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Critical Illness

CI: References (2012)

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.
To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

Critical Illness Major Recommendation References

CI: Nutrition Assessment/Reassessment

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Task Force of A.S.P.E.N; American Dietetic Association Dietitians in Nutrition Support Dietetic Practice Group, Russell M, Stieber M, Brantley S, Freeman AM, Lefton J, Malone AM, Roberts S, Skates J, Young LS; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; ADA Quality Management Committee. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) and American Dietetic Association (ADA): standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitians (generalist, specialty, and advanced) in nutrition support. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Oct; 22 (5): 558-586. PMID: 17906280.

CI: Determination of Resting Metabolic Rate

Brandi LS, Bertolini R, Santini L. Calculated and measured oxygen consumption in mechanically ventilated surgical patients in the early post-operative period. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1999;16(1):53-61.

Epstein CD, Peerless JR, Martin JE, Malangoni MA. Comparison of methods of measurements of oxygen consumption in mechanically ventilated patients with multiple trauma: the Fick method versus indirect calorimetry. Crit Care Med 2000;28(5):1363-9.

Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC. Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(3):461-6.

Marson F, Martins MA, Coletto FA, Campos AD, Basile-Filho A. Correlation between oxygen consumption calculated using Fick's method and measured with indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients. Arq Bras Cardiol 2003;81:77-81.

Ogawa AM, Shikora SA, Burke LM, Heetderks-Cox JE, Bergren CT, Muskat PC. The thermodilution technique for measuring resting energy expenditure does not agree with indirect calorimetry for the critically ill patient. JPEN 1998; 22: 347-351.

Alexander E, Susla GM, Burstein AH, Brown DT, Ognibene FP. Retrospective evaluation of commonly used equations to predict energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24(12):1659-1667.

Anderegg BA, Worrall C, Barbour E, Simpson KN, Delegge M. Comparison of resting energy expenditure prediction methods with measured resting energy expenditure in obese, hospitalized adults. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 Mar-Apr; 33(2): 168-175.

Boullata J, Williams J, Cottrell F, Hudson L, Compher C. Accurate determination of energy needs in hospitalized patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 393-401.

Brandi LS, Santini L, Bertolini R, Malacarne P, Casagli S, Baraglia AM. Energy expenditure and severity of injury and illness indices in multiple trauma patients. Crit Care Med 1999;27(12):2684-9.

Casati A, Colombo S, Leggieri C, Muttini S, Capocasa T, Gallioli G. Measured versus calculated energy expenditure in pressure support ventilated ICU patients. Minerva Anestesiol 1996;62(5):165-170.

Cheng CH, Chen CH, Wong Y, Lee BJ, Kan MN, Huang YC. Measured versus estimated energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 2002;21(2):165-172.

Cutts ME, Dowdy RP, Ellersieck MR, Edes TE. Predicting energy needs in ventilator-dependent critically ill patients: effect of adjusting weight for edema or adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1250-6.

Donaldson-Andersen J, Fitzsimmons L. Metabolic requirements of the critically ill, mechanically ventilated trauma patient: measured versus predicted energy expenditure. Nutr Clin Pract 1998;13(1):25-31.

Faisy C, Guerot E, Diehl JL, Labrousse J, Fagon JY. Assessment of resting energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:241-9.

Frankenfield DC, Coleman A, Alam S, Cooney R. Analysis of estimation methods for resting metabolic rate in critically ill adults. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009; 33: 27.

Glynn CC, Greene GW, Winkler MF, Albina JE. Predictive versus measured energy expenditure using limits-of agreement analysis in hospitalized, obese patients. JPEN 1999;23:147-154.

Ireton-Jones C, Jones JD. Improved equations for predicting energy expenditure in patients: the Ireton-Jones equations. Nutr Clin Pract 2002;17(1):29-31.

Jansen MMPM, Heymer F, Leusink JA, de Boer A. The quality of nutrition at an intensive care unit. Nutrition Research 2002;22(4):411-422.

MacDonald A, Hildebrandt L. Comparison of formulaic equations to determine energy expenditure in the critically ill patient. Nutrition 2003;19(3):233-9.

O'Leary-Kelley CM, Puntillo KA, Barr J, Stotts N, Douglas MK. Nutritional adequacy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation who are fed enterally. Am J Crit Care 2005; 14(3):222-31.

Savard JF. Faisy C. Lerolle N. Guerot E. Diehl JL. Fagon JY. Validation of a predictive method for an accurate assessment of resting energy expenditure in medical mechanically ventilated patients. Critical Care Medicine. 2008; 36(4): 1,175-1,183.

Stucky CC, Moncure M, Hise M, Gossage CM, Northrop D. How accurate are resting energy expenditure prediction equations in obese trauma and burn patients? J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Jul-Aug; 32(4): 420-426.

Campbell CG, Zander E, Thorland W. Predicted vs measured energy expenditure in critically ill, underweight patients. Nutr Clin Pract 2005;20(2):276-80.

Compher C, Cato R, Bader J, Kinosian B. Harris-Benedict equations do not adequately predict energy requirements in elderly hospitalized African Americans. J National Med Assoc 2004;96(2):209-214.

Frankenfield D, Smith JS, Cooney RN. Validation of 2 approaches to predicting resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. JPEN 2004;28(4):259-64.

