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Hypertension

HTN: References (2008)

Hypertension Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline

References (listed by recommendation)

Hypertension (HTN): Classification of Blood Pressure

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC 7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

 

Hypertension (HTN): Food/Nutrient-Medication Interaction

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC 7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

 

Hypertension (HTN): DASH Dietary Pattern

Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N for the DASH Collaborative Research Group. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Engl J Med 1997; 336 (16): 1,117-1,124.

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC 7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

To access the pdf of the DASH Eating Plan, click here: DASH Eating Plan

 

Hypertension (HTN): Dietary Sodium

Appel LJ, Espeland MA, Easter L, Wilson AC, Folmar S, Lacy CR. Effects of reduced sodium intake on hypertension control in older individuals: results from the Trial of Nonpharmacologic Interventions in the Elderly (TONE). Arch Intern Med. 2001 Mar 12; 161 (5): 685-693.

Cheung BMY, Ho SPC, Cheung AHK, Lau CP. Diastolic blood pressure is related to urinary sodium excretion in hypertensive Chinese patients. Q J Med. 2000; 93: 163-168.

Espeland MA, Kumanyika S, Yunis C, Zheng B, Brown WM, Jackson S, Wilson AC, Bahnson J, Electrolyte intake and nonpharmacologic blood pressure control. Ann Epidemiol. 2002; 12: 587-595.

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Blood pressure response to changes in sodium and potassium intake: a metaregression analysis of randomised trials. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2003; 17: 471-480.

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. Eur J Public Health. 2004; 14 (3): 235-239.

Hajjar I, Kotchen T. Regional variations of blood pressure in the United States are associated with regional variations in dietary intakes: The NHANES III Data. J Nutr. 2003; 133: 211-214.

He FJ, MacGregor GA. How far should salt intake be reduced? Hypertension, 2003; 42: 1,093-1,099.

He J, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Charleston J, Klag MJ. Long-term effects of weight loss and dietary sodium reduction on incidence of hypertension. Hypertension, 2000; 35: 544-549.

Hu G, Tian H. A comparison of dietary and non-dietary factors of hypertension and normal blood pressure in a Chinese population. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2001; 15: 487-493.

Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, O'Brien E, Wareham N, Day N. Blood pressure and urinary sodium in men and women: the Norfolk Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 1,397-1,403.

Kwok TCY, Chan TYK, Woo J. Relationship of urinary sodium/potassium excretion and calcium intake to blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension among older Chinese vegetarians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003; 57: 299-304.

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weltzel LB, Mitchell DC, Friedman JM, Jensen GL. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults. Preventive Medicine, 2004; 38: 812-818.

Liu L, Liu L, Ding Y, Huang Z, He B, Sun S, Zhao G, Zhang H, Miki T, Mizushima S, Ikeda K, Nara Y, Yamori Y. Ethnic and environmental differences in various markers of dietary intake and blood pressure among Chinese Han and three other minority peoples of China: results from the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study. Hypertens Res. 2001; 24 (3): 315-322.

Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller III ER, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PH. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 3-10.

Schroder H, Schmelz E, Marrugat J. Relationship between diet and blood pressure in a representative Mediterranean population. Eur J Nutr. 2002; 41 (4): 161-167.

Silaste M-L, Junes R, Rantala AO, Kauma H, Lilja M, Savolainen MJ, Reunanen A, Kesaniemi YA. Dietary and other non-pharmacological treatments in patients with drug-treated hypertension and control subjects. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2000; 247: 318-324.

Zhao L, Stamler J, Yan LL, Zhou B, Wu Y, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Dennis BH, Elliott P, Ueshima H, Yang J, Zhu L, Guo D, for the INTERMAP Research Group. Blood pressure differences between northern and southern Chinese: role of dietary factors. The international study on macronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension, 2004; 43 (6): 1,332-1,337.

 

Citations Not Used in Evidence Analysis

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Available at:

http://ods.od.nih.gov/health_information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC-7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

 

Hypertension (HTN): Weight Management

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC-7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

 

Hypertension (HTN): Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Dokholyan, RS, Albert, CM, Appel LJ, Cook NR, Whelton PK, Hennekens, CH, A trial of omega-3 fatty acids for prevention of hyertension, Am J Cardiol. 2004, 93: 1,041-1,043.

