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Vegetarian Nutrition

VN: References (2011)

Assessment

VN: Assessing Food and Nutrient intake of Child and Adolescent Vegetarians

Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Sep;44(6):341-7. Epub 2004 Aug 30. PMID:

Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ. Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

Schneede J, Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Ueland PM. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in plasma as indicators of functional cobalamin deficiency in infants on macrobiotic diets. Pediatr Res. 1994 Aug;36(2):194-201.

van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Thomas CM, de Boer E, van Staveren WA.Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):664-71.

Donovan UM, Gibson RS. Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Apr; 18(4): 292-300.

Greene-Finestone LS, Campbell MK, Gutmanis IA, Evers SE. Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health. Prev Med. 2005 Jan; 40 (1): 105-111.

Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 1,005-1,014.

Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997; 151(8): 833-838.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156 (5): 431-437.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: Beauty or the beast? Nutrition Research. 1997; 17 (3): 391-404.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: prevalence, social and cognitive contexts. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 151-170.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 2001. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=R1.

Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec; 25(6): 613-620. Review. PMID: 21139125.

Mangles R, Messina V, Messina M. The Dietitians Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications. 3rd ed. Chapter 4: Fats, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2011.

Messina V, Mangels AR. Considerations in planning vegan diets: children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Jun; 101(6): 661-669. Review. PMID: 11424545.

Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet: Calcium. National Institutes of Health. Accessed online: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium/.

Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 1; 67(5): 979-986. Review. PMID: 12643357.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine.Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC, The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

VN: Assessing Knowledge, Beliefs and Motivations of Adult, Child and Adolescent Vegetarians

Barr SI, Chapman GE. Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian, former vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Mar; 102 (3): 354-360.

Beardsworth A, Keil T. The vegetarian option: Varieties, conversions, motives and careers. Sociological Review, 1992; 40(2): 253-293.

Dagnelie PC, van Dusseldorp M, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JG. Effects of macrobiotic diets on linear growth in infants and children until 10 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 Feb; 48 (Suppl 1): S103-S111; discussion S111-S112.

Donovan UM, Gibson RS. Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Apr; 18(4): 292-300.

Draper A, Lewis J, Malhotra N, Wheeler E. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements? Br J Nutr. 1993; 69: 3-19.

Dwyer J. Convergence of plant-rich and plant-only diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep; 70(3 Suppl): 620S-622S.

Fessler D, Arguello A, Mekdara J, Macias R. Disgust sensitivity and meat consumption: a test of an emotivist account of moral vegetarianism. Appetite. 2003; 41: 31-41.

Greene-Finestone LS, Campbell MK, Gutmanis IA, Evers SE. Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health. Prev Med. 2005 Jan; 40 (1): 105-111.

Greenwood DC, Cade JE, Draper A, Barrett JH, Calvert C, Greenhalgh A. Seven unique food consumption patterns identified among women in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr; 54(4): 314-320.

Hobbs, SH. Attitudes, practices and beliefs of individuals consuming a raw foods diet. Explore (NY). 2005 Jul; 1 (4): 272-277.

Jacobs C, Dwyer JT. Vegetarian children: Appropriate and inappropriate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48 (suppl): 811-818.

Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 1,005-1,014.

Lea E, Worsley A. Benefits and barriers to the consumption of a vegetarian diet in Australia. Public Health Nutr. 2003 Aug; 6 (5): 505-511.

Melby CL, Toohey ML, Cebrick J. Blood pressure and blood lipids among vegetarian, semivegetarian, and nonvegetarian African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59: 103-109.

Nardoto GB, Silva S, Kendall C, Ehleringer JR, Chesson LA, Ferraz ES, Moreira MZ, Ometto JP, Martinelli LA. Geographical patterns of human diet derived from stable-isotope analysis of fingernails. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006 Sep; 131 (1): 137-146.

Padmadas SS, Dias JG, Willekens FJ. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey: A latent class analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Apr; 9 (2): 204-211.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population. J Adolesc Health. 2001 Dec; 29 (6): 406-416.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156 (5): 431-437.

Sabate J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: A paradigm shift? Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78 (suppl): 502S-507S.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: Beauty or the beast? Nutrition Research. 1997; 17 (3): 391-404.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: prevalence, social and cognitive contexts. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 151-170.

Aarnio K, Lindeman M. Magical food and health beliefs: a portrait of believers and functions of the beliefs. Appetite. 2004 Aug; 43 (1): 65-74.

Bas, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül. Vegetarianism and eating disorders: Association between eating attitudes and other psychological factors among Turkish adolescents. Appetite, Jun2005, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp. 309-315.

Greene-Finestone, L.S., Campbell, M.K., Evers, S.E., Gutmanis, I.A. Attitudes and health behavoirs of young adolescent omnivores and vegetarians: A school-based study. Appetite 2008; 51: 104-110.

Kenyon PM, Barker ME. Attitudes towards meat-eating in vegetarian and non-vegetarian teenage girls in England--an ethnographic approach. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 185-198.

Lea E, Worsley A. The cognitive contexts of beliefs about the healthiness of meat. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5 (1): 37-45.

Martins Y, Pliner P, O'Connor R. Restrained eating among vegetarians: Does a vegetarian eating style mask concerns about weight? Appetite. 1999 Feb; 32 (1): 145-154.

Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997; 151(8): 833-838.

Santos ML, Booth DA. Influences on meat avoidance among British students. Appetite. 1996 Dec; 27(3): 197-205.

Spencer EH, Elon LK, Frank E. Personal and professional correlates of US medical students' vegetarianism. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jan; 107(1): 72-78.

Gale C, Deary I, Schoon I, Batty GD. IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study. BMJ. 2007; 334: 245.

Jabs, D., Devine, C., Sobal, J. (1998). Model of the Process of Adopting Vegetarian Diets: Health Vegetarians and Ethical Vegetarians. Journal of Nutrition Education. 30 (4): 196.

Kim EHJ, Schroeder KM, Houser RF, Dwyer JT. Two small surveys, 25 years apart investigating motivations of dietary choice in two groups of vegetarians in the Boston area. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999; 99: 598-601.

Larsson CL, Rönnlund U, Johansson G, Dahlgren L. Veganism as status passage: The process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden. Appetite. 2003; 41: 61-68.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 None. 

VN: Assessing for Signs of Eating Disorder Behaviors of Adolescent and Young Adult Vegetarians

Aarnio K, Lindeman M. Magical food and health beliefs: a portrait of believers and functions of the beliefs. Appetite. 2004 Aug; 43 (1): 65-74.

Bas, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül. Vegetarianism and eating disorders: Association between eating attitudes and other psychological factors among Turkish adolescents. Appetite, Jun2005, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp. 309-315.

Donovan UM, Gibson RS. Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Apr; 18(4): 292-300.

Fessler D, Arguello A, Mekdara J, Macias R. Disgust sensitivity and meat consumption: a test of an emotivist account of moral vegetarianism. Appetite. 2003; 41: 31-41.