Barak N, Wall-Alonso E, Sitrin MD. Evaluation of stress factors and body weight adjustments currently used to estimate energy expenditure in hospitalized patients. JPEN 2002; 26(4):231-8.

Frankenfield David. Validation of an equation for resting metabolic rate in older obese critically ill patients. JPEN. 2010 (in press).

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC). AARC Clinical practice guideline. Metabolic measurement using indirect calorimetry during mechanical ventilation - 2004 Revision and update. Respir Care. 2004; 49 (9): 1,073-1,079.

CI: Coordination of Care

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Task Force of A.S.P.E.N; American Dietetic Association Dietitians in Nutrition Support Dietetic Practice Group, Russell M, Stieber M, Brantley S, Freeman AM, Lefton J, Malone AM, Roberts S, Skates J, Young LS; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; ADA Quality Management Committee. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) and American Dietetic Association (ADA): standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitians (generalist, specialty, and advanced) in nutrition support. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Oct; 22 (5): 558-586. PMID: 17906280.

CI: Nutrition Prescription

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Task Force of A.S.P.E.N; American Dietetic Association Dietitians in Nutrition Support Dietetic Practice Group, Russell M, Stieber M, Brantley S, Freeman AM, Lefton J, Malone AM, Roberts S, Skates J, Young LS; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; ADA Quality Management Committee. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) and American Dietetic Association (ADA): standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitians (generalist, specialty, and advanced) in nutrition support. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Oct; 22 (5): 558-586. PMID: 17906280.

CI: Enteral vs. Parenteral Nutrition

Abou-Assi S, Craig K, O'Keefe SJ. Hypocaloric jejunal feeding is better than total pareneteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: results of a randomized comparative study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 2,255-2,262.

Adams S, Dellinger EP, Wertz MJ, Oreskovich MR, Simonowitz D, Johansen K. J of Trauma; 1986;26(10);882-891

Borzotta, AP, et al. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition after severe closed head injury. J of Trauma. 1994;37(3):459-468.

Braunschweig CL, et al. Enteral compared with parenteral nutrition: A meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:534-542.

Cerra FB, et al. Enteral nutrition does not prevent multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) after sepsis. Surgery. 1988;104:272-33.

Hadfield RJ, et al. Effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition on gut mucosal permeability in the critically ill. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:1545-1548.

Hadley MN, Grahm TW, Harrington T, Schiller WR, McDermott MK, Posillico DB. Nutritional Support and Neurotrauma: A Critical Review of Early Nutrition in Forty-Five Acute Head Injury Patients. Neurosurgery 1986; 19: 367-373

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN. 2003; 27: 355-373.

Kalfarentzos, F, Kehagias N, Kokkinis MK, Gogos CA. Enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis: results of a randomized prospective trial. BJN; 1997, 84:1665-1669.

Kudsk KA, et al. Enteral versus parenteral feeding: Effects on septic morbidity after blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Ann Surg. 1992;215(5):503-511.

Kutsogiannis J, Alberda C, Gramlich L, Cahill NE, Wang M, Day AG, Dhaliwal R, Heyland DK. Early use of supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: Results of an international multicenter observational study. Crit Care Med. 2011 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21765355.

Moore FA, Feliciano DV, Andrassy RJ, McArdle AH, Booth FV, MOrgenstein-Wagner T B, Kellum, JM, Welling RE and Moore EE. Early Enteral Feeding, Compared with Parenteral, Reduces Postoperative Septic Complications, The results of a Meta-analysis. Ann Surg, 1992, vol 16 (2) p 172-183

Simpson F and Doig GS. Parenteral vs. enteral nutrition in the critically ill patient: a meta-analysis of trials using the intention to treat principle. Intensive Care Med. 2005; 31: 12-23.

Woodcock NP, et al. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition: a pragmatic study. Nutrition 2001;17:1-21.

Young B, Ott L, Twyman D, Norton J, Rapp R, Tibbs P, Haack D, Brivins B, Dempsey R. The effect of nutritional support on outcome from severe head injury. Journal of Neurosurgery 1987; 67:668-76.

Moore FA, et al. TEN versus TPN following major abdominal trauma--reduced septic morbidity. J Trauma. 1989;29:916-923.

Trice S, Melnik G, Page G. Complications and costs of early postoperative parenteral versus enteral nurition in trauma patients. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 1997. 12 (3) 114-119.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process 

Lawlor DK, Inculet RI, Malthaner RA. Small-bowel necrosis associated with jejunal tube feeding. Can J Surg. 1998 Dec; 41 (6): 459-462.

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P, Taylor B, Ochoa JB, Napolitano L, Cresci G; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; American College of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 May-Jun; 33 (3): 277-316. No abstract available. PMID: 19398613.

Melis M, Fichera A, Ferguson MK. Bowel necrosis associated with early jejunal tube feeding: A complication of postoperative enteral nutrition. Arch Surg. 2006 Jul; 141 (7): 701-704.

Rai J, Flint LM, Ferrara JJ. Small bowel necrosis in association with jejunostomy tube feedings. Am Surg. 1996 Dec; 62 (12): 1,050-1,054.

