This Academy member benefit temporarily has been made public to allow all practitioners access to content that may assist in patient care during the national pandemic response. Click here for information on joining the Academy. 

Hypertension

HTN: References (2015)

Hypertension Guideline 2015 Major Recommendation References

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

Hypertension Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline

Screening and Referral 

None.

Nutrition Assessment

None.

Nutrition Diagnosis

None.

Nutrition Intervention

 

HTN: Medical Nutrition Therapy

Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Easter L, Wilson AC, Folmar S, Lacy CR. Effects of reduced sodium intake on hypertension control in older individuals:  results from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Arch Intern Med. 2001 Mar 12; 161 (5): 685-693.

Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, Cooper LS, Obarzanek E, Elmer PJ, Stevens VJ, Vollmer WM, Lin PH, Svetkey LP, Stedman SW, Young DR; Writing Group of the PREMIER Collaborative Research Group. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: Main results of the PREMIER Clinical Trial. JAMA 2003 Apr 23-30; 289 (16): 2,083-2,093. 

Applegate WB, Miller ST, Elam JT, Cushman WC, El Derwi D, Brewer A, Graney MJ.  Nonpharmacologic intervention to reduce blood pressure in older patients with mild hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 1992; 152: 1162-1166.

Darne B, Nivarong M, Tugaye A, Safar M, Plouin PF, Guillanneuf MT, Cubeau J, Pannier B, Peguignot F, Cambien F. Hypocaloric diet and antihypertensive drug treatment. A randomized controlled clinical trial. Blood Press. 1993; 2(2): 130-135. 

Eriksson KM, Westborg CJ, Eliasson MCE. A randomized trial of lifestyle intervention in primary healthcare for the modification of cardiovascular risk factors. The Bjorknas study. Scand J Public Health. 2006; 34(5): 453-461. 

Ferrara AL, Pacioni D, Di  Fronzo V, Russo BF, Stalano L, Speranza E, Gente R, Gargiulo F, Ferrara F. Lifestyle educational program strongly increases compliance to nonpharmacologic intervention in hypertensive patients: A two-year follow-up study. J Clin Hypertens. 2012; 14(11): 767-772. 

Goertz CH, Grimm RH, Svendsen K, Grandits G. Treatment of Hypertension with Alternative Therapies (THAT) Study: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Hypertension. 2002; 20(10); 2063-2068.
Huggins CE, Margerison C, Worsley A, Nowson CA. Influence of dietary modifcations on the blood pressure response to antihypertensive medication. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:248-255.

Koopman H, Spreeuwenberg C, Westerman RF, Donker AJM. Dietary treatment of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in a general practice: A pilot intervention study. (2) Beyond three months. Journal of Human Hypertension. 1990; 4: 372-374.

Koopman H, Spreeuwenberg C, Westerman RF, Donker AJM. Dietary treatment of patients with mild to moderate hypertension in a general practice: A pilot intervention study. (1) The first three months.  Journal of Human Hypertension. 1990; 4: 368-371.

Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, Cutler JA, Belden L, Brewer A, Cohen JD, Hebert PR, Lasser VI, Raines J, Raczynski J, Shepek L, Diller L, Whelton PK, Yamamoto M; Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction for hypertension prevention in overweight adults: Further results from the Trials of Hypertension Prevention Phase II. J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Jan; 19(1): 33-45.

Noda K, Zhang B, Iwata A, Nishikawa H, Ogawa M, Nomiyama T, Miura S, Sako H, Matsuo K, Yahiro E, Yanase T, Saku K. Lifestyle changes through the use of delivered meals and dietary counseling in a single-blind study. Circ J. 2012; 76: 1335-1344.

Rankins JR, Sampson W, Brown B, Jenkins-Salley T. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) intervention reduces blood pressure among hypertensive African American patients in a neighborhood health care center. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2005; 37: 259-264.

Torres MRSG, Ferreira TS, Nogueira LP, Nascimento DCS, Sanjuliani AF. Dietary counseling on long-term weight loss in overweight hypertensive patients. Clinics. 2011; 66(10): 1,779-1,785.

Weinberger MH, Cohen SJ, Miller JZ, Luft FC, Grim CE, Fineberg NS. Dietary sodium restriction as adjunctive treatment of hypertension. JAMA 1988; 259 (17) : 2,561-2,565.

Welty FK, Nasca MM, Lew NS, Gregoire S, Ruan Y. Effect of onsite dietitian counseling on weight loss and lipid levels in an outpatient physician office. Am J Cardiol. 2007; 100(1): 73-75.

Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH, Kostis JB, Kumanyika S, Lacy CR, Johnson KC, Folmar S, Culter JA. Sodium Reduction and Weight Loss in the Treatment of Hypertension in Older Persons; A Randomized Controlled Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). TONE Collaborative Research Group. JAMA 1998 Mar 18; 279 (11): 839-846. Erratum in: JAMA 1998 Jun, 24; 279 (24): 1,954

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

HTN: Vitamin D 

Bernini G, Carrara D, Bacca A, Carli V, Virdis A, Rugani I, Duranti E, Ghiadoni L, Bernini M, Taddei S. Effect of acute and chronic vitamin D administration on systemic renin angiotensin system in essential hypertensives and controls. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013; 36: 216-220.

Fiscella K, Winters P, Tancredi D, Franks P.  Racial disparity in blood pressure: is vitamin D a factor?  J Gen Intern Med 2011;26(10):1105-11.

Larsen T, Mose FH, Bech JN, Hansen AB, Pedersen EB. Effect of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter months in patients with hypertension: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Hypertens. 2012; 25: 1,215-1,222.

Mateus-Hamdan L, Beauchet O, Bouvard B, Legrand E, Fantino B, Annweiler C. High parathyroid hormone, but not low vitamin D concentrations, expose elderly inpatients to hypertension. Geriatr Gerontol. 2013; 13: 783-791.

Vacek JL, Vanga SR, Good M, Lai SM, Lakkireddy D, Howard PA. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation and relation to cardovascular health. Am J Cardiol. 2012; 109: 359-363.

Wamberg L, Kampmann U, Stodkilde-Jorgensen H, Rejnmark L, Pedersen SB, Richelsen B. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on body fat accumulation, inflammation, and metabolic risk factors in obese adults with low vitamin D levels: Results from a randomized trial. Eur J Intern Med. 2013; 24: 644-649.

Witham MD, Price RJ, Struthers AD, Donnan PT, Messow CM, Ford I, McMurdo ME. Cholecalciferol treatment to reduce blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension the vitDISH randomized controlled trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Oct 14; 173(18): 1,672-1,679.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D. National Institutes of Health. Reviewed November 10, 2014. Accessed online  June 04, 2015: 
http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC,  The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online June 04,  2015: 
http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776

HTN: Potassium 

Berry SE, Mulla UZ, Chowienczyk PJ, Sanders TA. Increased potassium intake from fruit and vegetables or supplements does not lower blood pressure or improve vascular function in UK men and women with early hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec; 104(12):1839-47. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510002904. Epub 2010 Aug 2. 

Cheung BMY, Ho SPC, Cheung AHK, Lau CP. Diastolic blood pressure is related to urinary sodium excretion in  hypertensive Chinese patients. Q J Med 2000; 93:163-168 

China Salt Substitute Study Collaborative Group. Salt substitution: A low-cost strategy for blood pressure control among rural Chinese. A randomized, controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2007 Oct; 25 (10): 2,011-2,018.

Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Campbell F, Beyer FR, Mason J. Potassium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19; 3. 

Espeland MA, Kumanyika S, Yunis C, Zheng V, Brown WM, Jackson S, Wilson AC, Bahnson J.  Electrolyte intake and nonpharmacologic blood pressure control. Ann Epidemiol 2002; 12(8):587-595 

Franzoni F, Santoro G, Carpi A, Da Prato F, Bartolomucci F, Femia FR, Prattichizzo F, Galetta F. Antihypertensive effect of oral potassium aspartate supplementation in mild to moderate arterial hypertension. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Jan-Feb; 59(1-2):25-9. Epub 2005 Jan 20. 

He J, Gu D, Chen J, Jaquish CE, Rao DC, Hixson JE, Chen JC, Duan X, Huang JF, Chen CS, Kelly TN, Bazzano LA, Whelton PK; GenSalt Collaborative Research Group. Gender difference in blood pressure responses to dietary sodium intervention in the GenSalt study. J Hypertens. 2009 Jan; 27(1): 48-54.

He FJ, Marciniak M, Carney C, Markandu ND, Anand V, Fraser WD, Dalton RN, Kaski JC, MacGregor GA. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover in mild hypertensives. [PubM Hypertension. 2010 Mar; 55(3):681-8. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.147488. Epub 2010 Jan 18. 