Dyerberg J, Eskesen DC, Andersen PW, Astrup A, Buemann B, Christensen JH, Clausen P, Rasmussen BF, Schmidt EB, Tholstrup T, Toft E, Toubro S, Stender S. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy mailes. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004; 58: 1,062-1,070.

Harrison RA, Sagara M, Rajura A, Armitage L, Birt N, Birt CA, Yaori Y, Can foods with added soy-protein or fish-oil reduce risk factors for coronary disease? A factorial randomised controlled trial, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004, 14: 344-350.

Kriketos AD, Robertson RM, Sharp TA, Drougas H, Reed GW, Storlien LH, Hill JO, Role of weight loss and polyunsaturated fatty acids in improving metabolic fitness in moderately obese, moderately hypertensive subjects, J of Hypertension. 2001 19: 1,745-1,754.

Nestel P, Shige H, Pomeroy S, et al, The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002, 76: 326-330.

Rasmussen BM, Vessby B, Uusitupa M, Berglund L, Pedersen E, Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Tapsell L, Hermansen K. Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects, Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 83: 221-226.

Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ, Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients wih treated hypertension, Am J Clin Nutr. 76: 1,007-1,015, 2002.

Citations not Used in Evidence Analysis

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/health_information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

 

Hypertension (HTN): Dietary Protein

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC 7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

 

Hypertension (HTN): Soluble Fiber

Davy BM, Melby CL, Beske SD, Ho RC, Davrath LR, Davy KP. Oat consumption does not affect resting casual and ambulatory 24-h arterial blood pressure in men with high-normal blood pressure to stage 1 hypertension. J Nutr. 2002; 132: 394-398.

He J, Streiffer RH, Muntner P, Krousel-Wood MA, Whelton PK. Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2004; 22: 73-80.

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Vuksan V, Vidgen E, Parker T, Faulkner D, Mehling CC, Garsetti M, Testolin G, Cunnane SC, Ryan MA, Corey PN. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 75: 834-839.

Marett R, Slavin JL. No long-term benefits of supplementation with arabinogalactan on serum lipids and glucose. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 636-639.

Pins JJ, Geleva D, Keenan JM, Frazel C, O'Connor PJ, Cherney LM. Do whole-grain oat cereals reduce the need for antihypertensive medications and improve blood pressure control? J Fam Practice. 2002; 51 (4): 353-359.

Saltzman E, Das SK, Lichtenstein AH, Dallal GE, Corrales A, Schaefer EJ, Greenberg AS, Roberts SB. An oat-containing hypocaloric diet reduces systolic blood pressure and improves lipid profile beyond effects of weight loss in men and women. J Nutr. 2001; 131: 1,465-1,470.

Streppel MT, Arends LR, van’t Veer P, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Dietary fiber and blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:150-156.

Citations not Used in Evidence Analysis

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/health_information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

 

Hypertension (HTN): Dietary Potassium

Cheung BMY, Ho SPC, Cheung AHK, Lau CP. Diastolic blood pressure is related to urinary sodium excretion in hypertensive Chinese patients. Q J Med. 2000; 93: 163-168.

Espeland MA, Kumanyika S, Yunis C, Zheng B, Brown WM, Jackson S, Wilson AC, Bahnson J, Electrolyte intake and nonpharmacologic blood pressure control. Ann Epidemiol. 2002; 12: 587-595.

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Blood pressure response to changes in sodium and potassium intake: a metaregression analysis of randomised trials. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2003; 17: 471-480.

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. Eur J Public Health. 2004; 14 (3): 235-239.

Hajjar I, Kotchen T. Regional variations of blood pressure in the United States are associated with regional variations in dietary intakes: The NHANES III Data. J Nutr. 2003; 133: 211-214.

Hu G, Tian H. A comparison of dietary and non-dietary factors of hypertension and normal blood pressure in a Chinese population. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2001; 15: 487-493.

Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, O'Brien E, Wareham N, Day N. Blood pressure and urinary sodium in men and women: the Norfolk Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80: 1,397-1,403.

Kwok TCY, Chan TYK, Woo J. Relationship of urinary sodium/potassium excretion and calcium intake to blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension among older Chinese vegetarians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003; 57: 299-304.

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weltzel LB, Mitchell DC, Friedman JM, Jensen GL. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults. Preventive Medicine, 2004; 38: 812-818.

