EE: Thermic Effect of Food (2014)
How long should a healthy and non-critically ill individual fast prior to an RMR measurement to avoid the Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)?
Based on the evidence reviewed, consuming meals containing approximately 450kcal to 1,500kcal increases metabolic rate in healthy adults for at least three to five hours. However, the majority of studies did not include a measurement period long enough to observe a return to baseline levels. The thermic effect of food dissipates depending on the amount of calories consumed. One study reported that the thermic effect of consuming approximately 300kcal was negligible after 3.5 hours post-consumption and another study reported that the thermic effect of consuming 1,300kcal was negligible after seven hours post-consumption. Additional research is needed in this area.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
Evidence Summary: How long should a healthy and non-critically ill individual fast prior to an RMR measurement to avoid the Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)?
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Belko AZ, Barbieri TF. Effect of meal size and frequency on the thermic effect of food. Nutrition Res. 1987;7:237-242
- Bielinski R, Schutz Y, Jequier E. Energy metabolism during the postexercise recovery in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:69-82.
- Bissoli L, Armellini F, Zamboni M, Mandragona R, Ballarin A, Bosello O. Resting metabolic rate and thermogenic effect of food in vegetarian diets compared with Mediterranean diets. Ann Nutr Metab. 1999; 43: 140-144.
- Blond E, Maitrepierre C, Normand S, Sothier M, Roth H, Goudable J, Laville. A new indirect calorimeter is accurate and reliable for measuring basal energy expenditure, thermic effect of food and substrate oxidation in obese and healthy subjects. e-SPEN, the European e-Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. 2010;6:e7–e15.
- Kinabo, JL, Durnin JVGA. Thermic effect of food in man: effect of meal composition, and energy content. Br J Nutr. 1990; 64:37-44.
- Levine JA, Harris MM, Morgan MY. Energy expenditure in chronic alcohol abuse. Eur J Clin Invest 2000; 39: 779-786.
- Poehlman ET, Arciero PJ, Melby CL, Badylak SF. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988; 48: 209-213.
- Raben A, Agerholm, Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A. Meals with similar densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77(1): 91-100.
- Segal KR, Chun A, Coronel P, Cruz-Noori A, Santos R. Reliability of the measurement of postprandial thermogenesis in men of three levels of body fatness. Metabolism. 1992; 41(7): 754-762.
- Segal KR, Gutin B. Thermic effect of food and exercise in lean and obese women. Metabolism. 1983; 32(6): 581-589.
- Weststrate JA, Hautvast JG. The effects of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and prior exercise on resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Metabolism. 1990; 39(12): 1,232-1,239.
- Weststrate JA, Weys PJM, Poortvliet EJ, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGAJ. Diurnal variation in postabsoprtive resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 58(5): 592-601.
- Weststrate JA, Wunnink I, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGA. Alcohol and its acute effects on resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. Br J Nutr. 1990; 64: 413-425.
Search Plan and Results: EE: Thermic Effect of Food and Alcohol in Healthy and Non-Critically Ill Individuals 2012