Gale C, Deary I, Schoon I, Batty GD. IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study. BMJ. 2007; 334: 245.

Greene-Finestone LS, Campbell MK, Gutmanis IA, Evers SE. Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health. Prev Med. 2005 Jan; 40 (1): 105-111.

Greene-Finestone, L.S., Campbell, M.K., Evers, S.E., Gutmanis, I.A. Attitudes and health behavoirs of young adolescent omnivores and vegetarians: A school-based study. Appetite 2008; 51: 104-110.

Jabs, D., Devine, C., Sobal, J. (1998). Model of the Process of Adopting Vegetarian Diets: Health Vegetarians and Ethical Vegetarians. Journal of Nutrition Education. 30 (4): 196.

Kenyon PM, Barker ME. Attitudes towards meat-eating in vegetarian and non-vegetarian teenage girls in England--an ethnographic approach. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 185-198.

Kim EHJ, Schroeder KM, Houser RF, Dwyer JT. Two small surveys, 25 years apart investigating motivations of dietary choice in two groups of vegetarians in the Boston area. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999; 99: 598-601.

Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 1,005-1,014.

Larsson CL, Rönnlund U, Johansson G, Dahlgren L. Veganism as status passage: The process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden. Appetite. 2003; 41: 61-68.

Lea E, Worsley A. The cognitive contexts of beliefs about the healthiness of meat. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5 (1): 37-45.

Lea E, Worsley A. Benefits and barriers to the consumption of a vegetarian diet in Australia. Public Health Nutr. 2003 Aug; 6 (5): 505-511.

Martins Y, Pliner P, O'Connor R. Restrained eating among vegetarians: Does a vegetarian eating style mask concerns about weight? Appetite. 1999 Feb; 32 (1): 145-154.

Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997; 151(8): 833-838.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population. J Adolesc Health. 2001 Dec; 29 (6): 406-416.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156 (5): 431-437.

Santos ML, Booth DA. Influences on meat avoidance among British students. Appetite. 1996 Dec; 27(3): 197-205.

Spencer EH, Elon LK, Frank E. Personal and professional correlates of US medical students' vegetarianism. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jan; 107(1): 72-78.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: Beauty or the beast? Nutrition Research. 1997; 17 (3): 391-404.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: prevalence, social and cognitive contexts. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 151-170.

VN: Assessing Biochemical Data of Adult, Child and Adolescent Vegetarians

Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Sep;44(6):341-7. Epub 2004 Aug 30. PMID:

Donaldson MS. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(5-6):229-34.

Geisel J, Hübner U, Bodis M, Schorr H, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The role of genetic factors in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Nov;41(11):1427-34.

Geisel J, Schorr H, Bodis M, Isber S, Hübner U, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1164-9.

Gibson RS, Abebe Y, Stabler S, Allen RH, Westcott JE, Stoecker BJ, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM.Zinc, gravida, infection, and iron, but not vitamin B-12 or folate status, predict hemoglobin during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia. J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):581-6.

Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Schorr, H. & Geisel, J. (2003). Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at risk. Clin Chem Lab Med. 41(11):1478-1488.

Herrmann W, Obeid R, Schorr H, Hübner U, Geisel J, Sand-Hill M, Ali N, Herrmann M. Enhanced bone metabolism in vegetarians--the role of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(11):1381-7.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Purschwitz K, Rassoul F, Richter V. Total homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clin Chem. 2001 Jun;47(6):1094-101.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J. Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):131-6.

Kwok T, Cheng G, Lai WK, Poon P, Woo J, Pang CP.Use of fasting urinary methylmalonic acid to screen for metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency in older persons. Nutrition. 2004 Sep;20(9):764-8

Kwok T, Cheng G, Woo J, Lai WK, Pang CP.Independent effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on hematological status in older Chinese vegetarian women.Am J Hematol. 2002 Jul;70(3):186-90.

Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ. Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

Mørkbak AL, Hvas AM, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TA, Bleie O, Refsum H, Nygaard OK, Nexø E. Effect of vitamin B12 treatment on haptocorrin.Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1104-11. Epub 2006 Apr 13.

Obeid R, Geisel J, Schorr H, Hubner U, Herrmann W. The impact of vegetarianism on some haematological parameters. Eur J Haematol 2002; 69: 275-9.

Refsum H, Yajnik CS, Gadkari M, Schneede J, Vollset SE, Orning L, Guttormsen AB, Joglekar A, Sayyad MG, Ulvik A, Ueland PM.Hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated methylmalonic acid indicate a high prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug;74(2):233-41.

Schneede J, Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Ueland PM. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in plasma as indicators of functional cobalamin deficiency in infants on macrobiotic diets. Pediatr Res. 1994 Aug;36(2):194-201.

van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Thomas CM, de Boer E, van Staveren WA.Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):664-71.

Donovan UM, Gibson RS. Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Apr; 18(4): 292-300.

Greene-Finestone LS, Campbell MK, Gutmanis IA, Evers SE. Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health. Prev Med. 2005 Jan; 40 (1): 105-111.

Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 1,005-1,014.

Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997; 151(8): 833-838.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156 (5): 431-437.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: Beauty or the beast? Nutrition Research. 1997; 17 (3): 391-404.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: prevalence, social and cognitive contexts. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 151-170.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec; 25(6): 613-620. Review. PMID: 21139125.

Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 Feb; 65(1): 35-41. Review. PMID: 16441942.

Li D. Chemistry behind Vegetarianism. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb 9; 59(3): 777-784. Epub 2011 Jan 4. Review. PMID: 21204526

Mangles R, Messina V, Messina M. The Dietitians Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications. 3rd ed. Chapter 4: Fats, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2011.

Messina V, Mangels AR. Considerations in planning vegan diets: children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Jun; 101(6): 661-669. Review. PMID: 11424545.

Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 1; 67(5): 979-986. Review. PMID: 12643357.

VN: Assessing Food and Nutrient intake of Adult Vegetarians

Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Sep;44(6):341-7. Epub 2004 Aug 30. PMID:

Donaldson MS. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(5-6):229-34.

Geisel J, Hübner U, Bodis M, Schorr H, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The role of genetic factors in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Nov;41(11):1427-34.

Geisel J, Schorr H, Bodis M, Isber S, Hübner U, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1164-9.

Gibson RS, Abebe Y, Stabler S, Allen RH, Westcott JE, Stoecker BJ, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM.Zinc, gravida, infection, and iron, but not vitamin B-12 or folate status, predict hemoglobin during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia. J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):581-6.

Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Schorr, H. & Geisel, J. (2003). Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at risk. Clin Chem Lab Med. 41(11):1478-1488.

Herrmann W, Obeid R, Schorr H, Hübner U, Geisel J, Sand-Hill M, Ali N, Herrmann M. Enhanced bone metabolism in vegetarians--the role of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(11):1381-7.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Purschwitz K, Rassoul F, Richter V. Total homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clin Chem. 2001 Jun;47(6):1094-101.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J. Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):131-6.

