This Academy member benefit temporarily has been made public to allow all practitioners access to content that may assist in patient care during the national pandemic response. Click here for information on joining the Academy. 

Gestational Diabetes

GDM: References (2008)

Gestational Diabetes Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline
References (listed by recommendation)

GDM: Screening for Gestational Diabetes

 

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, McPhee AJ, Jeffries WS, Robinson JS, for the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial Group. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 2,477-2,486.

 

Gabbe SG, Gregory RP, Power ML, Williams SB, Schulkin J. Management of diabetes mellitus by obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jun; 103 (6): 1,229-1,234.

 

Reader D, Splett P, Gunderson EP, for the Diabetes Care and Education Dietetic Practice Group. Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus nutrition practice guidelines implemented by registered dietitians on pregnancy outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Sep; 106 (9): 1,426-1,433.

 

Sunsaneevithayakul P, Kanokpongsakdi S, Sutanthavibul A, Ruangvutilert P, Boriboohirunsarn D, Keawprasit T, Tantawattana R. Result of ambulatory diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Jan; 89 (1): 8-12.

 

Svare JA, Hansen BB, Molsted-Pedersen L. Perinatal complications in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001; 80 (10): 899-904.

 

Taricco E, Radaelli T, Nobile de Santis MS, Cetin I. Foetal and placental weights in relation to maternal characteristics in gestational diabetes. Placenta. 2003 Apr; 24 (4): 343-347.

 

Aberg A, Rydhstroem H, Frid A. Impaired glucose tolerance associated with adverse pregnancy outcome: A population-based study in southern Sweden. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 184: 77-83.

 

Bo S, Menato G, Gallo M, Bardelli C, Lezo A, Signorile A, Gambino R, Cassader M, Massobrio M and Pagano G. Mild gestational hyperglycemia, the metabolic syndrome and adverse neonatal outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004; 83 (4): 335-340.

 

Bonomo M, Corica D, Mion E, Goncalves D, Motta G, Merati R, Ragusa A, Morabito A. Evaluating the therapeutic approach in pregnancies complicated by borderline glucose intolerance: a randomized clinical trial. Diabet Med. 2005; 22:1,536-1,541.

 

Ergin T, Lembet A, Duran H, Kuscu E, Bagis T, Saygili E, Batioglu S. Does insulin secretion in patients with one abnormal glucose tolerance test value mimic gestational diabetes mellitus? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 186 (2): 204-209.

 

Gruendhammer M, Brezinka C, Lechleitner M. The number of abnormal plasma glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test and the feto-maternal outcome of pregnancy. Eur J of Obstet and Gynecol Reproductive Biology. 2003; 108 (2): 131-136.

 

Hedderson MM, Ferrara A, Sacks DA. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Lesser Degrees of Pregnancy Hyperglycemia: Association With Increased Risk of Spontaneous Birth. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2003; 102: 850-856.

 

Jensen DM, Damm P, Sorensen B, Molsted-Pedersen L, Westergaard JG, Klebe J, Beck-Nielsen H. Clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy: A study of 2904 nondiabetic Danish women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 108 (2): 131-136.

 

Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Luna-del-Castillo J, García Màrtín M, Lardelli-Claret P, Gálvez-Vargas R. Impact of different levels of carbohydrate intolerance on neonatal outcomes classically associated with gestational diabetes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002; 102 (1): 36-41.

 

Lao TT, Ho LF. Perinatal Morbidity and Placental Size in Gestational Impaired Glucose Tolerance. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2001; 8 (6): 347-350.

 

Lao TT, Ho LF. Does Maternal Glucose Intolerance Affect the Length of Gestation in Singleton Pregnancies? J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2003; 10 (6): 366-371.

 

Lao TT, Wong KY. Perinatal Outcome in Large-for-Gestational Infants: Is it influenced by gestational impaired glucose tolerance? The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 2002; 47 (6): 497-502.

 

Nordin NM, Wei JWH, Naing NN, Symonds EM. Comparison of maternal-fetal outcomes in gestational diabetes and lesser degrees of glucose intolerance. J Obstet Gynecol Res. 2006; 32 (1): 107-114.

 

Ostlund I, Hanson U, Bjorklund A, Hjertberg R, Eva N, Nordlander E, Marja-Liisa S, Wager J. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes if Gestational Impaired Glucose Tolerance Is Not Treated. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (7): 2,107-2,111.

 

Parretti E, Carignani L, Cioni R, Bartoli E, Borri P, Torre PL, Mecacci F, Martini E, Scarselli G, Mello G. Sonographic Evaluation of Fetal Growth and Body Composition in Women With Different Degrees of Normal Glucose Metabolism. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (10): 2,741-2,748.

 

Retnakaran R, Zinman B, Connelly PW, Sermer M, Hanley AJG. Impaired Glucose Tolerance of Pregnancy Is a Heterogeneous Metabolic Disorder as Defined by the Glycemic Response to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Diabetes Care, 2006; 29 (1): 57-62.

 

Saldana TM, Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS, Savitz DA and Thorp JM. The Association Between Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Birth Weight Among Black and White Women in Central North Carolina. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (3): 656-661.

 

Schaefer-Graf UM, Kjos SL, Kilavuz O, Plagemann A, Brauer M, Dudenhausen JW, Vetter K. Determinants of Fetal Growth at Different Periods of Pregnancies Complicated by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (1): 193-198.

 

Tuffnell DJ, West J, Walkinshaw SA. Treatments for gestational diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; (3): CD003395.

