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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD: References (2019)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Guideline 2019 Major Recommendation References

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Full Recommendations and Supporting Evidence section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Specific Methods section.

Screening and Referral 

None.

Nutrition Assessment

COPD: Assessment of Energy Intake 

Benton M, Wagner C, Alexander J. Relationship between body mass index, nutrition, strength, and function in elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention. 2010; 30: 260-263.

Froli L, Boe J. The energy intake that is needed for weight gain in COPD candidates for lung transplantation. COPD. 2005; 2: 405-410.

Lee H, Kim S, Lim Y, Gwon H, Kim Y, Ahn J, Park H. Nutritional status and disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2013; 56: 518-523.

Planas M, Alvarez J, García-Peris P, de la Cuerda C, de Lucas P, Castella M, Canseco F, Reyes L. Nutritional support and quality of life in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2005; 24: 433-441.

Renvall M, Friedman P, Ramsdell J. Predictors of body mass index in patients with moderate to severe emphysema. COPD. 2009; 6: 432-436.

Selvi EC, Saikumar P, Kumar N. How to evaluate the risk of malnutrition in patients with COPD?. Global Journal of Medical Research: F Diseases. 2014; 14: 21-25.

Sugawara K, Takahashi H, Kashiwagura T, Yamada K, Yanagida S, Homma M, Dairiki K, Sasaki H, Kawagoshi A, Satake M, Shioya T. Effect of anti-inflammatory supplementation with whey peptide and exercise therapy in patients with COPD. Respiratory Medicine. 2012; 106: 1,526-1,534.

Weekes C, Emery P, Elia M. Dietary counselling and food fortification in stable COPD: a randomised trial. Thorax. 2009; 64: 326-331.

Yazdanpanah L, Shidfar F, Moosavi A, Heidarnazhad H, Haghani H. Energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Acta Medica Iranica. 2010; 48: 374-379.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

COPD: Assessment of Body Weight 

Abston E, Comellas A, Reed R, Kim V, Wise R, Brower R, Fortis S, Beichel R, Bhatt S, Zabner J ,Newell J ,Hoffman E, Eberlein M. Higher BMI is associated with higher expiratory airflow normalised for lung volume (FEF25-75/FVC) in COPD. BMJ Open Respiratory Research. 2017; 4:e000231

Dimov D, Tacheva T, Koychev A, Ilieva V, Prakova G, Vlaykova T. Obesity in Bulgarian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chron Respir Dis. 2013; 10 (4): 215-222. doi: 10.1177/1479972313504940. Epub 2013 Sep 26. PMID: 24072750.

Galesanu R, Bernard S, Marquis K, Lacasse Y, Poirier P, Bourbeau J, Maltais F. Obesity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is fatter really better?. Canadian Respiratory Journal. 2014; 21: 297-301.

Hallin R, Gudmundsson G, Suppli Ulrik C, Nieminen M, Gislason T, Lindberg E, Brøndum E, Aine T, Bakke P, Janson C. Nutritional status and long-term mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respiratory Medicine. 2007; 101: 1,954-1,960.

Jiang J, Zhao J, Yuan Y, Di S. Risk factors associated with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A retrospective analysis in 4,624 patients. Biomedical Research. 2017; 28: 3,855-3,859.

Koul P, Dar H, Jan R, Shah S, Khan U. Two-year mortality in survivors of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A North Indian study. Lung India : Official Organ of Indian Chest Society. 2017; 34: 511-516

Lainscak M, von Haehling S, Doehner W, Sarc I, Jeric T, Ziherl K, Kosnik M, Anker S, Suskovic S. Body mass index and prognosis in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 2011; 2: 81-86.

Lim J, Lee J, Kim J, Hwang Y, Kim T, Lim S, Yoo K, Jung K, Kim Y, Rhee C. Comparison of World Health Organization and Asia-Pacific body mass index classifications in COPD patients. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; 12: 2,465-2,475.

Marti S, Muñoz X, Rios J, Morell F, Ferrer J. Body weight and comorbidity predict mortality in COPD patients treated with oxygen therapy. The European Respiratory Journal. 2006; 27: 689-696.

O'Donnell DE, Deesomchok A, Lam YM, Guenette JA, Amornputtisathaporn N, Forkert L, Webb KA. Effects of BMI on static lung volumes in patients with airway obstruction. Chest. 2011 Aug; 140 (2): 461-468. doi: 10.1378/chest.10-2582. Epub 2011 Feb 10. PMID: 21310838.

Piquet J, Chavaillon J, David P, Martin F, Blanchon F, Roche N. High-risk patients following hospitalisation for an acute exacerbation of COPD. The European Respiratory Journal 2013; 42: 946-955.

Pothirat C, Phetsuk N, Deesomchok A, Theerakittikul T, Bumroongkit C, Liwsrisakun C, Inchai J. Clinical characteristics, management in real world practice and long-term survival among COPD patients of Northern Thailand COPD club members. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2007; 90: 653-662.

Qiu T, Tang YJ, Xu ZB, Xu D, Xiao J, Zhang MK, Feng YL, Wang K. Association between body mass index and pulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009 May 5; 122 (9): 1, 110-1, 111. No abstract available. PMID: 19493450.

Ranieri P, Bianchetti A, Margiotta A, Virgillo A, Clini E, Trabucchi M. Predictors of 6-month mortality in elderly patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease discharged from a medical ward after acute nonacidotic exacerbation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2008; 56: 909-913.