Kwok T, Cheng G, Lai WK, Poon P, Woo J, Pang CP.Use of fasting urinary methylmalonic acid to screen for metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency in older persons. Nutrition. 2004 Sep;20(9):764-8

Kwok T, Cheng G, Woo J, Lai WK, Pang CP.Independent effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on hematological status in older Chinese vegetarian women.Am J Hematol. 2002 Jul;70(3):186-90.

Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ. Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

Mørkbak AL, Hvas AM, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TA, Bleie O, Refsum H, Nygaard OK, Nexø E. Effect of vitamin B12 treatment on haptocorrin.Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1104-11. Epub 2006 Apr 13.

Obeid R, Geisel J, Schorr H, Hubner U, Herrmann W. The impact of vegetarianism on some haematological parameters. Eur J Haematol 2002; 69: 275-9.

Refsum H, Yajnik CS, Gadkari M, Schneede J, Vollset SE, Orning L, Guttormsen AB, Joglekar A, Sayyad MG, Ulvik A, Ueland PM.Hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated methylmalonic acid indicate a high prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug;74(2):233-41.

Schneede J, Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Ueland PM. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in plasma as indicators of functional cobalamin deficiency in infants on macrobiotic diets. Pediatr Res. 1994 Aug;36(2):194-201.

van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Thomas CM, de Boer E, van Staveren WA.Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):664-71.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

 

 

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.

 

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC, The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

 

A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 2001. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=R1.

Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec; 25(6): 613-620. Review. PMID: 21139125.

Mangles R, Messina V, Messina M. The Dietitians Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications. 3rd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2011.

VN: Assessing Food and Nutrient Intake During Pregancy for Adolescent and Adult Vegetarians

Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Sep;44(6):341-7. Epub 2004 Aug 30. PMID:

Donaldson MS. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(5-6):229-34.

Geisel J, Hübner U, Bodis M, Schorr H, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The role of genetic factors in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Nov;41(11):1427-34.

Geisel J, Schorr H, Bodis M, Isber S, Hübner U, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1164-9.

Gibson RS, Abebe Y, Stabler S, Allen RH, Westcott JE, Stoecker BJ, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM.Zinc, gravida, infection, and iron, but not vitamin B-12 or folate status, predict hemoglobin during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia. J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):581-6.

Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Schorr, H. & Geisel, J. (2003). Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at risk. Clin Chem Lab Med. 41(11):1478-1488.

Herrmann W, Obeid R, Schorr H, Hübner U, Geisel J, Sand-Hill M, Ali N, Herrmann M. Enhanced bone metabolism in vegetarians--the role of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(11):1381-7.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Purschwitz K, Rassoul F, Richter V. Total homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clin Chem. 2001 Jun;47(6):1094-101.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J. Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):131-6.

Kwok T, Cheng G, Lai WK, Poon P, Woo J, Pang CP.Use of fasting urinary methylmalonic acid to screen for metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency in older persons. Nutrition. 2004 Sep;20(9):764-8

Kwok T, Cheng G, Woo J, Lai WK, Pang CP.Independent effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on hematological status in older Chinese vegetarian women.Am J Hematol. 2002 Jul;70(3):186-90.

Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ. Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

Mørkbak AL, Hvas AM, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TA, Bleie O, Refsum H, Nygaard OK, Nexø E. Effect of vitamin B12 treatment on haptocorrin.Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1104-11. Epub 2006 Apr 13.

Obeid R, Geisel J, Schorr H, Hubner U, Herrmann W. The impact of vegetarianism on some haematological parameters. Eur J Haematol 2002; 69: 275-9.

Refsum H, Yajnik CS, Gadkari M, Schneede J, Vollset SE, Orning L, Guttormsen AB, Joglekar A, Sayyad MG, Ulvik A, Ueland PM.Hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated methylmalonic acid indicate a high prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug;74(2):233-41.

Schneede J, Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Ueland PM. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in plasma as indicators of functional cobalamin deficiency in infants on macrobiotic diets. Pediatr Res. 1994 Aug;36(2):194-201.

van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Thomas CM, de Boer E, van Staveren WA.Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):664-71.

Reddy S, Sanders TA, Obeid O. The influence of maternal vegetarian diet on essential fatty acid status of the newborn. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994; 48: 358-368.

North K, Golding J. A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. BJU Int. 2000 Jan;85(1):107-13.

Campbell-Brown M, Ward RJ, Haines AP, North WR, Abraham R, McFadyen IR, Turnlund JR, King JC. Zinc and copper in Asian pregnancies--is there evidence for a nutritional deficiency? Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1985 Sep; 92 (9): 875-85.

Cheng PJ, Chu DC, Chueh HY, See LC, Chang HC, Weng DR. Elevated maternal midtrimester serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in vegetarian pregnancies that cause increased false-positive Down syndrome screening results. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Feb;190(2):442-7.

Drake R, Reddy S, Davies J. Nutrient intake during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome of lacto-ovo-vegetarians, fish-eaters and non-vegetarians. Veg Nutr. 1998; 2: 45-52.

Ellis R, Kelsay JL, Reynolds RD, Morris ER, Moser PB, Frazier CW. Phytate:zinc and phytate X calcium:zinc millimolar ratios in self-selected diets of Americans, Asian Indians, and Nepalese. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 Aug;87(8):1043-7.

Ganpule A, Yajnik CS, Fall CH, Rao S, Fisher DJ, Kanade A, Cooper C, Naik S, Joshi N, Lubree H, Deshpande V, Joglekar C. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug; 91 (8): 2,994-3,001. Epub, 2006, May 30.

King JC, Stein T, Doyle M. Effect of vegetarianism on the zinc status of pregnant women. AJCN. 1981: 34; 1,049-1,055.

Koebnick C, Heins UA, Hoffmann I, Dagnelie PC, Leitzmann C. Folate Status during Pregnancy in Women Is Improved by Long-term High Vegetable Intake Compared with the Average Western Diet. J Nutr. 2001; 131: 733-739.

Koebnick C, Hoffmann I, Dagnelie PC, Heins UA, Wickramasinghe SN, Ratnayaka ID, Gruendel S, Lindemans J, Leitzmann C. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. J Nutr. 2004 Dec; 134 (12): 3,319-3,326.

Koebnick C, Leitzmann R, Garcia AL, Heins UA, Heuer T, Golf S, Katz N, Hoffmann I, Leitzmann C. Long-term effect of a plant-based diet on magnesium status during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;59(2):219-25.

Ward RJ, Abraham R, McFadyen IR, Haines AD, North WR, Patel M, Bhatt RV. Assessment of trace metal intake and status in a Gujerati pregnant Asian population and their influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988 Jul;95(7):676-82.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 2001. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=R1.

Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec;25(6):613-620. Review. PMID: 21139125.

Mangles R, Messina V, Messina M. The Dietitians Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications. 3rd ed. Chapter 4: Fats, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2011.

Niinivirta K, Isolauri E, Laakso P, Linderborg K, Laitinen K. Dietary Counseling to Improve Fat Quality during Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fat Intake and Infant Essential Fatty Acid Status. J Nutr. 2011 Jul; 141(7): 1,281-1,285. Epub 2011 May 18. PMID: 21593355.

Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 1; 67(5): 979-986. Review. PMID: 12643357.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine.Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC, The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

Intervention

VN: Dietary and Micronutrient Intake of Child and Adolescent Vegetarians  

Donovan UM, Gibson RS. Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Apr; 18(4): 292-300.

Greene-Finestone LS, Campbell MK, Gutmanis IA, Evers SE. Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health. Prev Med. 2005 Jan; 40 (1): 105-111.

Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 1,005-1,014.

Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997; 151(8): 833-838.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156 (5): 431-437.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: Beauty or the beast? Nutrition Research. 1997; 17 (3): 391-404.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: prevalence, social and cognitive contexts. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 151-170.

Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Sep;44(6):341-7. Epub 2004 Aug 30. PMID:

van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Thomas CM, de Boer E, van Staveren WA.Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):664-71.

Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ. Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

Schneede J, Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Ueland PM. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in plasma as indicators of functional cobalamin deficiency in infants on macrobiotic diets. Pediatr Res. 1994 Aug;36(2):194-201.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 2001. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=R1.

Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet: Calcium. National Institutes of Health. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium/.

Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 1; 67(5): 979-986. Review. PMID: 12643357.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine.Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.

VN: Diet Diversity for Adult, Child and Adolescent Vegetarian Diets

Barr SI, Chapman GE. Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian, former vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Mar; 102 (3): 354-360.

Beardsworth A, Keil T. The vegetarian option: Varieties, conversions, motives and careers. Sociological Review, 1992; 40(2): 253-293.

Dagnelie PC, van Dusseldorp M, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JG. Effects of macrobiotic diets on linear growth in infants and children until 10 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 Feb; 48 (Suppl 1): S103-S111; discussion S111-S112.

Donovan UM, Gibson RS. Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. J Adolesc Health. 1996 Apr; 18(4): 292-300.

Draper A, Lewis J, Malhotra N, Wheeler E. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements? Br J Nutr. 1993; 69: 3-19.

Dwyer J. Convergence of plant-rich and plant-only diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep; 70(3 Suppl): 620S-622S.

Fessler D, Arguello A, Mekdara J, Macias R. Disgust sensitivity and meat consumption: a test of an emotivist account of moral vegetarianism. Appetite. 2003; 41: 31-41.

Greene-Finestone LS, Campbell MK, Gutmanis IA, Evers SE. Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health. Prev Med. 2005 Jan; 40 (1): 105-111.

Greenwood DC, Cade JE, Draper A, Barrett JH, Calvert C, Greenhalgh A. Seven unique food consumption patterns identified among women in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr; 54(4): 314-320.

Hobbs, SH. Attitudes, practices and beliefs of individuals consuming a raw foods diet. Explore (NY). 2005 Jul; 1 (4): 272-277.

Jacobs C, Dwyer JT. Vegetarian children: Appropriate and inappropriate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48 (suppl): 811-818.

Larsson CL, Klock KS, Astrom AN, Haugejorden O, Johansson G. Food habits of young Swedish and Norwegian vegetarians and omnivores. Public Health Nutr. 2001; 4: 1,005-1,014.

Lea E, Worsley A. Benefits and barriers to the consumption of a vegetarian diet in Australia. Public Health Nutr. 2003 Aug; 6 (5): 505-511.

Melby CL, Toohey ML, Cebrick J. Blood pressure and blood lipids among vegetarian, semivegetarian, and nonvegetarian African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59: 103-109.

Nardoto GB, Silva S, Kendall C, Ehleringer JR, Chesson LA, Ferraz ES, Moreira MZ, Ometto JP, Martinelli LA. Geographical patterns of human diet derived from stable-isotope analysis of fingernails. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006 Sep; 131 (1): 137-146.

Padmadas SS, Dias JG, Willekens FJ. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey: A latent class analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Apr; 9 (2): 204-211.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population. J Adolesc Health. 2001 Dec; 29 (6): 406-416.

Perry CL, McGuire MT, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Adolescent vegetarians: how well do their dietary patterns meet the Healthy People 2010 objectives? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156 (5): 431-437.

Sabate J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: A paradigm shift? Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78 (suppl): 502S-507S.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: Beauty or the beast? Nutrition Research. 1997; 17 (3): 391-404.

Worsley A, Skrzypiec G. Teenage vegetarianism: prevalence, social and cognitive contexts. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 151-170.

Jabs, D., Devine, C., Sobal, J. (1998). Model of the Process of Adopting Vegetarian Diets: Health Vegetarians and Ethical Vegetarians. Journal of Nutrition Education. 30 (4): 196.

Kim EHJ, Schroeder KM, Houser RF, Dwyer JT. Two small surveys, 25 years apart investigating motivations of dietary choice in two groups of vegetarians in the Boston area. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999; 99: 598-601.

Larsson CL, Rönnlund U, Johansson G, Dahlgren L. Veganism as status passage: The process of becoming a vegan among youths in Sweden. Appetite. 2003; 41: 61-68.

Aarnio K, Lindeman M. Magical food and health beliefs: a portrait of believers and functions of the beliefs. Appetite. 2004 Aug; 43 (1): 65-74.

Bas, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül. Vegetarianism and eating disorders: Association between eating attitudes and other psychological factors among Turkish adolescents. Appetite, Jun2005, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp. 309-315.

Greene-Finestone, L.S., Campbell, M.K., Evers, S.E., Gutmanis, I.A. Attitudes and health behavoirs of young adolescent omnivores and vegetarians: A school-based study. Appetite 2008; 51: 104-110.

Kenyon PM, Barker ME. Attitudes towards meat-eating in vegetarian and non-vegetarian teenage girls in England--an ethnographic approach. Appetite. 1998 Apr; 30(2): 185-198.

Lea E, Worsley A. The cognitive contexts of beliefs about the healthiness of meat. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5 (1): 37-45.

Martins Y, Pliner P, O'Connor R. Restrained eating among vegetarians: Does a vegetarian eating style mask concerns about weight? Appetite. 1999 Feb; 32 (1): 145-154.

Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Adolescent vegetarians. A behavioral profile of a school-based population in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997; 151(8): 833-838.

Santos ML, Booth DA. Influences on meat avoidance among British students. Appetite. 1996 Dec; 27(3): 197-205.

Spencer EH, Elon LK, Frank E. Personal and professional correlates of US medical students' vegetarianism. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jan; 107(1): 72-78.

Gale C, Deary I, Schoon I, Batty GD. IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study. BMJ. 2007; 334: 245.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 2001. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC, The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

VN: Macronutrient Intake of Adult, Child and Adolescent Vegetarians

 

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec; 25(6): 613-620. Review. PMID: 21139125.

Letter Regarding Dietary Supplement Health Claim for Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease. Docket No. 91N-0103. US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, October 31, 2000, 1-34. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/95s0316/95s-0316-Rpt0272-38-Appendix-D-Reference-F-FDA-vol205.pdf.
 