 

Vambergue A, Nuttens MC, Verier-Mine O, Dognin C, Cappoen JP and Fontaine P. Is mild gestational hyperglycemia associated with maternal and neonatal complications? The Diagest Study. British Diabetic Association. Diabetes Medicine, 2000; 17: 203-208.

 

Yang X, Hsu-Hage B, Zhang H, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Zhang C. Women With Impaired Glucose Tolerance During Pregnancy Have Significantly Poor Pregnancy Outcomes. Diabetes Care, 2002; 25: 1,619-1,624.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Guidelines, Number 30, 2001; 98 (3): 525-538.

 

Metzger BE, Buchanan TA, Coustan DR, de Leiva A, Dunger DB, Hadden DR, Hod M, Kitzmiller JL, Kjos SL, Oats JN, Pettitt DJ, Sacks DA, Zoupas C. Summary and recommendations of the Fifth International Workshop Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl. 2: S251-S260.

 

The HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358 (19): 1,991-2,002.

 

U. S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: U. S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2008; 148: 759-765.

 

World Health Organization (1999). Definition, diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its complications: Report of a WHO Consultation. Part 1. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.

 

GDM: Pregnant Women at Risk for GDM

 

Bo S, Lezo A, Menato G, Gallo ML, Bardelli C, Signorile A, Berutti C, Massobrio M, Pagano GF. Gestational hyperglycemia, zinc, selenium, and antioxidant vitamins. Nutrition, 2005; 21: 186-191.

 

Bo S, Menato G, Lezo A, Signorile A, Bardelli C, De Michieli F, Massobrio M, Pagano G. Dietary fat and gestational hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia, 2001; 44: 972-978.

 

Glazer NL, Hendrickson AF, Schellenbaum GD, Mueller BA. Weight Change and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women. Epidemiology. 2004; 15 (6): 733-737.

 

Gunton JE, Hams G, Hitchman R, McElduff A. Serum chromium does not predict glucose tolerance in late pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001; 73: 99-104.

 

Lao TT, Ho LF. Impact of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (3); 650-656.

 

Lao TT, Chan PL, Tam KF. Gestational diabetes mellitus in the last trimester - a feature of maternal iron excess? Diabetes Medicine, 2001; 18: 218-223.

 

Rudra CB, Williams MA, Lee IM, Miller RS, Sorensen TK. Perceived Exertion in Physical Activity and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Epidemiology 2006; 17 (1): 31-37.

 

Saldana TM, Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS. Effect of macronutrient intake on the development of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79: 479-486.

 

Tan M, Sheng L, Qian Y, Ge Y, Wang Y, Zhang H, Jiang M, Zhang G. Changes in Serum Selenium in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Biological Trace Element Research, 2001; 83: 231-237.

 

Wang Y, Storlein LH, Jenkins AB, Tapsell LC, Jin Y, Pan JF, Shao YF, Calvert GD, Moses RG, Shi HL, Zhu XX. Dietary Variables and Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy. Diabetes Care, 2000; 23 (4): 460-464.

 

Zhang C, Williams MA, Frederick IO, King IB, Sorensen TK, Kestin MM, Dashow EE, Luthy DA. Vitamin C and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Control Study. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 2004; 49 (4): 257-266.

 

Zhang C, Williams MA, Sorensen TK, King IB, Kestin MM, Thompson ML, Leisenring WM, Dashow EE, Luthy DA. Maternal Plasma Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Epidemiology, 2004; 15 (15): 597-604.

 

Summary and Recommendations of the 4th International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Metzger BE, Coustan DR. Diabetes Care, 1998; 21; Suppl. 2: B161-B167.

 

Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Technical Bulletin Number 189 - February 1994. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1994; 45: 65-70.

 

Avery MD, Walker AJ. Acute effect of exercise on blood glucose and insulin levels in women with gestational diabetes. J Matern Fetal Med. 2001; 10: 52-58.

 

Avery MD, Leon AS, Kopher RA. Effects of a partially home-based exercise program for women with gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 1997; 89: 10-15.

 

Brankston GN, Mitchell BF, Ryan EA, Okun NB. Resistance exercise decreases the need for insulin in overweight women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Am Journal of Obs and Gyn. 2004; 190: 188-193.

 

Clapp JF. Morphometric and neurodevelopmental outcome at age five years of the offspring of women who continued to exercise regularly throughout pregnancy. J Pediatr. 1996; 129: 856-863.

 

Dempsey JC, Butler CL, Sorensen TK, Lee IM, Thompson ML, Miller RS, Frederick IO, Williams MA. A case-control study of maternal recreational physical activity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2004; 66: 203-215.

 

Dempsey JC, Sorensen TK, Williams MA, Lee IM, Miller RS, Dashow EE and Luthy DA. Prospective study of gestational diabetes mellitus risk in relation to maternal recreational physical activity before and during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 159: 663-670.

 

Gray-Donald K, Robinson E, Collier A, David K, Renaud L, Rodrigues S. Intervening to reduce weight gain in pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus in Cree communities: An evaluation. CMAJ. 2000; 163 (10): 1,247-1,251.

 

Horns PN, Ratcliffe LP, Leggett JC, Swanson MS. Pregnancy outcomes among active and sedentary primiparous women. JOGNN. 1996; 25: 49-54.

 

Langer O, Hod M. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1996; 23 (1): 137-159.