He FJ, Markandu ND, Coltart R, Barron J, MacGregor GA. Effect of short-term supplementation of potassium chloride and potassium citrate on blood pressure in hypertensives. Hypertension. 2005 Apr; 45(4):571-4. Epub 2005 Feb 21 

Hedayati SS, Minhajuddin AT, Ijaz A, Moe OW, Elsayed EF, Reilly RF, Huang CL. Association of urinary sodium/potassium ratio with blood pressure: sex and racial differences. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Feb; 7(2):315-22. doi: 10.2215/CJN.02060311. Epub 2011 Nov 23 

Hu G, Tian H.  A comparison of dietary and non-dietary factors of hypertension and normal blood pressure in a Chinese population. J Hum Hypertens 2001; 15(7):487-493  

Kelly TN, Gu D, Rao DC, Chen J, Chen J, Cao J, Li J, Lu F, Ma J, Mu J, Whelton PK, He J. Maternal history of hypertension and blood pressure response to potassium intake: the GenSalt Study. Am J Epidemiol 2012 Oct 1; 176 Suppl 7:S55-63. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws272. 

Kwok TC, Chan TY, WooJ. Relationship of urinary sodium/potassium excretion and calcium intake to blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension among older Chnese vegetarians. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57(2): 299-304 

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weitzel LB, Mitchell DC, FriedmanJM, Jensen GL. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults.  Prev Med 2004; 38(6):812-818 

Schroder H, Schmelz E, Marrugat J. Relationship between diet and blood pressure in a representative  Mediterranean population.  Eur J Nutr 2002; 41(4):16-167 

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Doorenbos, CJ, Vermeij, CG. Danger of salt substitutes that contain potassium in patients with renal failure. BMJ. 2003 Jan 4; 326 (7379): 35-36. 

Pal, B, Hutchinson, A, Bhattacharya, A, Ralston, A. Cardiac arrest due to severe hyperkalaemia in patient taking nabumetone and low salt diet. BMJ. 1995; 311: 1, 486-1, 487.

Perazella, MA. Drug-induced hyperkalemia: old culprits and new offenders. Am J Med. 2000; 109: 307-314. 

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.Washington, DC,  The National Academies Press; 2005. Accessed online: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10925. 

Yap, V, Patel, A, Thomsen, J. Hyperkalemia with cardiac arrthythmia. Induction by salt substitutes, spironolactone, and azotemia. JAMA 1976 Dec 13; 236(24): 2, 775-2, 776.

HTN: Calcium

Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Cook JV, Campbell F, Beyer FR, Ford GA, Mason J. Calcium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD004639. 

Hilpert KF, West SG, Bagshaw DM, Fishell V, Barnhart L, Lefevre M, Most MM, Zemel MB, Chow M, Hinderliter AL, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of dairy products on intracellular calcium and blood pressure in adults with essential hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Apr;28(2):142-9. 

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weltzel LB, Mitchell DC, Friedman JM, Jensen G. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults.  Preventive Medicine, 2004; 38:812-818 

Pikilidou MI, Befani CD, Sarafidis PA, Nilsson PM, Koliakos GG, Tziolas IM, Kazakos KA, Yovos JG, Lasaridis AN. Oral calcium supplementation ambulatory blood pressure and relation to changes in intracellular ions and sodium-hydrogen exchange. Am J Hypertens. 2009 Dec;22(12):1263-9. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2009.182. Epub 2009 Sep 24. 

Schroder H, Schmelz E, Marrugut J. Relationship between diet and blood pressure in a representative Mediterranean population. Eur J Nutr. 2002, 41:161-167 

Toledo E, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Estruch R, Salas-Salvadó J, Corella D, Gomez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Schröder H, Arós F, Ros E, Ruíz-Gutiérrez V, Lapetra J, Conde-Herrera M, Sáez G, Vinyoles E, Martínez-González MA. Low-fat dairy products and blood pressure: follow-up of 2290 older persons at high cardiovascular risk participating in the PREDIMED study. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jan;101(1):59-67. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508981496. Epub 2008 May 20. 
  
van Mierlo LA, Arends LR, Streppel MT, Zeegers MP, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to calcium supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2006 Aug;20(8):571-80. Epub 2006 May 4. 
  
Varenna M, Manara M, Galli L, Binelli L, Zucchi F, Sinigaglia L. The association between osteoporosis and hypertension: the role of a low dairy intake. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013 Jul;93(1):86-92. doi: 10.1007/s00223-013-9731-9. Epub 2013 May 8. 

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium. National Institutes of Health. Reviewed November 21, 2013. Accessed online June 04, 2015:
http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC,  The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online June 04,  2015:
http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776 

HTN: Magnesium 

Bayir A, Kara H, Ak A, Cander B, Kara F. Magnesium sulfate in emergency department patients with hypertension. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009; 128: 38-44.

