Dietary Approaches and Health Outcomes

Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk Factors (2021)

Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Umbrella Review

Using findings from the Dietary Approaches and Health Outcomes scoping review literature search, the EAC team conducted an umbrella review on the Mediterranean diet and CVD risk factors. The review included sub-analysis for the following populations: hypertension, diabetes (type 2), CVD, overweight/obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. All of the systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria and evaluated a Mediterranean diet pattern (as defined by the authors) were included in the umbrella review. Definitions provided by the systematic review authors can be found in the Study Characteristics table available within each evidence summary. Common criteria identified from the systematic review of Mediterranean diet definitions included high fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake; low to moderate meat intake; and inclusion of legumes and olive oil.

 The results of the umbrella review found:

  • Mediterranean diet intake may decrease blood pressure, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol in the general population.
  • Mediterranean diet intake may reduce weight, LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure in individuals with overweight or obesity.
  • Mediterranean diet intake may improve dyslipidemia and glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Use the left navigation bar to see the results of the Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk Factors umbrella review.