 

Soultanakis HN, Artal R, Wiswell RA. Prolonged exercise in pregnancy: glucose homeostasis, ventilatory and cardiovascular responses. Seminars in Perinatology, 1996; 20 (4): 315-327.

 

Symons Downs D, Ulbrecht J. Understanding exercise beliefs and behaviors in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 29: 236-240, 2006.

 

Thornton PL, Kieffer EC, Salabarria-Pena Y, Odoms-Young A, Willis SK, Kim H, Salinas MA. Weight, diet, and physical activity-related beliefs and practices among pregnant and postpartum Latino women: The role of social support. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2006; 10: 95-104.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1990.

 

Metzger BE, Buchanan TA, Coustan DR, de Leiva A, Dunger DB, Hadden DR, Hod M, Kitzmiller JL, Kjos SL, Oats JN, Pettitt DJ, Sacks DA, Zoupas C. Summary and recommendations of the Fifth International Workshop Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl. 2: S251-S260.

 

GDM: MNT for Pregnant Women with IGT or GDM

 

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, McPhee AJ, Jeffries WS, Robinson JS, for the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial Group. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 2,477-2,486.

 

Gabbe SG, Gregory RP, Power ML, Williams SB, Schulkin J. Management of diabetes mellitus by obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jun; 103 (6): 1,229-1,234.

 

Reader D, Splett P, Gunderson EP, for the Diabetes Care and Education Dietetic Practice Group. Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus nutrition practice guidelines implemented by registered dietitians on pregnancy outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Sep; 106 (9): 1,426-1,433.

 

Sunsaneevithayakul P, Kanokpongsakdi S, Sutanthavibul A, Ruangvutilert P, Boriboohirunsarn D, Keawprasit T, Tantawattana R. Result of ambulatory diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Jan; 89 (1): 8-12.

 

Svare JA, Hansen BB, Molsted-Pedersen L. Perinatal complications in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001; 80 (10): 899-904.

 

Taricco E, Radaelli T, Nobile de Santis MS, Cetin I. Foetal and placental weights in relation to maternal characteristics in gestational diabetes. Placenta. 2003 Apr; 24 (4): 343-347.

 

Aberg A, Rydhstroem H, Frid A. Impaired glucose tolerance associated with adverse pregnancy outcome: A population-based study in southern Sweden. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 184: 77-83.

 

Bo S, Menato G, Gallo M, Bardelli C, Lezo A, Signorile A, Gambino R, Cassader M, Massobrio M and Pagano G. Mild gestational hyperglycemia, the metabolic syndrome and adverse neonatal outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004; 83 (4): 335-340.

 

Bonomo M, Corica D, Mion E, Goncalves D, Motta G, Merati R, Ragusa A, Morabito A. Evaluating the therapeutic approach in pregnancies complicated by borderline glucose intolerance: a randomized clinical trial. Diabet Med. 2005; 22: 1,536-1,541.

 

Ergin T, Lembet A, Duran H, Kuscu E, Bagis T, Saygili E, Batioglu S. Does insulin secretion in patients with one abnormal glucose tolerance test value mimic gestational diabetes mellitus? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 186 (2): 204-209.

 

Gruendhammer M, Brezinka C, Lechleitner M. The number of abnormal plasma glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test and the feto-maternal outcome of pregnancy. Eur J of Obstet and Gynecol Reproductive Biology. 2003; 108 (2): 131-136.

 

Hedderson MM, Ferrara A, Sacks DA. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Lesser Degrees of Pregnancy Hyperglycemia: Association With Increased Risk of Spontaneous Birth. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2003; 102: 850-856.

 

Jensen DM, Damm P, Sorensen B, Molsted-Pedersen L, Westergaard JG, Klebe J, Beck-Nielsen H. Clinical impact of mild carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy: A study of 2904 nondiabetic Danish women with risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 108 (2): 131-136.

 

Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Luna-del-Castillo J, García Màrtín M, Lardelli-Claret P, Gálvez-Vargas R. Impact of different levels of carbohydrate intolerance on neonatal outcomes classically associated with gestational diabetes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002; 102 (1): 36-41.

 

Lao TT, Ho LF. Perinatal Morbidity and Placental Size in Gestational Impaired Glucose Tolerance. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2001; 8 (6): 347-350.

 

Lao TT, Ho LF. Does Maternal Glucose Intolerance Affect the Length of Gestation in Singleton Pregnancies? J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2003; 10 (6): 366-371.

 

Lao TT, Wong KY. Perinatal Outcome in Large-for-Gestational Infants: Is it influenced by gestational impaired glucose tolerance? The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 2002; 47 (6): 497-502.

 

Nordin NM, Wei JWH, Naing NN, Symonds EM. Comparison of maternal-fetal outcomes in gestational diabetes and lesser degrees of glucose intolerance. J Obstet Gynecol Res. 2006; 32 (1): 107-114.

 

Ostlund I, Hanson U, Bjorklund A, Hjertberg R, Eva N, Nordlander E, Marja-Liisa S, Wager J. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes if Gestational Impaired Glucose Tolerance Is Not Treated. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (7): 2,107-2,111.

 

Parretti E, Carignani L, Cioni R, Bartoli E, Borri P, Torre PL, Mecacci F, Martini E, Scarselli G, Mello G. Sonographic Evaluation of Fetal Growth and Body Composition in Women With Different Degrees of Normal Glucose Metabolism. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (10): 2,741-2,748.