CI: Initiation of Enteral Nutrition

Dissanaike S, Pham T, Shalhub S, WArner K, Hennessy L, Moore EE, Maier RV, O'Keefe GE, Cuschieri J. Effect of immediate enteral feeding on trauma patients with an open abdomen: Protection from nosocomial infections. J Am Coll Surg. 2008 Nov;207(5):690-697.

Doig GS, Heighes PT, Simpson F, Sweetman EA, Davies AR. Early enteral nutrition, provided within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission, significantly reduces mortality in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Intensive Care Med. 2009; 35 (12): 2, 018-2,027.

Doig GS, Simpson F, Finfer S, Delaney A, Davies AR, Mitchell I, Dobb G. Nutrition Guidelines Investigators of the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group. Effect of evidence-based feeding guidelines on mortality of critically ill adults: A cluster randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Dec 17; 300 (23): 2,731-2,732. PMID: 19088351.

Doig GS, Heighes PT, Simpson F, Sweetman EA. Early enteral nutrition reduces mortality in trauma patients requiring intensive care: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Injury. 2011 Jan; 42(1): 50-56.

Eyer SD, Micon LT, Konstantinides FN, et al. Early enteral feeding does not attenuate metabolic response after blunt trauma. J Trauma. 1993; 34: 5.

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN. 2003; 27: 355-373.

Ibrahim EH, et al. Early versus late enteral feeding of mechanically ventilated patients: results of a clinical trial. JPEN 2002; 26:174-181.

Khalid I, Doshi P, DiGiovine B. Early enteral nutrition and outcomes of critically ill patients treated with vasopressors and mechanical ventilation. Am J Crit Care. 2010 May; 19 (3): 261-268. Erratum in: Am J Crit Care. 2010 Nov; 19 (6): 488. PMID: 20436064.

Lewis S., Egger M., Sylvester P., Thomas S. (2001). Early enteral feeding versus “nil by mouth” after gastrointestinal surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. BMJ Vol 323 October: 773-776 (2001).

Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: A systematic review. Crit Care Med. 2001; 29: 2,246-2,270.

Singh G, Ram RP, Khanna SK. Early postoperative enteral feeding in patients with nontraumatic intestinal perforation and peritonitis. J Am Coll Surg 1998; 187: 142-146.

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

Grahm TW, Zadrozny DB, Harrington T. The benefits of early jejeunal hyperalimentation in the head-injured patient. Neurosurgery 1989; 25: 729-735.

Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO. Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN, Fabian TC. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma: an immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg. 1996: 224 (4); 531-543.

Kompan, L, Kremzar, B, Gadzijev, E, Prosek, M. Effects of early enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability and the development of multiple organ failure after multiple injury. Intensive Care Medicine. 1999; 25: 157-161.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Lawlor DK, Inculet RI, Malthaner RA. Small-bowel necrosis associated with jejunal tube feeding. Can J Surg. 1998 Dec; 41 (6): 459-462.

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P, Taylor B, Ochoa JB, Napolitano L, Cresci G; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; American College of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 May-Jun; 33 (3): 277-316. No abstract available. PMID: 19398613.

Melis M, Fichera A, Ferguson MK. Bowel necrosis associated with early jejunal tube feeding: A complication of postoperative enteral nutrition. Arch Surg. 2006 Jul; 141 (7): 701-704.

Rai J, Flint LM, Ferrara JJ. Small bowel necrosis in association with jejunostomy tube feedings. Am Surg. 1996 Dec; 62 (12): 1,050-1,054. 

CI: Immune-Modulating Enteral Nutrition

Atkinson S, Sieffert E, Bihari D. A prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial of enteral immunonutrition in the critically ill. Critical Care Medicine, Vol 26(7) July 1998: 1164-1172

Beale RJ, Bryg DJ, Bihari, MB. Immunonutrition in the critically ill: a systematic review of clinical out. Critical Care Med. 1999 vol 27(12) pp 2799-2805

Bertolini G, Iapichino G, Radrizzani D, Facchini B, Simini B, Bruzzone P, Zanforlin G, Tognoni G. Early enteral immunonutrition in patients with severe sepsis. Intensive Care Medicine. 29:834-840, 2003.

Bower, RH, Cerra FB, Bershadsky B, Licari, JJ, Hoyt DB, Jensen GL, Van Buren CT, Rothkpf MM, Daly JM, Adelsberg BR. Early enteral administration of a formula (Impact Registered Trademark) supplemented with arginine, nucleotides, and fish oil intensive care unit patients: Results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Critical Care Medicine, Volue 23(3) March 1995 pp 436-449.

Caparros T, Lopez J, Grau T. Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with a high-protien diet enriched with arginine, fiber, and antioxidants compared with a standard high-protein diet. The effect on nosocomial infections and outcome. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 25(6): 299-308. 2001

Cerra FB, Lehman S, Konstantinides N, Konstantinides F, Shronts EP, Holman R. Effect of enteral nutrient on in vitro tests of immune function in ICU patients: A preliminary report. Nutrition. 6(1):84-87, 1990.

Galban, C., Montejo, J.C., Mesejo,P.,Celaya,S., Sandchez-Segura, J., Farre, M., Bryg, D.J., An immune-enhancing enteral diet reduces mortality rate adn episodes of bacterimia in septic intensive care unit patients. Critical Care Medicine, Vol 28(3) pp643-648. 2000.