Mangles R, Messina V, Messina M. The Dietitians Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications. 3rd ed. Chapter 4: Fats, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2011.

Messina V, Mangels AR. Considerations in planning vegan diets: children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Jun; 101(6): 661-669. Review. PMID: 11424545.

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC, The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

VN: Micronutrient Intake of Adult Vegetarians

Donaldson MS. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(5-6):229-34.

Geisel J, Hübner U, Bodis M, Schorr H, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The role of genetic factors in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Nov;41(11):1427-34.

Geisel J, Schorr H, Bodis M, Isber S, Hübner U, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1164-9.

Gibson RS, Abebe Y, Stabler S, Allen RH, Westcott JE, Stoecker BJ, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM.Zinc, gravida, infection, and iron, but not vitamin B-12 or folate status, predict hemoglobin during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia. J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):581-6.

Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Schorr, H. & Geisel, J. (2003). Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at risk. Clin Chem Lab Med. 41(11):1478-1488.

Herrmann W, Obeid R, Schorr H, Hübner U, Geisel J, Sand-Hill M, Ali N, Herrmann M. Enhanced bone metabolism in vegetarians--the role of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(11):1381-7.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Purschwitz K, Rassoul F, Richter V. Total homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clin Chem. 2001 Jun;47(6):1094-101.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J. Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):131-6.

Kwok T, Cheng G, Lai WK, Poon P, Woo J, Pang CP.Use of fasting urinary methylmalonic acid to screen for metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency in older persons. Nutrition. 2004 Sep;20(9):764-8

Kwok T, Cheng G, Woo J, Lai WK, Pang CP.Independent effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on hematological status in older Chinese vegetarian women.Am J Hematol. 2002 Jul;70(3):186-90.

Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ. Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

Mørkbak AL, Hvas AM, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TA, Bleie O, Refsum H, Nygaard OK, Nexø E. Effect of vitamin B12 treatment on haptocorrin.Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1104-11. Epub 2006 Apr 13.

Obeid R, Geisel J, Schorr H, Hubner U, Herrmann W. The impact of vegetarianism on some haematological parameters. Eur J Haematol 2002; 69: 275-9.

Refsum H, Yajnik CS, Gadkari M, Schneede J, Vollset SE, Orning L, Guttormsen AB, Joglekar A, Sayyad MG, Ulvik A, Ueland PM.Hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated methylmalonic acid indicate a high prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug;74(2):233-41.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 2001. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=R1.

Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 1; 67(5): 979-986. Review. PMID: 12643357.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.

VN: Nutrition Counseling to Support a Therapeutic Vegetarian Diet for Adults

Agren JJ, Tvrzicka E, Nenonen MT, Helve T, Hänninen O. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb; 85 (2): 137-139.

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.

Barnard, ND, Scialli, AR et al. Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women. Am J of Cardiology. 2000 (Apr); 85: 969-972.

Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, Styn MA, Music E, Elci OU, Sereika SM. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86 (3): 588-596.

Burke LE, Styn MA, Steenkiste AR, Music E, Warziski M, Choo J. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at six months: PREFER study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14 (11): 2,007-2,017.

Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. JAMA 2005; 293: 43-53.

Daubenmier JJ, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Mendell N, Merritt-Worden T, Studley J, Ornish D. The contribution of changes in diet, exercise, and stress management to changes in coronary risk in women and men in the multisite cardiac lifestyle intervention program. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb; 33 (1): 57-68.

de Mello VD, Zelmanovitz T, Perassolo MS, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL. Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May; 83 (5): 1,032-1,038.

Delgado M, Gutiérrez A, Cano MD, Castillo MJ. Elimination of meat, fish and derived products from the Spanish-Mediterranean diet: effect on the plasma lipid profile. Ann Nutr Metab. 1996; 40 (4): 202-211.

Geppert J, Kraft V, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B. Microalgal docosahexaenoic acid decreases plasma triacylglycerol in normolipidaemic vegetarians: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 2006 Apr; 95 (4): 779-786.

Hakala P, Karvetti R. Weight reduction on lactovegetarian and mixed diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1989; 43: 421-430.

Hunt JR, Matthys LA, Johnson LK. Zinc absorption, mineral balance, and blood lipids in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian and omnivorous diets for eight weeks. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Mar; 67 (3): 421-430.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23; 290 (4): 502-510.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83

Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000; 29 (5): 308-313.

Karlsson J, Hallgren P, Kral J, Lindroos A, Sjostrom L, Sullivan M. Predictors and effects of long-term dieting on mental well being and weight loss in obese women. Appetite. 1994; 23: 15-26.

Kestin, M, Rouse, IL, Correll, RA, Nestel, PJ. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in free-living men: Comparison of two prudent diets, one based on lactoovovegetarianism and the other allowing lean meat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 50: 280-287.

Mahon AK, Flynn MG, Stewart LK, McFarlin BK, Iglay HB, Mattes RD, Lyle RM, Considine RV, Campbell WW. Protein intake during energy restriction: effects on body composition and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr; 26 (2): 182-189.

Shankar SR, Bijlani RL, Baveja T, Jauhar N, Vashisht S, Mahapatra SC, Mehta N, Manchanda SC. Effect of partial replacement of visible fat by ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul; 46 (3): 355-360.

Stephenson TJ, Setchell KDR, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA, Anderson JW, Fanti P. Effect of soy protein-rich diet on renal function in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Nephrol. 2005; 64: 1-11.

Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15 (9): 2,276-2,281.

Weight control during the holidays: Highly consistent self-monitoring as a potentially useful coping mechanism. Health Psych 1998;17(4):367-370.

How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high risk holiday season? By self-monitoring very consistently. Health Psychol 1999;18(4):364-368.

Mattfeldt-Beman MK, Corrigan SA, Stevens, VJ, Sugars CP, Dalcin AT, Givi J, Copeland K. Participants' evaluation of a weight-loss program. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:66-71.

Milas NC, Nowalk MP, Akpele L, Castaldo L, Coyne T, Doroshenko L, Kigawa L, Korzec-Ramirez D, Scherch LK, Snetselaar L. Factors associated with adherence to the dietary protein intervention in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Nov; 95 (11): 1,295-1,300.

Streit KJ, Stevens NH, Stevens VJ, Rossner J. Food records: A predictor and modifier of weight change in a long-term weight loss program. J Am Diet Assoc. 1991; 91 (2): 213-216.

Effects of internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289:1833-1836.

Ashley JM, St. Jeor ST, Schrage JP, Perumean-Chaney SE, Gilbertson MC, McCall NL, Bovee V. Weight control in the physician's office. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 1599-1604.

Ditschuneit HH, Flechter-Mors M. Value of structured meals for weight management: risk factors and long-term weight maintenance. Obes Res 2001; 9: 284-289S.

Ditschuneit HH, Flechter-Mors M, Johnson TD, Adler G. Metabolic and weight-loss effects of a long-term dietary intervention in obese patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(2): 198-204.