 

Retnakaran R, Zinman B, Connelly PW, Sermer M, Hanley AJG. Impaired Glucose Tolerance of Pregnancy Is a Heterogeneous Metabolic Disorder as Defined by the Glycemic Response to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Diabetes Care, 2006; 29 (1): 57-62.

 

Saldana TM, Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS, Savitz DA and Thorp JM. The Association Between Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Birth Weight Among Black and White Women in Central North Carolina. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (3): 656-661.

 

Schaefer-Graf UM, Kjos SL, Kilavuz O, Plagemann A, Brauer M, Dudenhausen JW, Vetter K. Determinants of Fetal Growth at Different Periods of Pregnancies Complicated by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26 (1): 193-198.

 

Tuffnell DJ, West J, Walkinshaw SA. Treatments for gestational diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; (3): CD003395.

 

Vambergue A, Nuttens MC, Verier-Mine O, Dognin C, Cappoen JP and Fontaine P. Is mild gestational hyperglycemia associated with maternal and neonatal complications? The Diagest Study. British Diabetic Association. Diabetes Medicine, 2000; 17: 203-208.

 

Yang X, Hsu-Hage B, Zhang H, Zhang C, Zhang Y, Zhang C. Women With Impaired Glucose Tolerance During Pregnancy Have Significantly Poor Pregnancy Outcomes. Diabetes Care, 2002; 25: 1,619-1,624.

 
Assessment

GDM: Assessment of Food Intake, Physical Activity and Medications

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1990.

 

GDM: Assessment of BMI and Weight Gain

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1990.

Intervention

GDM: Caloric Intake

 

Durnin JVGA, McKillop FM, Grant S, Fitzgerald G. Is nutritional status endangered by virtually no extra intake during pregnancy? Lancet, 1985; 2: 823-827.

 

Ho LF, Benzie IF, Lao TT. Relationship between caloric intake and pregnancy outcome in diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus. Nurs Health Sci. 2005 Mar; 7 (1): 15-20.

 

Churchill JA, Berendes HW, Nemore J. Neuropsychological deficits in children of diabetic mothers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969; 105: 257-268.

 

Langer O, Yogev Y, Xenakis EMJ, Brustman L. Overweight and obese in gestational diabetes: The impact on pregnancy outcome. Am J Obs Gyn. 2005; 192: 1,768-1,776.

 

Rae A, Bond D, Evans S, North F, Roberman B, Walters B. A randomised controlled trial of dietary energy restriction in the management of obese women with gestational diabetes. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000; 40 (4): 416-422.

 

Ray JG, Vermeulen MJ, Shapiro JL, Kenshole AB. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, and the influence of maternal obesity and weight gain: the DEPOSIT study. Q J Med. 2001; 94: 347-356.

 

Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Schall JI, Ances IG, Smith WK. Gestational weight gain, pregnancy outcome, and postpartum weight retention. Obstet Gynecol. 1995; 86 (3): 423-427.

 

Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS, Hobel CJ. Maternal underweight status and inadequate rate of weight gain during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery. J Nutr. 1996; 126: 146-153.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 
 

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

 

Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Guidelines. Number 30, 2001; 98 (3): 525-538.

 

Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1990.

 

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2002.

 

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107 (8): 1,296-1,304.

 

GDM: Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake

 
 

Clapp JE. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on the glucose and insulin response to mixed caloric intake and exercise in both nonpregnant and pregnant women. Diabetes Care, 1998; (Suppl. 2) 21: B107-B112.

 

Kalkwarf HJ, Bell RC, Khoury JC, Gouge AL, Miodovnik M. Dietary fiber intakes and insulin requirements in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101: 305-310.

 

Lauszus FF, Rasmussen OW, Henriksen JE, Klebe JG, Jensen L, Lauszus KS, Hermansen K. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet on blood pressure and glucose metabolism in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001; 55 (6): 436-443.

 

Loosemore ED, Judge MP, Lammi-Keefe CJ. Dietary intake of essential and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy. Lipids, 2004; 39 (5): 421-424.

 

Major CA, Henry MJ, De Veciana M, Morgan MA. The effects of carbohydrate restriction in patients with diet-controlled gestational diabetes. Obstet & Gynecol. 1998; 91: 600-604.

 

Parretti E, Mecacci F, Papini M, Cioni R, Carignani L, Mignosa M, La Torre P, Mello G. Third-trimester maternal glucose levels from diurnal profiles in nondiabetic pregnancies: correlation with sonographic parameters of fetal growth. Diabetes Care, 2001; 24: 1,319-1,323.

 

Peterson CM, Jovanovic-Peterson L. Percentage of carbohydrate and glycemic response to breakfast, lunch and dinner in women with gestational diabetes. Diabetes, 1991; 40 (Suppl. 2): 172-174.

 

Romon M, Nuttens MC, Vambergue A, Verier-Mine O, Biausque S, Lemaire C, Fontaine P, Salomez JL, Beuscart R. Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with decreased incidence of newborn macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101 (8): 897-902.

 

Sloan NL, Lederman SA, Leighton J, Himes JH, Rush D. The effect of prenatal dietary protein intake on birth weight. Nutrition Research, 2001; 21: 129-139.

 

Snyder J, Gray-Donald K, Koski KG. Predictors of infant birth weight in gestational diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59: 1,409-1,414.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1990.

 

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2002.

 

GDM: Physical Activity

 

Summary and Recommendations of the 4th International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Metzger BE, Coustan DR. Diabetes Care, 1998; 21; Suppl. 2: B161-B167.

