• Intervention
    What is the long-term effectiveness in women with undiagnosed or untreated celiac disease following a gluten-free dietary pattern on pregnancy outcomes?
    • Conclusion
      Several cohort and case-control studies have reported that women with undiagnosed or untreated celiac disease have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and miscarriage, low birth weight and small for gestational age newborns, stillbirth, perinatal disease and mortality, low Apgar scores, delayed menarche and early menopause, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, breech presentation and Cesarean delivery, while compliance with a gluten-free dietary pattern results in risks similar to those of healthy controls. Despite the increased risks of complications, the overall number of pregnancies does not appear to be influenced by celiac disease. Evidence is limited in the areas of fertility, breast-feeding duration, threatened abortion, secondary amenorrhea, and labor induction; further research is needed in these areas.
    • Grade: II
      • Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
      • Grade II is Fair;
      • Grade III is Limited/Weak;
      • Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
      • Grade V is Not Assignable.
      • High (A) means we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect;
      • Moderate (B) means we are moderately confident in the effect estimate;
      • Low (C) means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited;
      • Very Low (D) means we have very little confidence in the effect estimate.
      • Ungraded means a grade is not assignable.