Flechter-Mors M, Ditschuneit HH, Johnson TD, Suchard MA, Adler G. Metabolic and weight loss effects of long-term dietary intervention in obese patients: four-year results. Obes Res 2000; 8(5): 399-402.

Metz JA, Kris-Etherton PM, Morris CD. Dietary compliance and cardiovascular risk reduction with a prepared meal plan compared with a self-selected diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 66: 373-385.

Wing RR, Jeffery RW, Burton LR, Thorson C, Nissinoff KS, Baxter JE. Food provision vs. structured meal plans in the behavioral treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996 Jan; 20 (1): 56-62.

Fuller PR, Perri MG, Leermakers EA, Guyer LK. Effects of a personalized system of skill acquisition and an educational program in the treatment of obesity. Addictive Behaviors,1998, 23 (1): 97-100.

Jeffery RW and Wing RR. Long-term effects of interventions for weight loss using food provision and monetary incentives. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995 Oct; 63 (5): 793-796.

Paul-Ebhohimhen V and Avenell A. "Systematic review of the use of financial incentives in treatments for obesity and overweight." Obesity Reviews, 2007 October 23: 1-13.

Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ, Barrera M, Strycker LA. Assessment of problem-solving: a key to successful diabetes self-management. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2004 27 (5): 477-490.

Perri MG, Nezu AM, McKelvey WF, Shermer RL, Renjilian DA, Viegener BJ. Relapse prevention training and problem-solving therapy in the long-term management of obesity. 2001, August; 69 (4): 722-726.

Barrera M, Glasgow RE, McKay HG, Boles SM, Feil EG. Do Internet-based support interventions change perceptions of social support?: An experimental trial of approaches for supporting diabetes self-management. American Journal of Community Psychology, 2002. 30 (5): 637-654.

Barrera M, Toobert D, Angell K, Glasgow R, Mackinnon D. Social support and social-ecological resources as mediators of lifestyle intervention effects for type 2 diabetes. J Health Psychology. 2006; 11 (3): 483-495.

Toobert DJ, Glasgow RE, Strycker LA, Barrera M Jr, Ritzwoller DP, Weidner G. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007 Jan 17; 4:1.

Wing RR, Marcus MD, Epstein LH, Jawad A. A "family-based" approach to the treatment of obese type II diabetic patients. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991 Feb; 59 (1): 156-162.

Wing RR, Jeffery RW. Benefits of recruiting participants with friends and increasing social support for weight loss and maintenance. J Consult Clin Psychol 1999 Feb; 67 (1): 132-138.

Berry MW, Danish SJ, Rinke WJ, Smiciklas-Wright H. Work-site health promotion: the effects of a goal-setting program on nutrition-related behaviors. J Am Diet Assoc. 1989; 89 (7): 914-920, 923.

Clark M, Hampson SE, Avery L, Simpson R. Effects of a tailored lifestyle self-management intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes. Br J Health Psychol. 2004 Sep; 9 (Pt 3): 365-379.

Estabrooks PA, Nelson CC, Xu S, King D, Bayliss EA, Gaglio B, Nutting PA, Glasgow RE. The frequency and behavioral outcomes of goal choices in the self-management of diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2005 May-Jun; 31 (3): 391-400.

Shilts MK, Horowitz M, Townsend MS. Goal-setting as a strategy for dietary and physical activity behavior change: A review of the literature. Am J Health Promot. 2004 Nov-Dec; 19 (2): 81-93.

DeLucia JL, Kalodner CR. An individualized cognitive intervention: Does it increase the efficacy of behavioral interventions for obesity? Addict Behav. 1990; 15 (5): 473-479.

Brug J, Spikmans F, Aartsen C., Breedveld B, Bes R, Fereira I. Training dietitians in basic motivational interviewing skills results in changes in their counseling style and in lower saturated fat intakes in their patients. Journal of Nutrition Education Behavior. 2007; 39: 8-12.

Mhurchu CN, Margetts BM, Speller V. Randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of two dietary interventions for patients with hyperlipidemia. Clinical Science. 1998; 95: 479-487.

Bowen D, Ehret C, Pedersen M, Snetselaar L, Johnson M, Tinker L, Hollinger D, Lichty I, Bland K, Sivertsen D, Ocken D, Staats L, Beedoe J W. Results of an adjunt dietary intervention program in the Women's Health Initiative. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2002; 102 (11): 1,631-1,637.

Resnicow K, Jackson A, Wang T, De AK, McCarty F, Dudley WN, Baranowski T. A motivational interviewing intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake through black churches: results of the Eat for Life Trial. American Journal of Public Health. 2001; 91 (10): 1,686-1,692.

Smith DE, Heckemeyer CM, Kratt PP, Mason DA. Motivational interviewing to improve adherence to behavioral weight-cotnrol program for older obese women with NIDDM. Diabetes Care.1997; 20 (1): 52-54.

West DS, DiLillo V, Bursac Z, Gore SA, Greene PG. Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Care. 2007; 30 (5): 1,081-1,087.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

VN: Macronutrient Intake in Adolescent and Adult Vegetarians During Pregnancy

Campbell-Brown M, Ward RJ, Haines AP, North WR, Abraham R, McFadyen IR, Turnlund JR, King JC. Zinc and copper in Asian pregnancies--is there evidence for a nutritional deficiency? Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1985 Sep; 92 (9): 875-85.

Drake R, Reddy S, Davies J. Nutrient intake during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome of lacto-ovo-vegetarians, fish-eaters and non-vegetarians. Veg Nutr. 1998; 2: 45-52.

Ganpule A, Yajnik CS, Fall CH, Rao S, Fisher DJ, Kanade A, Cooper C, Naik S, Joshi N, Lubree H, Deshpande V, Joglekar C. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug; 91 (8): 2,994-3,001. Epub, 2006, May 30.

Reddy S, Sanders TA, Obeid O. The influence of maternal vegetarian diet on essential fatty acid status of the newborn. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994; 48: 358-368.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010 Dec; 25(6): 613-620. Review. PMID: 21139125.

Mangles R, Messina V, Messina M.The Dietitians Guide to Vegetarian Diets Issues and Applications. 3rd ed. Chapter 4: Fats, Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning; 2011.

Niinivirta K, Isolauri E, Laakso P, Linderborg K, Laitinen K. Dietary Counseling to Improve Fat Quality during Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fat Intake and Infant Essential Fatty Acid Status. J Nutr. 2011 Jul; 141(7): 1,281-1,285. Epub 2011 May 18. PMID: 21593355.

Letter Regarding Dietary Supplement Health Claim for Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease. Docket No. 91N-0103. US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, October 31, 2000, 1-34. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/95s0316/95s-0316-Rpt0272-38-Appendix-D-Reference-F-FDA-vol205.pdf.
 

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC, The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.

VN: Micronutrient Intake in Adolescent and Adult Vegetarians During Pregnancy

Campbell-Brown M, Ward RJ, Haines AP, North WR, Abraham R, McFadyen IR, Turnlund JR, King JC. Zinc and copper in Asian pregnancies--is there evidence for a nutritional deficiency? Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1985 Sep; 92 (9): 875-85.