 

Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Technical Bulletin Number 189 - February 1994. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1994; 45: 65-70.

 

Avery MD, Walker AJ. Acute effect of exercise on blood glucose and insulin levels in women with gestational diabetes. J Matern Fetal Med. 2001; 10: 52-58.

 

Avery MD, Leon AS, Kopher RA. Effects of a partially home-based exercise program for women with gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol. 1997; 89: 10-15.

 

Brankston GN, Mitchell BF, Ryan EA, Okun NB. Resistance exercise decreases the need for insulin in overweight women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Am Journal of Obs and Gyn. 2004; 190: 188-193.

 

Clapp JF. Morphometric and neurodevelopmental outcome at age five years of the offspring of women who continued to exercise regularly throughout pregnancy. J Pediatr. 1996; 129: 856-863.

 

Dempsey JC, Butler CL, Sorensen TK, Lee IM, Thompson ML, Miller RS, Frederick IO, Williams MA. A case-control study of maternal recreational physical activity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2004; 66: 203-215.

 

Dempsey JC, Sorensen TK, Williams MA, Lee IM, Miller RS, Dashow EE and Luthy DA. Prospective study of gestational diabetes mellitus risk in relation to maternal recreational physical activity before and during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 159: 663-670.

 

Gray-Donald K, Robinson E, Collier A, David K, Renaud L, Rodrigues S. Intervening to reduce weight gain in pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus in Cree communities: An evaluation. CMAJ. 2000; 163 (10): 1,247-1,251.

 

Horns PN, Ratcliffe LP, Leggett JC, Swanson MS. Pregnancy outcomes among active and sedentary primiparous women. JOGNN. 1996; 25: 49-54.

 

Langer O, Hod M. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1996; 23 (1): 137-159.

 

Soultanakis HN, Artal R, Wiswell RA. Prolonged exercise in pregnancy: glucose homeostasis, ventilatory and cardiovascular responses. Seminars in Perinatology, 1996; 20 (4): 315-327.

 

Symons Downs D, Ulbrecht J. Understanding exercise beliefs and behaviors in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 29: 236-240, 2006.

 

Thornton PL, Kieffer EC, Salabarria-Pena Y, Odoms-Young A, Willis SK, Kim H, Salinas MA. Weight, diet, and physical activity-related beliefs and practices among pregnant and postpartum Latino women: The role of social support. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2006; 10: 95-104.

 

GDM: Blood Glucose Monitoring 

 

Banerjee S, Ghosh US, Banerjee D. Foetomaternal complications in pregnancies with diabetes mellitus: association with the amount of insulin requirement, mean terminal blood glucose and HbA1c levels. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003; 101 (12): 728, 730-732, 740.

 

Ben-Haroush A, Yogev Y, Chen R, Rosenn B, Hod M, Langer O. The postprandial glucose profile in the diabetic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 191: 576-581.

 

Buhling KJ, Winkel T, Wolf C, Kurzidim B, Mahmoudi M, Wohlfarth K, Wascher C, Schink T, Dudenhausen JW. Optimal timing for postprandial glucose measurement in pregnant women with diabetes and a non-diabetic pregnant population evaluated by the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). J Perinat Med. 2005; 33 (2): 125-131.

 

Chen R, Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, Jovanovic L, Hod M, Phillip M. Continuous glucose monitoring for the evaluation and improved control of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003; 14 (4): 256-260.

 

Churchill JA, Berendes HW, Nemore J. Neuropsychological deficits in children of diabetic mothers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969; 105: 257-268.

 

Combs CA, Gunderson E, Kitzmiller JL, Gavin LA, Main EK. Relationship of fetal macrosomia to maternal postprandial glucose control during pregnancy. Diabetes Care, 1992; 15: 1,251-1,257.

 

De Veciana M, Major CA, Morgan MA, Asrat T, Toohey JS, Lien JM, Evans AT. Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose monitoring in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. NEJM. 1995; 333: 1,237-1,241.

 

Homko CJ, Sivan E, Reece EA. The impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose on self-efficacy and pregnancy outcomes in women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2002; 28 (3): 435-443.

 

Langer O, Levy J, Brustman L, Anyaegbunam A, Merkatz R, Divon M. Glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus - how tight is tight enough: small for gestational age versus large for gestational age? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989; 161: 646-653.

 

Langer O, Langer N, Piper JM, Elliott B, Anyaegbunam A. Cultural diversity as a factor in self-monitoring blood glucose in gestational diabetes. J Assoc Acad Min Phys. 1995; 6: 73-77.

 

Langer O, Mazze RS. Diabetes in pregnancy: Evaluating self-monitoring performance and glycemic control with memory-based reflectance meters. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986; 155: 635-637.

 

Naeye RL, Chez RA. Effects of maternal acetonuria and low pregnancy weight gain on children's psychomotor development. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981; 139: 189-193.

 

Parretti E, Mecacci F, Papini M, Cioni R, Carignani L, Mignosa M, La Torre P, Mello G. Third-trimester maternal glucose levels from diurnal profiles in nondiabetic pregnancies: correlation with sonographic parameters of fetal growth. Diabetes Care, 2001; 24: 1,319-1,323.

 

Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. NEJM. 1991; 325 (13): 911-916.

 

Sivan E, Weisz B, Homko CJ, Reece EA, Schiff E. One or two hours postprandial glucose measurements: Are they the same? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 185: 604-607.