Liu L, Liu L, Ding Y, Huang Z, He B, Sun S, Zhao G, Zhang H, Miki T, Mizushima S, Ikeda K, Nara Y, Yamori Y. Ethnic and environmental differences in various markers of dietary intake and blood pressure among Chinese Han and three other minority peoples of China: results from the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study. Hypertens Res. 2001; 24 (3): 315-322.

Naismith DJ, Braschi A. The effect of low-dose potassium supplementation on blood pressure in apparently healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2003; 90 (1): 53-60.

Schroder H, Schmelz E, Marrugat J. Relationship between diet and blood pressure in a representative Mediterranean population. Eur J Nutr. 2002; 41 (4): 161-167.

Silaste M-L, Junes R, Rantala AO, Kauma H, Lilja M, Savolainen MJ, Reunanen A, Kesaniemi YA. Dietary and other non-pharmacological treatments in patients with drug-treated hypertension and control subjects. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2000; 247: 318-324.

Wu G, Tian H, Han K, Xi Y, Yao Y, Ma A. Potassium magnesium supplementation for four weeks improves small distal artery compliance and reduces blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006; 28 (5): 489-497.

Zhao L, Stamler J, Yan LL, Zhou B, Wu Y, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Dennis BH, Elliott P, Ueshima H, Yang J, Zhu L, Guo D, for the INTERMAP Research Group. Blood pressure differences between northern and southern Chinese: role of dietary factors. The international study on macronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension, 2004; 43 (6): 1,332-1,337.

Citations not Used in Evidence Analysis

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/health_information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

 

Hypertension (HTN): Vitamins

Beitz R, Mensink GBM, Fischer B. Blood pressure and vitamin C and fruit and vegetable intake. Annals of Nutr & Metabolism. 2003; 47: 214-220.

Block G. Ascorbic acid, blood pressure, and the American diet. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002; 959: 180-187.

Chen J, He J, Hamm L, Batuman V, Whelton PK, Serum antioxidant vitamins and blood pressure in the United States population, Hypertension, 2002; 40: 810-816.

Darko D, Dornhorst A, Kelly FJ, Ritter JM, Chowienczyk PJ. Lack of effect of oral vitamin C on blood pressure, oxidative stress and endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Clinical Science, 2002; 103: 339-344.

Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, Hunter LM, Biegelsen ES, Huang A, Keaney JF, Vita JA. Effect of ascorbic acid on conduit vessel endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001; 280: H528-H534.

Eskurza I, Monahan KD, Robinson JA, Seals DR. Ascorbic acid does not affect large elastic artery compliance or central blood pressure in young and older men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004; 286: H1528-H1534.

Farvid MS, Jalali M, Siassi F, Saadat N, Hosseini M, The impact of vitamins and/or mineral supplementation on blood pressure in type 2 diabetes, J Am College of Nutrition. 2004, 23: 272-279.

Fotherby MD, Williams JC, Forster LA, Craner P, Ferns GA. Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons. J Hypertension. 2000; 18: 411-415.

Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Tsugane S. Lack of long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. Hypertension. 2002; 40: 797-803.

Magen E, Viskoper R, Mishal J, Priluk R, Berezovsky A, Laszt A, London D, Yosefy C. Resistant arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia: Atorvastatin, not vitamin C, for blood pressure control. Isr Med Assoc J. 2004; 6: 742-746.

Mullan BA, Young IS, Fee H, McCance DR. Ascorbic acid reduces blood pressure and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes. Hypertension. 2002; 40: 804-809.

Schutte AE, Huisman HW, Oosthuizen W, vanRooyen JM, Jerling JC, Cardiovascular effects of oral supplementation of vitamin C, E and folic acid in young healhy males, Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004; 74 (4): 285-293.

Boshtam M, Morteza R, Kamran S, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Vitamin E can reduce blood pressure in mild hypertensives, Int J Vitamin Nutr Res. 2002, 72 (5): 309-314.

Chen J, He J, Hamm L, Batuman V, Whelton PK, Serum antioxidant vitamins and blood pressure in the United States population, Hypertension, 2002; 40: 810-816.

Farvid MS, Jalali M, Siassi F, Saadat N, Hosseini M, The impact of vitamins and/or mineral supplementation on blood pressure in type 2 diabetes, J Am College of Nutrition. 2004, 23: 272-279.