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN. 2003; 27: 355-373.

Heyland DK, Novak F, Drover JW, Jain M, Su X, Suchner U. Should Immunonutrition become routine in critically ill patients? A systematic review of the evidence. (Caring for the critically ill patients). JAMA 2001; 286 p944.

Heys SD, Walker LG, Smith I, Eremin O. Enteral nutritional supplementation with key nutrients in patients with critical illness and cancer; a meta-analysis randomized controlled clinical trials. Annals Surgery, vol 229 (4), 1999 pp467-477.

Kieft H, Roos AN, van Drunen JDE, Bindels AJGH, Bindels JG, Hofman Z. Clinical outcomes of immunonutrition in a heterogeneous intensive care population. Intensive Care Med (2005) 31:524-532.

Montejo JC, Zarazaga A, Lopez-Martinez J, Urrutia G, Roque M, Blesa AL, Celaya S, Conejero R, Galban C, Garcia de Lorenzo A, Grau T, Mesejo A, Ortiz-Leyba C, Planas M, Ordonez J, Jimenez FJ. Immunonutrition in the intensive care unit. A systematic review and consensus statement. Clinical Nutrition. 22(3):221-233, 2003.

Moore FA, Moore EE, Kudsk KA, Brown RO, Bower RH, Koruda MJ, Baker CC, Barbul A. Clinical benefits of an immune-enhancing diet for early post injury enteral feeding. J Trauma 37:607-615, 1994.

Weimann A, Bastian L, Bischoff W, Grotz M, Hansel M, Lotz J, Trautwein C, Tusch G, Schlitt HJ, Regel G. Influence of Arginine, Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Nucleotide-Supplemented Enteral Support on Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Multiple Organ Failure in Patients After Sever Trauma. Nutrition 14:165-172, 1998.

Brown RO, Hunt H, Mowatt-Larssen CA, Wojtysiak SL, Henningfield MF, Kudsk KA. Comparison of specialized and standard enteral formulas in trauma patients. Pharmacotherapy. 14(3):314-320, 1994.

Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO. Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN, Fabian TC. A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma: an immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Ann Surg. 1996: 224 (4); 531-543.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

 

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P, Taylor B, Ochoa JB, Napolitano L, Cresci G; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; American College of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 May-Jun; 33 (3): 277-316. No abstract available. PMID: 19398613.

CI: Gastric vs. Small Bowel Feeding Tube Placement 

Acosta-Escribano J, Fernández-Vivas M, Grau Carmona T, Caturla-Such J, Garcia-Martinez M, Menendez-Mainer A, Solera-Suarez M, Sanchez-Payá J. Gastric vs. transpyloric feeding in severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective, randomized trial. Intensive Care Med. 2010 Sep; 36 (9): 1,532-1,539.

Davies AR, Froomes PRA, French CJ, et al. Randomized comparison of nasojejunal and nasogastric feeding in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 586-590

Esparza J, Boivin MA, Hartshorne MF, Levy H. Equal aspiration rates in gastrically and transpylorically fed critically ill patients. Intens Care Med 2001; 27: 660-664.

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN. 2003; 27: 355-373.

Hsu CW, Sun SF, Lin SL, Kang SP, Chu KA, Lin CH, Huang HH. Duodenal vs. gastric feeding in medical intensive care unit patients: A prospective, randomized, clinical study. Crit Care Med. 2009 Jun; 37(6): 1,866-1,872.

Kearns PJ, Chin D, Mueller L, Wallace K, Jensen WA, Kirsch CM. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and success in nutrient delivery with gastric vs. small intestinal feeding: A randomized clinical trial. Crit Med. 2000; 28: 1,742-1,746.

Kortbeek JB, Haigh PI, Doig C. Duodenal vs. gastric feeding in ventilated blunt trauma patients: A randomized controlled trial. J Trauma. 1999; 46: 992-998.

Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Gastric versus post-pyloric feeding: A systematic review. Crit Care. 2003; 7: 46-51.

Metheny NA, Davis-Jackson J, Stewart BJ. Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction protocol. Nurs Res. 2010 Jan-Feb; 59 (1): 18-25.

Montecalvo MA, Steger KA, Farber HW, et al. Nutritional outcome and pneumonia in critical care patients randomized to gastic vs. jejunal tube feedings. Crit Care Med. 1992; 20: 1,377-1,387.

Montejo JC, Grau T, Acosta J, et al. Multicenter, prospective, randomized, single-blind study comparing the efficacy and gastrointestinal complications of early jejunal feeding in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 796-800.

White H, Sosnowski K, Tran K, Reeves A, Jones M. A randomised controlled comparison of early post-pyloric vs. early gastric feeding to meet nutritional targets in ventilated intensive care patients. Crit Care. 2009; 13(6): R187. Epub: 2009 Nov 25. PMID: 19930728.

McClave SA, DeMeo MT, DeLegge MH, DiSario JA, Heyland DK, Maloney JP, Metheney NA, Moore FA, Scolapio JS, Spain DA, Zaloga GP. North American Summit on Aspiration in the Critically Ill Patient: Consensus Statement. J Parent Ent Nutr. 2002; 26: S80-S85.