 

Weisz B, Shrim A, Homko CJ, Schiff E, Epstein GS, Sivan E. One hour versus two hours postprandial glucose measurement in gestational diabetes: a prospective study. J Perinatol. 2005; 25 (4): 241-244.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl. 1: S48-S65.

 

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107 (8): 1,296-1,304.

 

GDM: Use of Non-Nutritive Sweeteners

 

Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. Saccharin: Review of safety issues. JAMA. 1985; 254 (18): 2,622-2,624.

 

Levy HL, Waisbren SW. Effects of untreated maternal phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia on the fetus. N Engl J Med. 1983; 309 (21): 1,269-1,274.

 

Arcella D, Le Donne C, Piccinelli R, Leclercq C. Dietary estimated intake of intense sweeteners by Italian teenagers. Present levels and projections derived from the INRAN-RM-2001 food survey. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42 (April 2004) 677-685. PMID: 15019193.

 

Bar A, Biermann C. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1992 Mar; 31 (1): 25-39.

 

Butchko HH, Stargel WW, Comer CP, Mayhew DA, Benninger C, Blackburn GL, de Sonneville LM, Geha RS, Hertelendy Z, Koestner A, Leon AS, Liepa GU, McMartin KE, Mendenhall CL, Munro IC, Novotny EJ, Renwick AG, Schiffman SS, Schomer DL, Shaywitz BA, Spiers PA, Tephly TR, Thomas JA, Trefz FK. Aspartame: review of safety. "Intake of Aspartame vs Acceptable Daily Intake" Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr; 35 (2 Pt. 2): S1-93.

 

Chung MS, Suh HJ, Yoo W, Choi SH, Cho YJ, Cho YH, Kim CJ. Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea. Food Addit Contam. 2005 Nov; 22 (11): 1,087-1,097. PMID: 16332631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].

 

Garnier-Sagne I, Leblanc JC, Verger P. Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001 Jul; 39 (7): 745-749.

 

Ilback NG, Alzin M, Jahrl S, Enghardt-Barbieri H, Busk L. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics. Food Additives and Contaminates, 2003 Feb; 20 (2): 99-114.

 

Leclercq C, Berardi D, Sorbillo MR, Lambe J. Intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate in Italian teenagers: present levels and projections. Food Addit Contam. 1999 Mar; 16 (3): 99-109.

 

Renwick AG. The intake of intense sweeteners-an update review. Food Additives and Contaminants, 2006 April; 23 (4): 327-338.

 

Toledo MC, Ioshi SH. Potential intake of intense sweeteners in Brazil. Food Addit Contam. 1995 Nov-Dec; 12 (6): 799-808.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl 1: S48-S65.

 

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107 (8): 1,296-1,304.

 

GDM: Promotion of Breastfeeding

McManus RM, Cunningham I, Watson A, Harker L, Finegood T. Beta Cell Function and Visceral Fat in Lactating Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes. Metabolism, 2001; 50: 715-719.

Reader D and Franz J. Lactation, Diabetes, and Nutrition Recommendations. Current Diabetes Reports, 2004; 4: 370-376.

Taylor JS, Kacmar JE, Nothnagle M, Lawrence RA. A Systematic Review of the Literature Associating Breastfeeding with Type 2 Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes. Journal of American College of Nutrition, 2005; 24 (5): 320-326.

GDM: Alcohol Consumption

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis. National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Health and Human Services, in coordination with the National Task Force on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/pregnancy.

 

GDM: Pharmacologic Therapy

 

American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2002: 25 (1); S94-S96.

 

Bertini AM, Silva JC, Taborda W, Becker F, Bebber FRL, Viesi JMZ, Aquim G, Ribeiro TE. Perinatal outcomes and the use of oral hypoglycemic agents. J Perinat Med. 2005; 33: 519-523.

 

Bhattacharyya A, Brown S, Hughes S, Vice PA. Insulin lispro and regular insulin in pregnancy. QJ Med. 2001; 94: 255-260.

 

Bonomo M, Cetin I, Pisoni MP, Faden D, Mion E, Taricco E, Nobile de Santis M, Radaelli T, Motta G, Costa M, Solerte L, Morabito A. Flexible treatment of Gestational Diabetes modulated on ultrasound evaluation of intrauterine growth: a controlled randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Metab. 2004, 30, 237-243.

 

Charles B, Norris R, Xiao X, Hague W. Population Pharmacokinetics of Metformin in Late Pregnancy. Ther Drug Monit. 2006; 28: 67-72.

 

Chmait R, Dinise T, Moore T. Prospective Observational study to establish predictors of glyburide success in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of Perinatology, 2004; 24: 617-622.

 

Conway DL, Gonzales O, Skiver D. Use of glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes: the San Antonio experience. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004 Jan; 15 (1): 51-55.

 

Franz MJ, Horton ES, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, Brunzell JD, Coulston AM, Henry RR, Hoogwerf BJ, Stacpoole PW. Nutrition principles for the management of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care. 1994; 17: 490-518.

 

Hellmuth E, Damm P, Molsted-Pedersen L. Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies. Diabetic Medicine, 2000; 17: 507-511.

 

Jacobson GF, Ramos GA, Ching JY, Kirby RS, Ferrara A, Field DR. Comparison of glyburide and insulin for the management of gestational diabetes in a large managed care organization. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2005: 193: 118-124.