Cheng PJ, Chu DC, Chueh HY, See LC, Chang HC, Weng DR. Elevated maternal midtrimester serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in vegetarian pregnancies that cause increased false-positive Down syndrome screening results. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Feb;190(2):442-7.

Drake R, Reddy S, Davies J. Nutrient intake during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome of lacto-ovo-vegetarians, fish-eaters and non-vegetarians. Veg Nutr. 1998; 2: 45-52.

Ellis R, Kelsay JL, Reynolds RD, Morris ER, Moser PB, Frazier CW. Phytate:zinc and phytate X calcium:zinc millimolar ratios in self-selected diets of Americans, Asian Indians, and Nepalese. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 Aug;87(8):1043-7.

Ganpule A, Yajnik CS, Fall CH, Rao S, Fisher DJ, Kanade A, Cooper C, Naik S, Joshi N, Lubree H, Deshpande V, Joglekar C. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug; 91 (8): 2,994-3,001. Epub, 2006, May 30.

King JC, Stein T, Doyle M. Effect of vegetarianism on the zinc status of pregnant women. AJCN. 1981: 34; 1,049-1,055.

Koebnick C, Heins UA, Hoffmann I, Dagnelie PC, Leitzmann C. Folate Status during Pregnancy in Women Is Improved by Long-term High Vegetable Intake Compared with the Average Western Diet. J Nutr. 2001; 131: 733-739.

Koebnick C, Hoffmann I, Dagnelie PC, Heins UA, Wickramasinghe SN, Ratnayaka ID, Gruendel S, Lindemans J, Leitzmann C. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. J Nutr. 2004 Dec; 134 (12): 3,319-3,326.

Koebnick C, Leitzmann R, Garcia AL, Heins UA, Heuer T, Golf S, Katz N, Hoffmann I, Leitzmann C. Long-term effect of a plant-based diet on magnesium status during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;59(2):219-25.

Ward RJ, Abraham R, McFadyen IR, Haines AD, North WR, Patel M, Bhatt RV. Assessment of trace metal intake and status in a Gujerati pregnant Asian population and their influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988 Jul;95(7):676-82.

Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Sep;44(6):341-7. Epub 2004 Aug 30. PMID:

Donaldson MS. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(5-6):229-34.

Geisel J, Hübner U, Bodis M, Schorr H, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The role of genetic factors in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Nov;41(11):1427-34.

Geisel J, Schorr H, Bodis M, Isber S, Hübner U, Knapp JP, Obeid R, Herrmann W. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1164-9.

Gibson RS, Abebe Y, Stabler S, Allen RH, Westcott JE, Stoecker BJ, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM.Zinc, gravida, infection, and iron, but not vitamin B-12 or folate status, predict hemoglobin during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia. J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):581-6.

Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Schorr, H. & Geisel, J. (2003). Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at risk. Clin Chem Lab Med. 41(11):1478-1488.

Herrmann W, Obeid R, Schorr H, Hübner U, Geisel J, Sand-Hill M, Ali N, Herrmann M. Enhanced bone metabolism in vegetarians--the role of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47(11):1381-7.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Purschwitz K, Rassoul F, Richter V. Total homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and total antioxidant status in vegetarians. Clin Chem. 2001 Jun;47(6):1094-101.

Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J. Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jul;78(1):131-6.

Kwok T, Cheng G, Lai WK, Poon P, Woo J, Pang CP.Use of fasting urinary methylmalonic acid to screen for metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency in older persons. Nutrition. 2004 Sep;20(9):764-8

Kwok T, Cheng G, Woo J, Lai WK, Pang CP.Independent effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on hematological status in older Chinese vegetarian women.Am J Hematol. 2002 Jul;70(3):186-90.

Miller DR, Specker BL, Ho ML, Norman EJ. Vitamin B-12 status in a macrobiotic community. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:524-9.

Mørkbak AL, Hvas AM, Lloyd-Wright Z, Sanders TA, Bleie O, Refsum H, Nygaard OK, Nexø E. Effect of vitamin B12 treatment on haptocorrin.Clin Chem. 2006 Jun;52(6):1104-11. Epub 2006 Apr 13.

Obeid R, Geisel J, Schorr H, Hubner U, Herrmann W. The impact of vegetarianism on some haematological parameters. Eur J Haematol 2002; 69: 275-9.

Refsum H, Yajnik CS, Gadkari M, Schneede J, Vollset SE, Orning L, Guttormsen AB, Joglekar A, Sayyad MG, Ulvik A, Ueland PM.Hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated methylmalonic acid indicate a high prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug;74(2):233-41.

Schneede J, Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, Vollset SE, Refsum H, Ueland PM. Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in plasma as indicators of functional cobalamin deficiency in infants on macrobiotic diets. Pediatr Res. 1994 Aug;36(2):194-201.

van Dusseldorp M, Schneede J, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Thomas CM, de Boer E, van Staveren WA.Risk of persistent cobalamin deficiency in adolescents fed a macrobiotic diet in early life. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):664-71.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

A Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 2001. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026&page=R1.

Oh R, Brown DL. Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 1; 67(5): 979-986. Review. PMID: 12643357.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776&page=R1.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, The National Academies Press; 1998. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.

Treating Diseases with a Vegetarian Diet

VN: Hyperlipidemia Treatment with a Vegetarian Diet for Adults

Agren JJ, Tvrzicka E, Nenonen MT, Helve T, Hänninen O. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb; 85 (2): 137-139.

Barnard, ND, Scialli, AR et al. Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women. Am J of Cardiology. 2000 (Apr); 85: 969-972.

Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, Styn MA, Music E, Elci OU, Sereika SM. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86 (3): 588-596.

Burke LE, Styn MA, Steenkiste AR, Music E, Warziski M, Choo J. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at six months: PREFER study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14 (11): 2,007-2,017.

Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. JAMA 2005; 293: 43-53.

Daubenmier JJ, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Mendell N, Merritt-Worden T, Studley J, Ornish D. The contribution of changes in diet, exercise, and stress management to changes in coronary risk in women and men in the multisite cardiac lifestyle intervention program. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb; 33 (1): 57-68.

de Mello VD, Zelmanovitz T, Perassolo MS, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL. Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May; 83 (5): 1,032-1,038.

Hunt JR, Matthys LA, Johnson LK. Zinc absorption, mineral balance, and blood lipids in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian and omnivorous diets for eight weeks. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Mar; 67 (3): 421-430.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23; 290 (4): 502-510.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83

Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000; 29 (5): 308-313.

Mahon AK, Flynn MG, Stewart LK, McFarlin BK, Iglay HB, Mattes RD, Lyle RM, Considine RV, Campbell WW. Protein intake during energy restriction: effects on body composition and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr; 26 (2): 182-189.

Stephenson TJ, Setchell KDR, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA, Anderson JW, Fanti P. Effect of soy protein-rich diet on renal function in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Nephrol. 2005; 64: 1-11.