Kesteloot H, Tzoulaki I, Brown IJ, Chan Q, Wijeyesekera A, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Dyer AR, Unwin RJ, Stamler J, Elliott P.  Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure. Am J Epidemiol. 2011; 174(1): 44-51.

Dickinson HO, Nicolson D, Campbell F, Cook JV, Beyer FR, Ford GA, Mason J. Magnesium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006; 3. Art. No.: CD004640. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004640.pub2.

Hatzistavri LK, Sarafidis PA, Georgianos PI, Tziolas JM, Aroditis CP, Zebekakis PE, Pikilidou MI, Lasaridis AN. Oral magnesium supplementaion reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2009; 22(10): 1070-1075.

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weltzel LB, Mitchell DC, Friedman JM, Jensen GL. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults. Preventive Medicine, 2004; 38: 812-818.

Schroder H, Schmelz E, Marrugat J. Relationship between diet and blood pressure in a representative Mediterranean population. Eur J Nutr. 2002; 41 (4): 161-167. 

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium. National Institutes of Health. Reviewed November 4, 2013. Accessed online June 04, 2015:
https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/
 
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board. Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC,  The National Academies Press; 1997. Accessed online June 04,  2015:
http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776.

HTN: Sodium 

Cheung BMY, Ho SPC, Cheung AHK, Lau CP. Diastolic blood pressure is related to urinary sodium excretion in hypertensive Chinese patients.  Q J Med. 2000; 93: 163-168.

Graudal N, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jürgens G, McCarron DA. The significance of duration and amount of sodium reduction intervention in normotensive and hypertensive individuals: a meta-analysis. Adv Nutr. 2015; 6(2):169-177.

Graudal NA, Hubeck-Gradual T, Jurgens G. Effects of a low-sodium diet vs. high-sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol and triglycerides. Am J Hypertension. 2012; 25(1): 1-15.

He FJ, Li J, MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2013; 346: f1325.

He J, Gu D, Chen J, Jaquish CE, Rao DC, Hixson JE, Chen JC, Duan X, Huang JF, Chen CS, Kelly TN, Bazzano LA, Whelton PK; GenSalt Collaborative Research Group. Gender difference in blood pressure responses to dietary sodium intervention in the GenSalt study. J Hypertens. 2009 Jan; 27(1): 48-54.
 
Hu G, Tian H. A comparison of dietary and non-dietary factors of hypertension and normal blood pressure in a Chinese population. J Hum Hypertens. 2001; (15) 7: 487-493.

Jablonski K, Fedorova O, Racine M, Geolfos C, Gates P, Chonchol M, Fleenor B, Ladatta E, Bagrov A, Seals D. Dietary sodium restricition and association with urniary marinobufagenin, blood pressure and aortic stiffness. Clin J Am Soc Nephol. 2013 Nov; 8(11): 1952-1959.

Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, O'Brien E, Wareham N, Day N. Blood pressure and urinary sodium in men and women: the Norfolk Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 1,397-1,403. 

Kojuri J, Rahimi R. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2007; 7: 34.

Kwok TCY, Chan TYK, Woo J. Relationship of urinary sodium/potassium excretion and calcium intake to blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension among older Chinese vegetarians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003; 57: 299-304.

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weltzel LB, Mitchell DC, Friedman JM, Jensen GL. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults. Preventive Medicine, 2004; 38: 812-818.

Mente A, O'Donnell MJ, Rangarajan S, McQueen MJ, Poirier P, Wielgosz A, Morrison H, Li W, Wang X, Di C, Mony P, Devanath A, Rosengren A, Oguz A, Zatonska K, Yusufali AH, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Avezum A, Ismail N, Lanas F, Puoane T, Diaz R, Kelishadi R, Iqbal R, Yusuf R, Chifamba J, Khatib R, Teo K, Yusuf S; PURE Investigators. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure. N Engl J Med. 2014 Aug; 371(7): 601-611.

Schroder H, Schmelz E, Marrugat J. Relationship between diet and blood pressure in a representative Mediterranean population. Eur J Nutr. 2002; 41 (4): 161-167. 

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

HTN: DASH Dietary Pattern

Al-Solaiman Y, Jesri A, Mountford WK, Lackland T, Ahao Y, Egan BM. DASH lowers blood pressure in obese hypertensives beyond potassium, magnesium and fiber. J Hum Hypertens. 2010: 24(4): 237-246.

Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Esmaillzadeh A, Azizi T, Azizi F. Beneficial effects of a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan on features of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28 (12): 2,823-2,831.

Blumenthal JA, Babyak JA, Sherwood A, Craighead L, Pao-HWa L, Johnson J, Watkins LL, Wang JT, Kuhn C, Feinglos M, Hinderliter A. The effects of the dash diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids. Hypertension. 2010; 55(5): 1,199-1,205.  