 

Kjos S, Schaefer-Graf U, Sardesi S, Peters R, Buley A, Xiang A, Byrne J, Sutherland C, Montoro M, Buchanan T. A randomized controlled trial using glycemic plus fetal ultrasound parameters versus glycemic parameters to determine insulin therapy in gestational diabetes with fasting hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care, 2001; 24: 1,904-1,910.

 

Kremer C, Duff P. Glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 190 (5): 1,438-1,439.

 

Langer O, Conway DL, Berkus MD, Xenakis EMJ, Gonzalez O. A comparision of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. New Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 1,134-1,138.

 

Langer O, Yogev Y, Xenakis EMJ, Rosenn B. Insulin and glyburide therapy: Dosage, severity level of gestational diabetes, and pregnancy outcome. Am J of Obstet Gynec. 2005;192: 134-139.

 

Leipold H, Worda C, Gruber CJ, Kautzky-Willer A, Husslein PW, Bancher-Todesca D. Large-for-gestational-age newborns in women with insulin-treated gestational diabetes under strict metabolic control. Wien Klin Wochenschr.  2005; 117/15-16: 521-525.

 

Pettitt DJ, Ospina P, Kolaczynski JW, Jovanovic L. Comparison of an insulin analog, insulin aspart and regular human insulin with no insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2003; 26: 183-186.

 

Poyhonen-Alho M, Teramo K, Kaaja R. Treatment of gestational diabetes with short-or long-acting insulin and neonatal outcome: a pilot study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002; 81: 258-259.

 

Price N, Bartlett C, Gillmer MD. Use of insulin glargine during pregnancy: a case-control pilot study. BJOG. 2007; 114 (4): 453-457.

 

Rossi G, Somigliana E, Moschetta M, Bottani B, Barbieri M, Vignali M. Adequate timing of fetal ultrasound to quide metabolic therapy in mild gestational diabetes melliutus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000; 79: 649-654.

 

Schaefer-Graf UM, Kjos SL, Fauzan OH, Buhling KJ, Siebert G, Buhrer C, Ladendorf B, Dudenhausen JW, Vetter K. A randomized trial evaluating a predominately fetal growth-based strategy to guide management of gestational diabetes in Caucasian women. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (2): 297-302.

 

Simmons D, Thompson CF, Conroy C, Scott DJ. Use of insulin pumps in pregnancies complicated by Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes in a multiethnic community. Diabetes Care, 2001; 24 (12): 2,078-2,082.

 

Simpson RW, Kast SJ. Management of gestational diabetes with a conservative insulin protocol. Med J Aust. 2000; 172: 537-540.

 

Svare JA, Hansen BB, Molsted-Pedersen L. Perinatal complications in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001; 80 (10): 899-904.

 

Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, Chen R, Rosenn B, Hod M, Langer O. Undiagnosed asymptomatic hypoglycemia: diet, insulin and glyburide for gestational diabetic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104: 88-93.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Jovanovic L, Ilic S, Pettitt DJ, Hugo K, Gutierrez M, Bowsher RR, Bastyr EJ. The metabolic and immunologic effects of insulin lispro in gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care, 1999; 22: 1,422-1,426.

 

Rowan JA, Hague WM, Gao W, Battin MR, Moore MP, for the MiG Trial Investigators. Metformin versus insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358: 2,003-2,015.

 

GDM: Ketone Testing

 

Banerjee S, Ghosh US, Banerjee D. Foetomaternal complications in pregnancies with diabetes mellitus: association with the amount of insulin requirement, mean terminal blood glucose and HbA1c levels. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003; 101 (12): 728, 730-732, 740.

 

Ben-Haroush A, Yogev Y, Chen R, Rosenn B, Hod M, Langer O. The postprandial glucose profile in the diabetic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 191: 576-581.

 

Buhling KJ, Winkel T, Wolf C, Kurzidim B, Mahmoudi M, Wohlfarth K, Wascher C, Schink T, Dudenhausen JW. Optimal timing for postprandial glucose measurement in pregnant women with diabetes and a non-diabetic pregnant population evaluated by the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). J Perinat Med. 2005; 33 (2): 125-131.

 

Chen R, Yogev Y, Ben-Haroush A, Jovanovic L, Hod M, Phillip M. Continuous glucose monitoring for the evaluation and improved control of gestational diabetes mellitus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003; 14 (4): 256-260.

 

Churchill JA, Berendes HW, Nemore J. Neuropsychological deficits in children of diabetic mothers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969; 105: 257-268.

 

Combs CA, Gunderson E, Kitzmiller JL, Gavin LA, Main EK. Relationship of fetal macrosomia to maternal postprandial glucose control during pregnancy. Diabetes Care, 1992; 15: 1,251-1,257.

 

De Veciana M, Major CA, Morgan MA, Asrat T, Toohey JS, Lien JM, Evans AT. Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose monitoring in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. NEJM. 1995; 333: 1,237-1,241.

 

Homko CJ, Sivan E, Reece EA. The impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose on self-efficacy and pregnancy outcomes in women with diet-controlled gestational diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2002; 28 (3): 435-443.

 

Langer O, Levy J, Brustman L, Anyaegbunam A, Merkatz R, Divon M. Glycemic control in gestational diabetes mellitus - how tight is tight enough: small for gestational age versus large for gestational age? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989; 161: 646-653.

 

Langer O, Langer N, Piper JM, Elliott B, Anyaegbunam A. Cultural diversity as a factor in self-monitoring blood glucose in gestational diabetes. J Assoc Acad Min Phys. 1995; 6: 73-77.

