenfield DC, Coleman A. Recovery to resting metabolic state after walking. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: 1,914-1,916.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

Hunter GR, Byrne NM, Gower BA, Sirikul B, Hills AP. Increased resting energy expenditure after 40 minutes of aerobic but not resistance exercise. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov;14(11): 2, 018-2, 025. PMID: 17135619. 

Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Paschalis V, Tofas T, Yfanti C, Tsiokanos A, Koukoulis G, Kouretas D, Loupos D. The effects of a single bout of exercise on resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 Aug; 92(4-5): 393-398. Epub 2004 Jun 17. PMID: 15205961.

Williamson DL, Kirwan JP. A single bout of concentric resistance exercise increases basal metabolic rate 48 hours after exercise in healthy 59-77-year-old men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997 Nov; 52(6): M352-M355. PMID: 9402941.

During Measurement Recommendations

EE: Duration of Measurement (Steady State) in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Horner NK, Lampe JW, Patterson RE, Neuhouser ML, Beresford SA, Prentice RL. Indirect calorimetry protocol development for measuring resting metabolic rate as a component of total energy expenditure in free-living postmenopausal women. J Nutr.2001; 131 (8): 2,215-2,218.

Reeves MM, Davies PS, Bauer J, Battistutta D. Reducing the time period of steady state does not affect the accuracy of energy expenditure measurements by indirect calorimetry. J Appl Physiol. 2004 Jul; 97(1): 130-134.

Schols AMWJ, Schoffelen PFM, Ceulemans H, Wouters EFM, Saris WHM. Measurement of resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a clinical setting. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992; 16(4): 364-368.

Mellecker RR, McManus AM. Measurement of resting energy expenditure in healthy children. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Nov-Dec; 33(6): 640-645.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

Levine JA, Schleusner SJ, Jensen MD. Energy expenditure of non-exercise activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 1,451-1,454.

After Measurement Recommendations

EE: Application of Respiratory Quotient (RQ) in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill

Bissoli L, Armellini F, Zamboni M, Mandragona R, Ballarin A, Bosello O. Resting metabolic rate and thermogenic effect of food in vegetarian diets compared with Mediterranean diets. Ann Nutr Metab. 1999; 43: 140-144.

Clark HD, Hoffer LJ. Reappraisal of the resting metabolic rate of normal young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 53: 21-26.

Johnston CS, Day CS, Swan PD. Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002; 21(1): 55-61. 

Leff ML, Hill JO, Yates AA, Cotsonis GA, Heymsfield SB. Resting metabolic rate: Measurement reliability. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1987; 11: 354-359.

Liu HY, Lu YF, Chen WJ. Predictive equations for basal metabolic rate in Chinese adults: A cross-validation study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95 (12): 1,403-1,408and Liu HY, Lu YF, Chen WJ. Validity of predictive equations for the calculation of basal metabolic rate in healthy Chinese adults. Chinese Nutr Soc. 1994; 19 (2): 141-150. 

Romijn JA, Godfried MH, Hommes MJ, Endert E, Sauerwein HP. Decreased glucose oxidation during short-term starvation.Metabolism. 1990 May; 39(5): 525-530.

Weststrate JA, Hautvast JG. The effects of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and prior exercise on resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Metabolism. 1990; 39(12): 1,232-1,239.

Zauner C, Schneeweiss B, Kranz A, Madl C, Ratheiser K, Kramer L, Roth E, Schneider B, Lenz K. Resting energy expenditure in short-term starvation is increased as a result of an increase in serum norepinehrine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;2000;71:1511-1515.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

Feurer I, Mullen JL. Bedside measurement of resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient via indirect calorimetry. Nutr Clin Prac. 1986; 1: 43-49.

McClave SA, Snider HL. Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Pract. 1992 Oct;7(5): 207-221. Review. PMID: 1289691.

McClave SA, Lowen CC, Kleber MJ, McConnell JW, Jung LY, Goldsmith LJ. Clinical use of the respiratory quotient obtained from indirect calorimetery. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2003; 27 (1): 21-26.