Elmer PJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Simons-Morton D, Stevens VJ, Young DR, Pao-Hwa L, Champagne C, Harsha DW, Svetkey LP, Ard J, Brantley PJ, Proschan MA, Erlinger TP, Appel LJ. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on diet, weight, physical fitness, and blood pressure control: Eighteen-month results of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 144: 485-495. 

Epstein DE, Sherwood A, Smith PJ, Craighead L, Caccia C, Lin PH, Babyak MA, Johnson JJ, Hinderliter A, Blumenthal JA. Determinants and consequences of adherence to the dietary approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet in African-American and white adults with high blood pressure: Results from the ENCORE trial. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2012; 112(11): 1763-1773.

Huggins CE, Margerison C, Worsley A, Nowson CA. Influence of dietary modifcations on the blood pressure response to antihypertensive medication. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:248-255.

Kirpizidis H, Stavrati A, Geleris P. Assessment of quality of life in a randomized clinical trial of candesartan only or in combination with DASH diet for hypertensive patients. J Cardiol. 2005; 46(5): 177-182.

Nowson CA, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Pachett A. Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res. 2009 Jan; 29(1): 8-18.

Nowson CA, Worsley A, Margerison C, Jorna MK, Godfrey SJ, Booth A. Blood pressure change with weight loss is affected by diet type in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:983-989.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, de Jesus JM, Houston Miller N, Hubbard VS, Lee IM, Lichtenstein AH, Loria CM, Millen BE, Nonas CA, Sacks FM, Smith SC Jr, Svetkey LP, Wadden TA, Yanovski SZ, Kendall KA, Morgan LC, Trisolini MG, Velasco G, Wnek J, Anderson JL, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Bozkurt B, Brindis RG, Curtis LH, DeMets D, Hochman JS, Kovacs RJ, Ohman EM, Pressler SJ, Sellke FW, Shen WK, Smith SC Jr, Tomaselli GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129 (25 Suppl 2): S76-99. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.0000437740.48606.d1. Epub 2013 Nov 12. No abstract available. Erratum in: Circulation. 2015 Jan 27;131 (4): e326. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129 (25 Suppl 2): S100-S101. PMID: 24222015.

HTN: Alcohol 

Baros AM, Wright TM, Latham PM, Anton RF. Alcohol consumption, %CDT, GGT and blood pressure change during alcohol treatment. Alcohol, 2008 Mar-Apr; 43 (2): 192-197.

Hering D, Kucharska W, KaraT, Somers VK, Narkiewicz K. Potentiated sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to alcohol in hypertensive vs. normotensive individuals. J Hypertens. 2011 Mar;  29 (3): 537-541.

Kawano Y, Abe H, Kojima S, Takishita S, Matsuoka H. Effects of repeated alcohol intake on blood pressure and sodium balance in Japanese males with hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2004 Mar; 27 (3): 167-172.

Soardo G, Donnini D, Varutti R, Milocco C, Basan L, Esposito W, Casaccio D, Isola M, Soldano F, Sechi LA.  Effects of alcohol withdrawal on blood pressure in hypertensive heavy drinkers . J Hypertens. 2006 Aug; 24 (8): 1, 493-1, 498.

Stewart SH, Latham PK, Miller PM, Randall P, Anton RF. Blood pressure reduction during treatment for alcohol dependence: Results from the Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions for Alcoholism (COMBINE) study. Addiction, 2008 Oct; 103 (10): 1, 622-1, 628.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

HTN: Physical Activity

None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, de Jesus JM, Houston Miller N, Hubbard VS, Lee IM, Lichtenstein AH, Loria CM, Millen BE, Nonas CA, Sacks FM, Smith SC Jr, Svetkey LP, Wadden TA, Yanovski SZ, Kendall KA, Morgan LC, Trisolini MG, Velasco G, Wnek J, Anderson JL, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Bozkurt B, Brindis RG, Curtis LH, DeMets D, Hochman JS, Kovacs RJ, Ohman EM, Pressler SJ, Sellke FW, Shen WK, Smith SC Jr, Tomaselli GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129 (25 Suppl 2): S76-99. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.0000437740.48606.d1. Epub 2013 Nov 12. No abstract available. Erratum in: Circulation. 2015 Jan 27;131 (4): e326. Circulation. 2014 Jun 24;129 (25 Suppl 2): S100-S101. PMID: 24222015.

Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R, Farquhar WB, Kelley GA, Ray CA; American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Mar; 36 (3): 533-553. Review. PMID: 15076798.

Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

None.