 

Langer O, Mazze RS. Diabetes in pregnancy: Evaluating self-monitoring performance and glycemic control with memory-based reflectance meters. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986; 155: 635-637.

 

Naeye RL, Chez RA. Effects of maternal acetonuria and low pregnancy weight gain on children's psychomotor development. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981; 139: 189-193.

 

Parretti E, Mecacci F, Papini M, Cioni R, Carignani L, Mignosa M, La Torre P, Mello G. Third-trimester maternal glucose levels from diurnal profiles in nondiabetic pregnancies: correlation with sonographic parameters of fetal growth. Diabetes Care, 2001; 24: 1,319-1,323.

 

Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. NEJM. 1991; 325 (13): 911-916.

 

Sivan E, Weisz B, Homko CJ, Reece EA, Schiff E. One or two hours postprandial glucose measurements: Are they the same? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 185: 604-607.

 

Weisz B, Shrim A, Homko CJ, Schiff E, Epstein GS, Sivan E. One hour versus two hours postprandial glucose measurement in gestational diabetes: a prospective study. J Perinatol. 2005; 25 (4): 241-244.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl. 1: S48-S65.

 

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107 (8): 1,296-1,304.

 
Monitoring and Evaluation

GDM: Monitor and Evaluate MNT Effectiveness

 

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, McPhee AJ, Jeffries WS, Robinson JS, for the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) Trial Group. Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 2,477-2,486.

 

Gabbe SG, Gregory RP, Power ML, Williams SB, Schulkin J. Management of diabetes mellitus by obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jun; 103 (6): 1,229-1,234.

 

Reader D, Splett P, Gunderson EP, for the Diabetes Care and Education Dietetic Practice Group. Impact of gestational diabetes mellitus nutrition practice guidelines implemented by registered dietitians on pregnancy outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Sep; 106 (9): 1,426-1,433.

 

Sunsaneevithayakul P, Kanokpongsakdi S, Sutanthavibul A, Ruangvutilert P, Boriboohirunsarn D, Keawprasit T, Tantawattana R. Result of ambulatory diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Jan; 89 (1): 8-12.

 

Svare JA, Hansen BB, Molsted-Pedersen L. Perinatal complications in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001; 80 (10): 899-904.

 

Taricco E, Radaelli T, Nobile de Santis MS, Cetin I. Foetal and placental weights in relation to maternal characteristics in gestational diabetes. Placenta, 2003 Apr; 24 (4): 343-347.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

 
 

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl. 1: S48-S65.

 

Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Guidelines, Number 30, 2001; 98 (3): 525-538.

 

Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1990.

 

Metzger BE, Buchanan TA, Coustan DR, de Leiva A, Dunger DB, Hadden DR, Hod M, Kitzmiller JL, Kjos SL, Oats JN, Pettitt DJ, Sacks DA, Zoupas C. Summary and recommendations of the Fifth International Workshop Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl. 2: S251-S260.

 

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107 (8): 1,296-1,304.

 

GDM: Prevention of Recurrence/Type 2 Diabetes

 

Coustan DR, Carpenter MW, O'Sullivan PS, Carr SR. Gestational diabetes: predictors of subsequent disordered glucose metabolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993; 168: 1,139-1,145.

 

Dalfra MG, Lapolla A, Masin M, Giglia G, Dalla Barba B, Toniato R, Fedele D. Antepartum and early postpartum predictors of type 2 diabetes development in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab. 2001 Dec; 27 (6): 675-80.

 

Lauenborg J, Hansen T, Jensen DM, Vestergaard H, Molsted-Pedersen L, Hornnes P, Locht H, Pedersen O, Damm P. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes: a long-term follow-up in a Danish population. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (5): 1,194-1,199.

 

Linne Y, Barkeling B, Rossner S. Natural course of gestational diabetes mellitus: long term follow up of women in the SPAWN study. BJOG. 2002 Nov; 109 (11): 1,227-1,231.

 

Schranz AG, Savona-Ventura C. Long-term significance of gestational carbohydrate intolerance: a longitudinal study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2002 Aug; 110 (5): 219-22.

 

Smith BJ, Cheung NW, Bauman AE, Zehle K, McLean M. Postpartum physical activity and related psychosocial factors among women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2005 Nov; 28 (11): 2,650-2,654.

 

Stage E, Ronneby H, Damm P. Lifestyle change after gestational diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004; 63 (1): 67-72.

 

MacNeill S, Dodds L, Hamilton DC, Armson BA, VandenHof M. Rates and risk factors for recurrence of gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2001; 24: 659-662.

 

Moses RG. The recurrence rate of gestational diabetes in subsequent pregnancies. Diabetes Care, 1996; 19: 1,348-1,350.

 

Moses RG, Shand JL, Tapsell LC. The recurrence of gestational diabetes: could dietary differences in fat intake be an explanation? Diabetes Care, 1997; 20: 1,647-1,650.

 

Nohira T, Kim S, Nakai H, Okabe K, Nohira T, Yoneyama K. Recurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus: rates and risk factors from initial GDM and one abnormal GTT value. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 Jan; 71 (1): 75-81.

 

Philipson EH, Super DM. Gestational diabetes mellitus: does it recur in subsequent pregnancy? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989; 160: 1,324-1,331.

 

Citations Not Used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 2007; 30 Suppl. 1: S48-S65.

Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1990.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107 (8): 1,296-1,304.