Boivin MA, Levy H. Gastric feeding with erythromycin is equivalent to transpyloric feeding in the critically ill. Crit Care Med 2001; 39 (10): 1,916-1,919. 

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

CI: Blue Dye Use

Czop M, Herr D. Green skin discoloration associated with multiple organ failure. Crit Care Med 2002; 30: 598-601

File TM, Tan JS, Thomson RB, Stephens C, Thompson P. An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated respiratory infection due to contaminated food coloring dye: Further evidence of the significance of gastric colonization preceding nosocomial pneumonia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995; 16: 417-418.

Maloney JP, Ryan TA, Brasel KJ, Binion DG, Johnson DR, Halbower AC, Frankel EH, Nyffeler M, Moss M. Food dye use in enteral feedings: A review and a call for a moratorium. Nutr Clin Prac 2002; 17: 169-181.

McClave SA, DeMeo MT, DeLegge MH, DiSario JA, Heyland DK, Maloney JP, Metheney NA, Moore FA, Scolapio JS, Spain DA, Zaloga GP. North American Summit on Aspiration in the Critically Ill Patient: Consensus Statement. J Parent Ent Nutr. 2002; 26: S80-S85.

Metheny NA, Clouse RE. Bedside Methods for Detecting Aspiration in Tube-Fed Patients. Chest 1997; 111: 724-731.

Metheny NA, Dahms TE, Stewart BJ, Stone KS, Edwards SJ, Defer JE, Clouse RE. Efficacy of dye-stained enteral formula in detecting pulmonary aspiration. Chest. 2002; 122: 276-281.

Potts RG, Zariukian MH, Guerrero PA, Baker CD. Comparison of Blue Dye Visualization and Glucose Oxidase Test Strip Methods for Detecting Pulmonary Aspiration of Enteral Feedings in Intubated Adults. Chest 1993; 103: 117-121.

Sills MR, Zinkham WH. Methylene blue-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia. Arch Ped Adolesc Med 1994; 148:306-310.

Thompson-Henry S, Braddock B. The Modified Evan’s Blue Dye Procedure Fails to Detect Aspiration in the Tracheostomized Patient: Five Case Reports. Dysphagia 1995; 10: 172-174.

Zillich AJ, Kuhn RJ, Petersen TJ. Skin discoloration with Blue Food Coloring. Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34: 868-870

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

FDA Public Health Advisory: Reports of blue discoloration and death in patients receiving enteral feedings tinted with the dye, FD&C Blue No. 1. USDA, September 29, 2003.

CI: Optimizing Enteral Nutrition Delivery

Esparza J, Boivin MA, Hartshorne MF, Levy H. Equal aspiration rates in gastrically and transpylorically fed critically ill patients. Intens Care Med 2001; 27: 660-664.

Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Drover JW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN. 2003; 27: 355-373.

McClave SA, DeMeo MT, DeLegge MH, DiSario JA, Heyland DK, Maloney JP, Metheney NA, Moore FA, Scolapio JS, Spain DA, Zaloga GP. North American Summit on Aspiration in the Critically Ill Patient: Consensus Statement. J Parent Ent Nutr. 2002; 26: S80-S85.

Pinilla JC, Samphire J, Arnold C, et al. Comparison of gastrointestinal tolerance to two enteral feeding protocols in critically ill patients: A prospective, randomized controlled trial. JPEN 2001; 25:81-86.

Bowton D. Nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU-year 2000 and beyond. Chest 1999; 115(3): 28S-33S.

Collard HR, Saint S, Matthay MA. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: An evidence-based systematic review. Ann Int Med 2003; 138(6): 494-501.

Drakulovic MB, Torres A, Bauer TT, et al. Supine body position as a risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomized trial. Lancet 1999; 354: 1851-1858.

Ibanez J, Penafiel A, Raurich JM, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux in intubated patients receiving enteral nutrition: Effect of supine and semirecumbent positions. J Parent Ent Nutr 1992; 16:419-422

Orozco-Levi M, Torres A, Ferrer M, et al. Semirecumbent position protects from pulmonary aspiration but not completely from gastroesophageal reflux in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995; 152:1387-1390.

Torres A, Serra-Batlles J, Ros E, et al. Pulmonary aspiratin of gastric contents in patients receiving mechanical ventilation: The effect of body position. Ann Int Med 1992; 116: 540-543.

Boivin MA, Levy H. Gastric feeding with erythromycin is equivalent to transpyloric feeding in the critically ill. Crit Care Med 2001; 39 (10): 1,916-1,919.

Booth CM, Heyland DK, Paterson WG. Gastrointestinal promotility drugs in the critical care setting: A systematic review of the evidence. Crit Care Med 2002; 30:1429-1435.

Yavagal DR, Karnad DR, Oak JL. Metoclopramide for preventing pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving enteral tube feeding: A randomized controlled trial. Crit Med 2000;28:1401-1411.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Clinical Practice Guidelines. Critical Care Nutrition. Kingston Ontario, Canada. Guidelines Updated January 2009. Accessed online January 23, 2012: http://www.criticalcarenutrition.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=18&Itemid=10.

Food and Drug Administration. FDA Requires Boxed Warning and Risk Mitigation Strategy for Metoclopramide-Containing Drugs
Agency warns against chronic use of these products to treat gastrointestinal disorders. News Release Feb 26, 2009; Accessed online November 14, 2011: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm149533.htm.

