VN: HDL Cholesterol (2009)
Vegetarian Diets and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
Is the therapeutic use of a vegetarian diet effective for bringing about improvements in HDL cholesterol levels in adults?
The therapeutic use of a vegetarian diet is associated with a short-term drop in HDL-cholesterol in adults. However, limited research suggests that TC-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL ratios also drop slightly within the first few months and then stabilize at lower than baseline levels over a period of 12 to 18 months.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
Evidence Summary: Using Therapeutic Vegetarian Diets to Manage HDL Cholesterol Levels
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Agren JJ, Tvrzicka E, Nenonen MT, Helve T, Hänninen O. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb; 85 (2): 137-139.
- Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.
- Barnard, ND, Scialli, AR et al. Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women. Am J of Cardiology. 2000 (Apr); 85: 969-972.
- Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, Styn MA, Music E, Elci OU, Sereika SM. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86 (3): 588-596.
- Burke LE, Styn MA, Steenkiste AR, Music E, Warziski M, Choo J. A randomized clinical trial testing treatment preference and two dietary options in behavioral weight management: preliminary results of the impact of diet at six months: PREFER study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Nov; 14 (11): 2,007-2,017.
- Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. JAMA 2005; 293: 43-53.
- Daubenmier JJ, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Mendell N, Merritt-Worden T, Studley J, Ornish D. The contribution of changes in diet, exercise, and stress management to changes in coronary risk in women and men in the multisite cardiac lifestyle intervention program. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb; 33 (1): 57-68.
- de Mello VD, Zelmanovitz T, Perassolo MS, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL. Withdrawal of red meat from the usual diet reduces albuminuria and improves serum fatty acid profile in type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May; 83 (5): 1,032-1,038.
- Hunt JR, Matthys LA, Johnson LK. Zinc absorption, mineral balance, and blood lipids in women consuming controlled lactoovovegetarian and omnivorous diets for eight weeks. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Mar; 67 (3): 421-430.
- Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner DA, Wong JM, de Souza R, Emam A, Parker TL, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 Jul 23; 290 (4): 502-510.
- Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, Faulkner D, Vidgen E, Lapsley KG, Trautwein EA, Parker TL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Connelly PW. The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism. 2003 Nov; 52(11): 1478-83
- Mahon AK, Flynn MG, Stewart LK, McFarlin BK, Iglay HB, Mattes RD, Lyle RM, Considine RV, Campbell WW. Protein intake during energy restriction: effects on body composition and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr; 26 (2): 182-189.
- Shankar SR, Bijlani RL, Baveja T, Jauhar N, Vashisht S, Mahapatra SC, Mehta N, Manchanda SC. Effect of partial replacement of visible fat by ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid profile. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul; 46 (3): 355-360.
- Stephenson TJ, Setchell KDR, Kendall CWC, Jenkins DJA, Anderson JW, Fanti P. Effect of soy protein-rich diet on renal function in young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Nephrol. 2005; 64: 1-11.
Search Plan and Results: Vegetarian Nutrition and Cholesterol Intervention