GDM: Macronutrients (2008)
Is there a specific amount, type, form of carbohydrate, fat and protein for women with gestational diabetes?
Ten studies were evaluated to investigate the consumption of macronutrients in pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate intake affects postprandial blood glucose levels; Increased postprandial blood glucose levels are associated with increased incidence of large-for-gestational age infants and increased rate of Cesarean sections. Three studies showed improved outcomes at carbohydrate intakes of less than 45% of energy . Research is limited regarding protein, fat, fiber and glycemic index in women with gestational diabetes mellitus; further research is needed in these areas.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
Evidence Summary: Carbohydrate, fat and protein for women with gestational diabetes
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Clapp JE. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on the glucose and insulin response to mixed caloric intake and exercise in both nonpregnant and pregnant women. Diabetes Care 1998; (Suppl 2) 21:B107-B112.
- Kalkwarf HJ, Bell RC, Khoury JC, Gouge AL, Miodovnik M. Dietary fiber intakes and insulin requirements in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:305-310.
- Lauszus FF, Rasmussen OW, Henriksen JE, Klebe JG, Jensen L, Lauszus KS,
Hermansen K. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet on blood pressure and glucose metabolism in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55(6):436-43.
- Loosemore ED, Judge MP, Lammi-Keefe CJ. Dietary intake of essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy. Lipids 2004;39(5):421-4.
- Major CA, Henry MJ, De Veciana M, Morgan MA. The effects of carbohydrate restriction in patients with diet-controlled gestational diabetes. Obstet & Gynecol 1998;91:600-604.
- Parretti E, Mecacci F, Papini M, Cioni R, Carignani L, Mignosa M, La Torre P, Mello G. Third-trimester maternal glucose levels from diurnal profiles in nondiabetic pregnancies: correlation with sonographic parameters of fetal growth. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:1319-1323.
- Peterson CM, Jovanovic-Peterson L. Percentage of carbohydrate and glycemic response to breakfast, lunch and dinner in women with gestational diabetes. Diabetes 1991; 40 (Suppl 2):172-174.
- Romon M, Nuttens MC, Vambergue A, Verier-Mine O, Biausque S, Lemaire C, Fontaine P, Salomez JL, Beuscart R. Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with decreased incidence of newborn macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101(8):897-902.
- Sloan NL, Lederman SA, Leighton J, Himes JH, Rush D. The effect of prenatal dietary protein intake on birth weight. Nutrition Research 2001; 21:129-139.
- Snyder J, Gray-Donald K, Koski KG. Predictors of infant birth weight in gestational diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1409-14.
Search Plan and Results: Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein 2006