Metoclopramide Injection, USP. [package insert]. Faulding Pharmaceutical Co., a Mayne Group Company, Paramus, N.J. 07652.

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P, Taylor B, Ochoa JB, Napolitano L, Cresci G; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; American College of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 May-Jun; 33 (3): 277-316. No abstract available. PMID: 19398613.

Montejo JC, Miñambres E, Bordejé L, Mesejo A, Acosta J, Heras A, Ferré M, Fernandez-Ortega F, Vaquerizo CI, Manzanedo R. Gastric residual volume during enteral nutrition in ICU patients: the REGANE study. Intensive Care Med. 2010 Aug; 36 (8): 1,386-1,393. Epub 2010 Mar 16. PMID: 20232036. (SCCM/A.S.P.E.N. Guidelines Reference).

Pasricha PJ, Pehlivanov N, Sugumar A, Jankovic J. Drug Insight: from disturbed motility to disordered movement--a review of the clinical benefits and medicolegal risks of metoclopramide. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Mar; 3 (3): 138-148.

Shaffer D, Butterfield M, Pamer C, Mackey AC. Tardive dyskinesia risks and metoclopramide use before and after U.S. market withdrawal of cisapride. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2004 Nov-Dec; 44 (6): 661-665. (Washington, D.C.).

Silva CCR, Saconato H, Atallah AN. Metoclopramide for migration of naso-enteral tube. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2002, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003353. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003353.

Wipke-Tevis DD, Williams DA, Rantz MJ, Popejoy LL, Madsen RW, Petroski GF, Vogelsmeier AA. Nursing home quality and pressure ulcer prevention and management practices. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Apr; 52 (4): 583-588. PMID: 15066075. 

CI: Enteral Nutrition Energy Delivery 

Arabi YM, Tamim HM, Dhar GS, Al-Dawood A, Al-Sultan M, Sakkijha MH, Kahoul SH, Brits R. Permissive underfeeding and intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar; 93 (3): 569-577. Epub 2011 Jan 26. PMID: 21270385.

Dickerson RN, Boschert KJ, Kudsk KA, Brown RO. Hypocaloric enteral tube feeding in critically ill obese patients. Nutrition. 2002; 18: 241-246.

Faisy C, Lerolle N, Dachraoui F, Savard JF, Abboud I, Tadie JM, Fagon JY. Impact of energy deficit calculated by a predictive method on outcome in medical patients requiring prolonged acute mechanical ventilation. Br J Nutr. 2009 Apr; 101 (7): 1,079-1,087. PMID: 18778528.

Heyland DK, Cahill NE, Dhaliwal R, Wang M, Day AG, Alenzi A, Aris F, Muscedere J, Drover JW, McClave SA. Enhanced protein-energy provision via the enteral route in critically ill patients: A single center feasibility trial of the PEP uP protocol. Crit Care. 2010; 14 (2): R78.

Taylor SJ, Fettes SB, Jewkes C, Nelson R. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial to determine the effect of early enhanced enteral nutrition on clinical outcome in mechanically ventilated patients suffering head injury. Critical Care Medicine 1999; 27: 2525-2531.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Lawlor DK, Inculet RI, Malthaner RA. Small-bowel necrosis associated with jejunal tube feeding. Can J Surg. 1998 Dec; 41 (6): 459-462.

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P, Taylor B, Ochoa JB, Napolitano L, Cresci G; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; American College of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 May-Jun; 33 (3): 277-316. No abstract available. PMID: 19398613.

Melis M, Fichera A, Ferguson MK. Bowel necrosis associated with early jejunal tube feeding: A complication of postoperative enteral nutrition. Arch Surg. 2006 Jul; 141 (7): 701-704.

Rai J, Flint LM, Ferrara JJ. Small bowel necrosis in association with jejunostomy tube feedings. Am Surg. 1996 Dec; 62 (12): 1,050-1,054.

CI: Blood Glucose Control 

Arabi YM, Dabbagh OC, Tamim HM, Al-Shimemeri AA, Memish ZA, Haddad SH, Syed SJ, Giridhar HR, Rishu AH, Al-Daker MO, Kahoul SH, Britts RJ, Sakkijha MH. Intensive versus conventional insulin therapy: A randomized controlled trial in medical and surgical critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2008 Dec; 36(12): 3,190-3,197.

Brunkhorst FM, Engel C, Bloos F, Meier-Hellmann A, Ragaller M, Weiler N, Moerer O, Gruendling M, Oppert M, Grond S, Olthoff D, Jaschinski U, John S, Rossaint R, Welte T, Schaefer M, Kern P, Kuhnt E, Kiehntopf M, Hartog C, Natanson C, Loeffler M, Reinhart K; German Competence Network Sepsis (SepNet). N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 10; 358(2): 125-139.

Finfer S, Chittock DR, et al, for the The Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation–Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) Investigators. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. NEJM. 2009; 360(13): 1,283.

Grey NJ, Perdrizet GA. Reduction of nosocomial infections in the surgical intensive-care unit by strict glycemic control. Endocr Pract. 2004 Mar-Apr;10 Suppl 2:46-52.

Krinsley JS. Association between hyperglycemia and increased hospital mortality in a heterogeneous population of critically ill patients? Mayo Clin Proc. 2003. Dec;78(12):1472-8.

