Nutritional Genomics

NG: Glossary and Abbreviations (2019)

Nutritional Genomics


Allele1: An allele is a variant form of a gene. Humans have two alleles at each genetic location, one from each parent. Each pair of alleles represents the genotype of a specific gene.

Gene1A region of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) coding either for the messenger RNA encoding the amino acid sequence in a polypeptide chain or for a functional RNA molecule.

Genotype1: In a broad sense, the term "genotype" refers to the genetic makeup of an organism; in other words, it describes an organism's complete set of genes. In a more narrow sense, the term can be used to refer to the alleles, or variant forms of a gene, that are carried by an organism.

Genetic Counsesling1Educational process that attempts to help patients and family members deal with all aspects of a genetic condition.

Genetic Counselor: Provides genetic counseling.

Nutritional Genomics2Concentrates on the effect our genes have on our risk of disease and dysfunction that can be mitigates by nutritional intervention, as well as the impact our food, nutrition, stress, and toxins have on the expression of our genes. It is the umbrella term that includes nutrigenetics, nutrigenoics, and nutritional epigenomics.

Nutrigenetics2Focuses on the impact the changes in our genes (also referred to as polymorphisms) have on our potential health path, which is strongly influenced by food, nutrition, stress, and toxins.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)1Variatio at a single position in a DNA sequence among individuals. Recall that the DNA sequence is formed from a chain of four nucleotide bases: A, C, G, and T. If more than 1% of a population does not carry the same nucleotide at a specific positioin in the DNA sequence, then this variation can be classified as a SNP. If a SNP occurs within a gene, then the gene is described as having more than one allele. In these cases, SNPs may lead to variations in the amino acid sequence. SNPs, however, are not just associated with genes; they can also occur in concoding regions of DNA.

1Scitable by Nature Education. Available at Accessed August 1, 2019.
2Dietitians in Integrative and Functional Medicine, Academy of Nutriiton and Dietetics. Nutritional Genoics What You Need to Know. Available at Accessed August , 2019.



Abbreviation Term
 AD  Alzheimer's disease
 ALA  Alpha-linolenic acid
 ALT/AST  Alanine aniotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase
 BMI  Body Mass Index
 CAD  Coronary artery disease
 CHD  Coronary heart disease
 CLIA-certified  Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified
 CI  Confidence interval
 DHA  Docosahexaenoic acid
 DM  Diabetes Mellitus
 EPA  Eicosapentaenoic acid
 GRS  Genetic risk score
 HEI  Healthy Eating Index
 HDL  High density lipoprotein
 LDL  Low density lipoprotein
 MD  Mean difference
 MD score  Mediterranean Diet score
 MI  Myocardial infarction
 MUFA  Monounsaturated fatty acid
 N=  Sample size
 NAFLD  Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
 NIOR  Nutrient-induced insulin output ratio
 NR  Not reported
 NS  Not significant
 PUFA  Polyunsaturated fatty acid
 RCT  Randomized Controlled Trial
 SMD  Standaridized mean difference
 SD  Standard deviation
 SFA  Saturated fatty acid
 SNP  Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
 T2DM  Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
 TC  Total cholesterol