Mishra GD, Malik NS, Paul AA, Wadsworth MEJ, Bolton-Smith C, Childhood and adult dietary vitamin E intake and cardiovascular risk factors in mid-life in the 1946 British Birth Cohort, Eur J of Clin Nutr. (2003) 57: 1,418-1,425.

Palumbo G, Avanzini F, Alli C, et al, Effects of Vitamin E on Clinic and Ambulatory Bood Pressure in Treated Hypertensive Patients, Am J Hypertension. 2000, 13: 564-567.

Schutte AE, Huisman HW, Oosthuizen W, vanRooyen JM, Jerling JC, Cardiovascular effects of oral supplementation of vitamin C, E and folic acid in young healhy males, Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004; 74 (4): 285-293.

Citations not Used in Evidence Analysis

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/health_information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

 

Hypertension (HTN): Dietary Magnesium

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. Eur J Public Health. 2004; 14 (3): 235-239.

Hajjar I, Kotchen T. Regional variations of blood pressure in the United States are associated with regional variations in dietary intakes: The NHANES III Data. J Nutr. 2003; 133: 211-214.

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weltzel LB, Mitchell DC, Friedman JM, Jensen GL. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults. Preventive Medicine, 2004; 38: 812-818.

Liu L, Liu L, Ding Y, Huang Z, He B, Sun S, Zhao G, Zhang H, Miki T, Mizushima S, Ikeda K, Nara Y, Yamori Y. Ethnic and environmental differences in various markers of dietary intake and blood pressure among Chinese Han and three other minority peoples of China: results from the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study. Hypertens Res. 2001; 24 (3): 315-322.

Silaste M-L, Junes R, Rantala AO, Kauma H, Lilja M, Savolainen MJ, Reunanen A, Kesaniemi YA. Dietary and other non-pharmacological treatments in patients with drug-treated hypertension and control subjects. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2000; 247: 318-324.

Wu G, Tian H, Han K, Xi Y, Yao Y, Ma A. Potassium magnesium supplementation for four weeks improves small distal artery compliance and reduces blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006; 28 (5): 489-497.

Zhao L, Stamler J, Yan LL, Zhou B, Wu Y, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Dennis BH, Elliott P, Ueshima H, Yang J, Zhu L, Guo D, for the INTERMAP Research Group. Blood pressure differences between northern and southern Chinese: role of dietary factors. The international study on macronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension, 2004; 43 (6): 1,332-1,337.

Citations Not Used in Evidence Analysis

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/health_information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

 

Hypertension (HTN): Calcium

Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. Impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the prevalence of hypertension in Western populations. Eur J Public Health. 2004; 14 (3): 235-239.

Hajjar I, Kotchen T. Regional variations of blood pressure in the United States are associated with regional variations in dietary intakes: The NHANES III Data. J Nutr. 2003; 133: 211-214.

Hajjar IM, Grim CE, Kotchen TA. Dietary calcium lowers the age-related rise in blood pressure in the United States: the NHANES III Survey. J Clin Hypertens. 2003; 5 (2): 122-126.

Jorde R, Bonaa KH. Calcium from dairy products, vitamin D intake and blood pressure: the Tromso study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71 (6): 1,530-1,535.

Kwok TCY, Chan TYK, Woo J. Relationship of urinary sodium/potassium excretion and calcium intake to blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension among older Chinese vegetarians. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003; 57: 299-304.

Lancaster KJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Weltzel LB, Mitchell DC, Friedman JM, Jensen GL. Hypertension-related dietary patterns of rural older adults. Preventive Medicine, 2004; 38: 812-818.

Morikawa Y, Nakagawa H, Okayama A, Mikawa K, Sakata K, Miura K, Ishizaki M, Yoshita K, Naruse Y, Kagamimori S, Hashimoto T, Ueshima H. A cross-sectional study on association of calcium intake with blood pressure in Japanese population. Journal of Human Hypertension, 2002; 16 (2): 105-110.

Schroder H, Schmelz E, Marrugat J. Relationship between diet and blood pressure in a representative Mediterranean population. Eur J Nutr. 2002; 41 (4): 161-167.

Silaste M-L, Junes R, Rantala AO, Kauma H, Lilja M, Savolainen MJ, Reunanen A, Kesaniemi YA. Dietary and other non-pharmacological treatments in patients with drug-treated hypertension and control subjects. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2000; 247: 318-324.

