What is the evidence that dietary fiber from whole foods and dietary supplements is beneficial in cardiovascular disease?
High-fiber diets may be associated with lower blood pressure when consumed at doses of 12g to 22g of fiber per day and with lower serum lipids when consumed at 12g to 33g of fiber per day. These diets may also be associated with improvements in apolipoproteins and inflammation. The sources and types of fiber cannot be specified because different fiber sources and combinations of fiber-rich foods were used. Further study is required to identify specific recommendations for optimal dosage and types of fiber.
Fiber supplements in doses of 4g to 24g per day may be associated with lower blood pressure. Plasma lipids improved with doses of up to 42.5g per day, with greater reduction of LDL-C from soluble fiber than insoluble fiber. Fiber supplements may also be beneficial in improving measures of inflammation such as C-reactive protein and improving apolipoprotein levels. There is some evidence that cereal and fruit fibers reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal CVD events. In addition, in some studies, the concurrent interventions of reduced energy or lower-fat diets or the presence of adiposity may have impacted the outcomes. Further study is required to identify specific recommendations for optimal dosage and types of fiber.
Based on current data, dietary fiber intake from whole foods or supplements may lower blood pressure, improve serum lipids and reduce indicators of inflammation. Benefits may occur with intakes of 12g to 33g per day from whole foods or up to 42.5g of fiber per day from supplements.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.