Krinsley JS Effect of an intensive glucose management protocol on the mortality of critically ill patients. Mayo Clin Proc Nov 15, 2004. 2004;79(8):992-1000.

Mitchell I, Knight E, Gissane J, Tamhane R, Kolli R, Leditschke IA, Bellomo R, Finfer S; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group. A phase II randomised controlled trial of intensive insulin therapy in general intensive care patients. Crit Care Resusc. 2006; 8(4): 289-293.

Oddo M, Schmidt M, Carrera E, Badjatia N, Connolly ES, Presciutti M, Ostapkovich ND, Levind J, Le Roux P and Mayer S. Impact of tight glycemic control on cerebral glucose metabolism after severe brain injury: A microdialysis study. Crit Care Med. 2008; 36: 3,233.

Treggiari MM, Karir V, Yanez ND, Weiss NS, Daniel S, Deem SA. Intensive insulin therapy and mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2008; 12(1): R29. Epub 2008 Feb 29.

Van Den Berghe G, Wouter P. Bouillon R, et al. Outcome benefit of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill: Insulin dose versus glycemic control. Crit Care Med. 2003;31(2):359-366.

Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, Schetz M, Vlasselaers D, Ferdinande P, Lauwers P and Bouillon R. Intensive Insulin Therapy in Critically Ill Patients. NEJM. 2001;345(19):1359-1367.

Van den Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Meersseman W, Wouters PJ, Milants I, Wijngaerden EV, Bobbaers H, Bouillon R. Intensive insulin therapy in the medical icu. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:449-61.

Wiener RS, Wiener DC, Larson RJ. Benefits and risks of tight glucose control in critically ill adults: A meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008 Aug 27; 300(8): 933-944.

Furnary AP, Zerr KJ, Grunkemeier GL, Starr A. Continuous intravenous insulin infusion reduces the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients after cardiac surgical procedures, Ann Thorac Surg 1999;67:352-62.

Golden SH, Peart-Vigilance C, Kao WH, Brancati FL. Perioperative glycemic control and the risk of infectious complications in a cohort of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(9):1408-1414.

Zerr KJ, Furnary AP, Grunkemeier GL, Bookin S, Kanhere V, Starr A. Glucose control lowers the risk of wound infection in diabetics after open heart operations. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:356-61.

Krinsley JS and Jones RL, Cost analysis of initensive glycemic control in critically ill adult patients. Chest. 2006. 129:644-650.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

CI: Enteral Nutrition and Fiber

Chittawatanarat K, Pokawinpudisnun P, Polbhakdee Y. Mixed fibers diet in surgical ICU septic patients. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010; 19 (4): 458-464.

Dobb GJ, Towler SC. Diarrhoea during enteral feeding in the critically ill: a comparison of feeds with and without fibre. Intensive Care Med. 1990; 16 (4): 252-255. PMID: 2162867.

Emery EA, Ahmad S, Koethe JD, Skipper A, Perlmutter S, Paskin DL. Banana flakes control diarrhea in enterally fed patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 1997 Apr;12(2):72-5.

Hart GK, Dobb GJ. Effect of a fecal bulking agent on DIARRHEA during enteral feeding in the critically ill. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1988 Sep-Oct; 12 (5): 465-468. PMID: 3141642.

Rushdi TA, Pichard C, Khater YH. Control of DIARRHEA by fiber-enriched diet in ICU patients on enteral nutrition: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec; 23 (6): 1,344-1,352. PMID: 15556256.

Spapen H, Diltoer M, Van Malderen C, Opdenacker G, Suys E, Huyghens L. Soluble fiber reduces the incidence of DIARRHEA in septic patients receiving total enteral nutrition: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2001 Aug; 20 (4): 301-305. PMID: 11478826.

 

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P, Taylor B, Ochoa JB, Napolitano L, Cresci G; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; American College of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 May-Jun; 33 (3): 277-316. No abstract available. PMID: 19398613.

CI: Supplemental Glutamine

Conejero R, Bonet A, Grau T, Esteban A, Mesejo A, Montejo JC, López J, Acosta JA. Effect of a glutamine-enriched enteral diet on intestinal permeability and infectious morbidity at 28 days in critically-ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: A randomized, single-blind, prospective, multi-center study. Nutrition. 2002 Sep; 18 (9): 716-721.

Hall JC, Dobb G, Hall J, de Sousa R, Brennan L, McCauley R. A prospective randomized trial of enteral glutamine in critical illness. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Oct; 29(10): 1,710-1,716.

Houdijk AP, Rijnsburger ER, Jansen J, Wesdorp RI, Weiss JK, McCamish MA, Teerlink T, Meuwissen SG, Haarman HJ, Thijs LG, van Leeuwen PA. Randomised trial of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on infectious morbidity in patients with multiple trauma. Lancet. 1998 Sep 5; 352(9,130): 772-776.

Kumar S, Kumar R, Sharma SB, Jain BK. Effect of oral glutamine administration on oxidative stress, morbidity and mortality in critically ill surgical patients. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2007 Mar-Apr; 26(2): 70-73.

