BF: Artificial Nipple and Duration of Breastfeeding (2008)
Artificial Nipple and Duration of Breastfeeding
What are the effects of artificial nipple (pacifier or bottle) on the duration of breastfeeding in healthy term or full term infants?
Pacifier Use in Term or Full-term Infants
Evidence suggests a negative impact of pacifier use on the duration of all types of breastfeeding (from partial to exclusive). Observational evidence consistently showed an association between use of pacifier before three months of age and shorter breastfeeding duration in healthy term or full-term infants, after controlling for potential confounding. Data are insufficient to determine whether increasing frequencies of pacifier use or introduction of pacifier use beyond three months of age has any differential impact on breastfeeding duration.
Well-designed RCTs with blinded assessments of breastfeeding outcomes are needed to further support the validity of the findings from the observational studies concerning negative impact of pacifier use on the duration of breastfeeding.
Supplementary Feeding (Using Bottle or Cup) in Term or Full-term Infants
- Data from both RCTs and observational studies also consistently suggest that supplementary feedings to term infants, regardless of method (bottle or cup), had a detrimental effect on breastfeeding duration, compared to no supplementary feeding
- Well-designed RCTs with blinded assessments of breastfeeding outcomes and specifying the amount, frequency and content of supplementary feeding are needed to further examine the independent effect of supplementary formula, water and tea, or expressed breast milk on breastfeeding duration.
Data are insufficient to make a conclusion regarding the effects of artificial nipple on the duration of breastfeeding among pre-term infants.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
- High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
- Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
- Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
- Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
- Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.
Evidence Summary: What are the effects of artificial nipple (pacifier or bottle) on the duration of breastfeeding?
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
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- Santo LC, Oliveira LD, Giugliani ER. Factors associated with low incidence of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months. Birth. Sept 2007; 34 (3): 212-219.
- Schwartz K, D'Arcy HJ, Gillespie B, Bobo J, Longeway M, Foxman B. Factors associated with weaning in the first 3 months postpartum. The Journal of Family Practice, 2002; 51: 439-444.
- Scott JA, Binns CW, Oddy WH, Graham KI. Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration: Evidence From a Cohort Study. Pediatrics. 2006; 117: e646-e655.
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Evidence Summary: What is the association between pacifier use and breast-feeding? A Systematic Review