• Intervention
    For the patient with heart failure, is there an optimal level of fluid and/or sodium restriction which will reduce heart failure symptomology and morbidity/mortality in heart failure?
    • Conclusion

      The limited available evidence supports a 2,000-mg-per-day sodium diet and 1.5L per day fluid restriction. Some studies found a benefit in quality of life, NYHA functional class, sleep disturbance, physical activity, edema, BNP and blood pressure. One recent randomized controlled trial study with a small sample size and short duration indicated a tolerance for a sodium range of 1,610mg to 5,750mg per day for the compensated medically-treated heart failure patient. 

    • Grade: II
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.