Schulman AS, Willcutts KF, Claridge JA, O'Donnell KB, Radigan AE, Evans HL, McElearney ST, Hedrick TL, Lowson SM, Schirmer BD, Young JS, Sawyer RG. Does enteral glutamine supplementation decrease infectious morbidity? Surg Infect. 2006 Feb; 7(1): 29-35.

Spindler-Vesel A, Bengmark S, Vovk I, Cerovic O, Kompan L. Synbiotics, prebiotics, glutamine or peptide in early enteral nutrition: A randomized study in trauma patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2007 Mar-Apr; 31 (2): 119-126.

Cai G, Yan J, Zhang Z, Yu Y. Immunomodulatory effects of glutamine enriched nutritional support in elderly patients with severe sepsis: A prospective, randomized, controlled study. J Organ Dysfunction. 2008, 4: 31-37.

Déchelotte P, Hasselmann M, Cynober L, Allaouchiche B, Coëffier M, Hecketsweiler B, Merle V, Mazerolles M, Samba D, Guillou YM, Petit J, Mansoor O, Colas G,Cohendy R, Barnoud D, Czernichow P, Bleichner G. L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces infectious complications and glucose intolerance in critically ill patients: The French controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Crit Care Med. 2006 Mar; 34(3): 598-604.

Estívariz CF, Griffith DP, Luo M, Szeszycki EE, Bazargan N, Dave N, Daignault NM,Bergman GF, McNally T, Battey CH, Furr CE, Hao L, Ramsay JG, Accardi CR, CotsonisGA, Jones DP, Galloway JR, Ziegler TR. Efficacy of parenteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine dipeptide to decrease hospital infections in critically ill surgical patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Jul-Aug; 32 (4): 389-402.

Fuentes-Orozco C, Anaya-Prado R, González-Ojeda A, Arenas-Márquez H,Cabrera-Pivaral C, Cervantes-Guevara G, Barrera-Zepeda LM. L-alanyl-L-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves infectious morbidity in secondary peritonitis. Clin Nutr. 2004 Feb; 23(1): 13-21.

Fuentes-Orozco C, Cervantes-Guevara G, Muciño-Hernández I, López-Ortega A,Ambriz-González G, Gutiérrez-de-la-Rosa JL, Gómez-Herrera E, Hermosillo-Sandoval JM, González-Ojeda A. L-alanyl-L-glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition decreases infectious morbidity rate in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Jul-Aug; 32 (4): 403-411.

Goeters C, Wenn A, Mertes N, Wempe C, Van Aken H, Stehle P, Bone HG. Parenteral L-alanyl-L-glutamine improves SIX-month outcome in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep; 30 (9): 2,032-2,037.

Griffiths RD, Allen KD, Andrews FJ, Jones C. Infection, multiple organ failure, and survival in the intensive care unit: Influence of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition on acquired infection. Nutrition. 2002 Jul-Aug; 18(7-8): 546-552.

Powell-Tuck J, Jamieson CP, Bettany GE, Obeid O, Fawcett HV, Archer C, Murphy DL. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of glutamine supplementation in parenteral nutrition. Gut. 1999 Jul; 45 (1): 82-88.

Yang DL, Xu JF. Effect of dipeptide of glutamine and alanine on severe traumatic brain injury. Chin J Traumatol. 2007; 10(3): 145-149.

Ziegler TR, Ogden LG, Singleton KD, Luo M, Fernandez-Estivariz C, Griffith DP,Galloway JR, Wischmeyer PE. Parenteral glutamine increases serum heat shock protein 70 in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2005 Aug; 31 (8): 1,079-1,086. Epub 2005 Jun 23.

Griffiths RD, Jones C, Palmer TE. Six-month outcome of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition. Nutrition. 1997 Apr; 13 (4): 295-302.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Vanek VW, McCarthy M, Roberts P, Taylor B, Ochoa JB, Napolitano L, Cresci G; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; American College of Critical Care Medicine; Society of Critical Care Medicine. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009 May-Jun; 33 (3): 277-316. No abstract available. PMID: 19398613.

Sacks GS. The data in support of glutamine supplementation. Nutr Clin Pract. 2003 Oct; 18 (5): 386-390. No abstract available. PMID: 16215070.

Vanek VW, Matarese LE, Robinson M, Sacks GS, Young LS, Kochevar M; Novel Nutrient Task Force, Parenteral Glutamine Workgroup; American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Board of Directors. A.S.P.E.N. position paper: parenteral nutrition glutamine supplementation. Nutr Clin Pract. 2011 Aug; 26 (4): 479-494. Epub 2011 Jun 22. No abstract available. PMID: 216975.

CI: Hypocaloric Feeding Regimen

Dickerson RN, Boschert KJ, Kudsk KA, Brown RO. Hypocaloric enteral tube feeding in critically ill obese patients. Nutrition. 2002; 18: 241-246.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

CI: Monitoring and Evaluation

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Task Force of A.S.P.E.N; American Dietetic Association Dietitians in Nutrition Support Dietetic Practice Group, Russell M, Stieber M, Brantley S, Freeman AM, Lefton J, Malone AM, Roberts S, Skates J, Young LS; A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors; ADA Quality Management Committee. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) and American Dietetic Association (ADA): standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitians (generalist, specialty, and advanced) in nutrition support. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Oct; 22 (5): 558-586. PMID: 17906280.