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

ATP III Full Report and Executive Summary. National Cholesterol Education Program. Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Choleterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). 2004. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/ (pending the expected release of ATP IV in Fall 2011).

VN: Overweight and Obesity Treatment with a Vegetarian Diet for Adults

Barnard, ND, Scialli, AR et al. Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women. Am J of Cardiology. 2000 (Apr); 85: 969-972.

Bhumisawasdi J, Vanna O, Surinpang N. The self-reliant system for alternative care of diabetes mellitus patients--experience macrobiotic management in Trad Province. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Dec; 89 (12): 2,104-2,115.

Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, Styn MA, Music E, Elci OU, Sereika SM. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86 (3): 588-596.

Burke LE, Styn MA, Steenkiste AR, Music E, Warziski M, Choo J. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at six months: PREFER study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14 (11): 2,007-2,017.

Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. JAMA 2005; 293: 43-53.

Daubenmier JJ, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Mendell N, Merritt-Worden T, Studley J, Ornish D. The contribution of changes in diet, exercise, and stress management to changes in coronary risk in women and men in the multisite cardiac lifestyle intervention program. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb; 33 (1): 57-68.

de Mello VD, Zelmanovitz T, Perassolo MS, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL. Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May; 83 (5): 1,032-1,038.

Hakala P, Karvetti R. Weight reduction on lactovegetarian and mixed diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1989; 43: 421-430.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23; 290 (4): 502-510.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83

Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000; 29 (5): 308-313.

Karlsson J, Hallgren P, Kral J, Lindroos A, Sjostrom L, Sullivan M. Predictors and effects of long-term dieting on mental well being and weight loss in obese women. Appetite. 1994; 23: 15-26.

Kestin, M, Rouse, IL, Correll, RA, Nestel, PJ. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in free-living men: Comparison of two prudent diets, one based on lactoovovegetarianism and the other allowing lean meat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 50: 280-287.

Mahon AK, Flynn MG, Stewart LK, McFarlin BK, Iglay HB, Mattes RD, Lyle RM, Considine RV, Campbell WW. Protein intake during energy restriction: effects on body composition and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr; 26 (2): 182-189.

Marniemi J, Seppänen A, Hakala P. Long-term effects on lipid metabolism of weight reduction on lactovegetarian and mixed diet. Int J Obes. 1990 Feb; 14 (2): 113-125.

Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15 (9): 2,276-2,281.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

The Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report, NIH Publication No. 98-4083, September 1998, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/e_txtbk/txgd/40.htm.

VN: Type 2 Diabetes Treatment with a Vegetarian Diet for Adults

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.

Bhumisawasdi J, Vanna O, Surinpang N. The self-reliant system for alternative care of diabetes mellitus patients--experience macrobiotic management in Trad Province. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Dec; 89 (12): 2,104-2,115.

Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, Styn MA, Music E, Elci OU, Sereika SM. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86 (3): 588-596.

Burke LE, Styn MA, Steenkiste AR, Music E, Warziski M, Choo J. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at six months: PREFER study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14 (11): 2,007-2,017.

Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. JAMA 2005; 293: 43-53.

de Mello VD, Zelmanovitz T, Perassolo MS, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL. Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May; 83 (5): 1,032-1,038.

Mahon AK, Flynn MG, Stewart LK, McFarlin BK, Iglay HB, Mattes RD, Lyle RM, Considine RV, Campbell WW. Protein intake during energy restriction: effects on body composition and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr; 26 (2): 182-189.

Stephenson TJ, Setchell KDR, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA, Anderson JW, Fanti P. Effect of soy protein-rich diet on renal function in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Nephrol. 2005; 64: 1-11.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31, Suppl 1: S61-S78.

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/.

Numbers at a Glance 2011: For Non-pregnant Adults. National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP). Accessed online August 01, 2011: http://ndep.nih.gov/media/numatglance_eng.pdf.

Monitoring and Evaluation

VN: Monitoring Adherence to Vegetarian Diet Prescriptions for Adults

Agren JJ, Tvrzicka E, Nenonen MT, Helve T, Hänninen O. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb; 85 (2): 137-139.

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.

Barnard, ND, Scialli, AR et al. Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women. Am J of Cardiology. 2000 (Apr); 85: 969-972.

Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, Styn MA, Music E, Elci OU, Sereika SM. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86 (3): 588-596.

Burke LE, Styn MA, Steenkiste AR, Music E, Warziski M, Choo J. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at six months: PREFER study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14 (11): 2,007-2,017.

Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. JAMA 2005; 293: 43-53.

Daubenmier JJ, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Mendell N, Merritt-Worden T, Studley J, Ornish D. The contribution of changes in diet, exercise, and stress management to changes in coronary risk in women and men in the multisite cardiac lifestyle intervention program. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb; 33 (1): 57-68.

de Mello VD, Zelmanovitz T, Perassolo MS, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL. Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May; 83 (5): 1,032-1,038.

Delgado M, Gutiérrez A, Cano MD, Castillo MJ. Elimination of meat, fish and derived products from the Spanish-Mediterranean diet: effect on the plasma lipid profile. Ann Nutr Metab. 1996; 40 (4): 202-211.

Geppert J, Kraft V, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B. Microalgal docosahexaenoic acid decreases plasma triacylglycerol in normolipidaemic vegetarians: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr. 2006 Apr; 95 (4): 779-786.

Hakala P, Karvetti R. Weight reduction on lactovegetarian and mixed diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1989; 43: 421-430.

Hunt JR, Matthys LA, Johnson LK. Zinc absorption, mineral balance, and blood lipids in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian and omnivorous diets for eight weeks. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Mar; 67 (3): 421-430.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23; 290 (4): 502-510.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83

Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000; 29 (5): 308-313.

Karlsson J, Hallgren P, Kral J, Lindroos A, Sjostrom L, Sullivan M. Predictors and effects of long-term dieting on mental well being and weight loss in obese women. Appetite. 1994; 23: 15-26.

Kestin, M, Rouse, IL, Correll, RA, Nestel, PJ. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in free-living men: Comparison of two prudent diets, one based on lactoovovegetarianism and the other allowing lean meat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 50: 280-287.

Mahon AK, Flynn MG, Stewart LK, McFarlin BK, Iglay HB, Mattes RD, Lyle RM, Considine RV, Campbell WW. Protein intake during energy restriction: effects on body composition and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr; 26 (2): 182-189.

Shankar SR, Bijlani RL, Baveja T, Jauhar N, Vashisht S, Mahapatra SC, Mehta N, Manchanda SC. Effect of partial replacement of visible fat by ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul; 46 (3): 355-360.

Stephenson TJ, Setchell KDR, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA, Anderson JW, Fanti P. Effect of soy protein-rich diet on renal function in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Nephrol. 2005; 64: 1-11.

Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Scialli AR. A two-year randomized weight loss trial comparing a vegan diet to a more moderate low-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15 (9): 2,276-2,281.

References not graded in ADA's Evidence Analysis Process

None.