Zhao L, Stamler J, Yan LL, Zhou B, Wu Y, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Dennis BH, Elliott P, Ueshima H, Yang J, Zhu L, Guo D, for the INTERMAP Research Group. Blood pressure differences between northern and southern Chinese: role of dietary factors. The international study on macronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension, 2004; 43 (6): 1,332-1,337.

Citations not Used in Evidence Analysis

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) are issued by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences.

Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/health_information/Dietary_Reference_Intakes.aspx

 

Hypertension (HTN): Fruits and Vegetables

Alonso A, de la Fuente C, Martín-Arnau AM, de Irala J, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA. Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with blood pressure in a Mediterranean population with a high vegetable-fat intake: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study. Brit J Nutr. 2004; 92: 311-319.

Beitz R, Mensink GBM, Fischer B. Blood pressure and vitamin C and fruit and vegetable intake. Annals of Nutr & Metabolism. 2003; 47: 214-220.

Broekmans WMR, Klopping-Ketelaars WAA, Kluft C, van den Berg H, Kok FJ, van Poppel G. Fruit and vegetables and cardiovascular risk profile: a diet controlled intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001; 55 (8): 636-642.

Conlin PR, Chow D, Miller III ER, Svetkey LP, Lin PH, Harsha DW, Moore TJ, Sacks FM, Appel LJ, for the DASH Research Group. The effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Am J Hypertens. 2000; 13: 949-955.

John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P, Roe LS, Neil HAW for the Oxford Fruit and Vegetable Study Group. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2002; 359 (9322): 1,969-1,974.

Miura K, Greenland P, Stamler J, Liu K, Daviglus ML, Nakagawa H. Relation of vegetable, fruit, and meat intake to 7-year blood pressure change in middle-aged men: the Chicago Western Electric Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 159: 572-580.

Moore TJ, Conlin PR, Ard J, Svetkey LP, for the DASH Collaborative Research Group. DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is effective treatment for stage I isolated systolic hypertension. Hypertension. 2001; 38: 155-158.

Nowson CA, Worsley A, Margerison C, Jorna MK, Frame AG, Torres SJ, Godfrey SJ. Blood pressure response to dietary modifications in free-living individuals. J Nutr. 2004; 134: 2,322-2,329.

Nowson CA, Worsley A, Margerison C, Jorna MK, Godfrey SJ, Booth A. Blood pressure change with weight loss is affected by diet type in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81: 983-989.

Citations not Used in Evidence Analysis 

Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N for the DASH Collaborative Research Group. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Engl J Med. 1997; 336 (16): 1,117-1,124.

 

Hypertension (HTN): Soy Foods

Goodman-Gruen D, Kritz-Silverstein D. Usual dietary isoflavone intake is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2001; 131: 1,202-1,206.

Harrison RA, Sagara M, Rajura A, Armitage L, Birt N, Birt CA, Yaori Y, Can foods with added soy-protein or fish-oil reduce risk factors for coronary disease? A factorial randomised controlled trial, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004, 14: 344-350.

He J, Gu D, Wu X, Chen J, Duan X, Chen J, Whelton PK. Effect of soybean protein on blood pressure: A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Int Med. 2005; 143: 1-9.

Hermansen K, Hansen B, Jacobsen R, Clausen P, Dalgaard M, Dinesen B, Holst JJ, Pedersen E, Astrup A. Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59: 843-850.

Jayagopal V, Albertazzi P, Kilpatrick ES, Howarth EM, Jennings PE, Hepburn DA, Atkin SL. Beneficial effects of soy phytoestrogen intake in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2002; 25: 1,709-1,714.

Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Bots ML, Grobbee DE, Lampe JW, van der Schouw Y. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on vascular function in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81: 189-195.

Meyer BJ, Larkin TA, Owen AJ, Astheimer LB, Tapsell LC, Howe PRC. Limited lipid-lowering efects of regular consumption of whole soybean foods. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004; 49: 67-78.

Nagata C, Shimizu H, Takami R, Hayashi M, Takeda N, Yasuda K. Association of blood pressure with intake of soy products and other food groups in Japanese men and women. Prev Med. 2003: 36: 692-697.

Rivas M, Garay RP, Escanero JF, Cia P, Cia P, Alda JO. Soy milk lowers blood pressure in men and women with mild to moderate essential hypertension. J Nutr. 2002; 132: 1,900-1,902.

Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M. Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: An American Heart Association science advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 2006; 113: 1,034-1,044.

Sagara M, Kanda T, Jelekera MN, Teramoto T, Armitage L, Birt N, Birt C, Yamori Y. Effects of dietary intake of soy protein and isoflavones on cardiovascular disease risk factors in high risk, middle-aged men in Scotland. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003; 23 (1): 85-91.

Teede HJ, Dalais FS, Kotsopoulos D, Liang Y, Davis S, McGrath BP. Dietary soy has both beneficial and potentially adverse cardiovascular effects: A placebo-controlled study in men and postmenopausal women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2001; 86: 3,053-3,060.

Yang G, Shu X-O, Jin F, Zhang X, Li H-L, Li Q, Gao Y-T, Zheng W. Longitudinal study of soy food intake and blood pressure among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005: 81: 1,012-1,017.

 

Hypertension (HTN): Garlic

Dhawan V, Jain S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004; 266 (1-2): 109-115.

Durak I, Kavutcu M, Aytac B, Avci A, Devrim E, Ozbek H, Ozturk HS. Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol. J Nutr Biochem. 2004; 15 (6): 373-377.

Qidwai W, Qureshi R, Hasan SN, Azam SI. Effect of dietary garlic (Allium sativum) on the blood pressure in humans - a pilot study. J Pak Med Assoc. 2000; 50 (6): 204-207.

Turner B, Molgaard C, Marckmann P. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2004; 92 (4): 701-706.

Zhang XH, Lowe D, Giles P, Fell S, Board AR, Baughan JA, Connock MJ, Maslin DJ. A randomized trial of the effects of garlic oil upon coronary heart disease risk factors in trained male runners. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2001; 12 (1): 67-74.

 

Hypertension (HTN): Cocoa and Chocolate

Buijsse B, Feskens EJM, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Cocoa intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166 (4): 411-417.

Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder ML. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23 (3): 197-204.

Fisher NDL, Hughes M, Gerhard-Herman M, Hollenberg NK. Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide dependent vasodilation in healthy humans. J Hypertens. 2003; 21 (12): 2,281-2,286.

Grassi D, Lippi C, Necozione S, Desideri G, Ferri C. Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005; 81 (3): 611-614.

Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, Croce G, Valeri L, Pasqualetti P, Desideri G, Blumberg JB, Ferri C. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension, 2005; 46 (2): 398-405.

Vlachopoulos C, Aznaouridis K, Alexopoulos N, Economou E, Andreadou I, Stefanidis C. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens. 2005; 18 (6): 785-791.

 

Hypertension (HTN): Caffeine

Cavalcante JWS, Santos PRM, de Menezes MGF, Marques HO, Cavalcante LP, Pacheco WS. Influence of caffeine on blood pressure and platelet aggregation. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2000; 75: 102-105.

Hartley TR, Lovallo WR, Whitsett TL. Cardiovascular effects of caffeine in men and women. Am J Cardiol. 2004; 93: 1,022-1,026.

Hartley TR, Sung BH, Pincomb GA, Whitsett TL, Wilson MF, Lovallo WR. Hypertension risk status and effect of caffeine on blood pressure. Hypertension, 2000; 36: 137-141.

Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CSPM, Arends LR, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertension. 2005; 23: 921-928.

Shepard JD, al'Absi M, Whitsett TL, Passey RB, Lovallo WR. Additive pressor effects of caffeine and stress in male medical students at risk for hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2000; 13: 475-481.

Vlachopoulos C, Hirata K, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas P, O'Rourke MF. Caffeine increases aortic stiffness in hypertensive patients. Am J Hpertens. 2003; 16: 63-66.

Waring WS, Goudsmit J, Marwick J, Webb DJ, Maxwell SRJ. Acute caffeine intake influences central more than peripheral blood pressure in young adults. Am J Hypertens. 2003; 16: 919-924.

Watson J, Deary I, Kerr D. Central and peripheral effects of sustained caffeine use: tolerance is incomplete. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002; 54: 400-406.

 

Hypertension (HTN): Alcohol Consumption

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC 7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

 

Hypertension (HTN): Management of Blood Pressure

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC 7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm

 

Hypertension (HTN): Goals of Therapy

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Commitee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, NIH Publication No. 04-5230, August 2004, produced by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in cooperation with the National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/

To access the pdf of the JNC 7, click here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.htm