Rutten E, Calverley P, Casaburi R, Agusti A, Bakke P, Celli B, Coxson H, Crim C, Lomas D, Macnee W, Miller B, Rennard S, Scanlon P, Silverman E, Tal-Singer R, Vestbo J, Watkins M, Wouters E. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: do they influence patient-related outcomes?. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 2013; 63: 239-247.

Schols A, Broekhuizen R, Weling-Scheepers C, Wouters E. Body composition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005; 82: 53-59.

Slinde F, Grönberg A, Engström C, Rossander-Hulthén L, Larsson S. Body composition by bioelectrical impedance predicts mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Respiratory Medicine. 2005; 99: 1,004-1,009.

Tsimogianni A, Papiris S, Stathopoulos G, Manali E, Roussos C, Kotanidou A. Predictors of outcome after exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2009; 24: 1,043-1,048.

Uh S-T, Lee JY, Koo SM, Kim YK, Kim KU, Park JS, Park SW, Jang AS, Kim DJ, Choi JS, Na JO, Suh KH, Kim YH, Park C-S,. The Survival Rate of Korean Patients with COPD with or without Acute Exacerbations. Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. 2011; 70: 474-481.

Yamauchi Y, Hasegawa W, Yasunaga H, Sunohara M, Jo T, Takami K, Matsui H, Fushimi K, Nagase T. Paradoxical association between body mass index and in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Japan. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2014; 9:1,337-1,346.

Zapatero A, Barba R, Ruiz J, Losa J, Plaza S, Canora J, Marco J. Malnutrition and obesity: influence in mortality and readmissions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics : the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association. 2013; 26:16-22.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

COPD: Assessment of Energy Needs

Farooqi N, Slinde F, Carlsson M, Håglin L, Sandström T. Predicting energy requirement with pedometer-determined physical-activity level in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2015; 10:1129-37.

Nordenson A, Grönberg A, Hulthén L, Larsson S, Slinde F. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2010; 5: 271-276.

Ramos F, Rossato L, Ramires B, Pimentel G, Venâncio L, Orsatti F, de Oliveira E. Comparison of predictive equations of resting energy expenditure in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia. 2016; 23: 40-42.

Slinde F, Svensson A, Gronberg AM, Nordenson N, Hulthen L, Larsson SC. Reproducibility of indirect calorimetry in underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European e-Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. 2008; 3: 40-45.

Slinde F, Gronberg A, Svantesson U, Hulthen L, Larsson S. Energy expenditure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-evaluation of simple measures. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 65: 1,309-1,313.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

COPD: Assessment of Serum 25(OH)D Status 

Azargoon AR, Moghadam PK, Shokrollahi S, Ebrahimzadeh F, Pournia Y. Relationship between FEV1 and 25-hydroxy Vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Trends in Medical Research. 2011; 6: 184-190.

Berg I, Hanson C, Sayles H, Romberger D, Nelson A, Meza J, Miller B, Wouters E, Macnee W, Rutten E ,Romme E, Vestbo J, Edwards L, Rennard S. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD. Respiratory Medicine. 2013; 107: 1,578-1,588.

Basem I. El-Shafey and Hesham A. El-Srougy B. Does serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D level play a role in COPD?. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2014; 63: 43-47.

Essam Gouda, Mohamed Zidan, Gharraf Heba, Doreene Nazeih Younan, Samar Mohamed. Pattern of vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and in patients with bronchial asthma. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2016; 65: 389-396.

Hashim Ali Hussein S, Nielsen L, Konow Bøgebjerg Dolberg M, Dahl R. Serum magnesium and not vitamin D is associated with better QoL in COPD: A cross-sectional study. Respiratory Medicine. 2015; 109: 727-733.

Holmgaard D, Mygind L, Titlestad I, Madsen H, Fruekilde P, Pedersen S, Pedersen C. Serum vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease does not correlate with mortality--results from a 10-year prospective cohort study. PloS One. 2013; 8: e53670.

Janssens W, Bouillon R, Claes B, Carremans C, Lehouck A, Buysschaert I, Coolen J, Mathieu C, Decramer M, Lambrechts D. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD and correlates with variants in the vitamin D-binding gene. Thorax. 2010; 65: 215-220.

Jolliffe D, James W, Hooper R, Barnes N, Greiller C, Islam K, Bhowmik A, Timms P, Rajakulasingam R, Choudhury A, Simcock D, Hyppönen E, Walton R, Corrigan C, Griffiths C, Martineau A. Prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in London, UK. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2018; 175: 138-145.

Jung J, Kim Y, Kim S, Kim H, Oh Y, Lee S, Seo J, Lee S. Relationship of vitamin D status with lung function and exercise capacity in COPD. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.). 2015; 20: 782-789.

Khan D, Ullah A, Randhawa F, Iqtadar S, Butt N, Waheed K. Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2017; 33: 610-614.

Kunisaki K, Niewoehner D, Singh R, Connett J. Vitamin D status and longitudinal lung function decline in the Lung Health Study. The European Respiratory Journal. 2011; 37: 238-243.

Kunisaki K, Niewoehner D, Connett J. Vitamin D levels and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2012; 185: 286-290.

Lehouck A, Mathieu C, Carremans C, Baeke F, Verhaegen J, Van Eldere J, Decallonne B, Bouillon R, Decramer M, Janssens W. High doses of vitamin D to reduce exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012; 156: 105-114.

Måhlin C, von Sydow H, Osmancevic A, Emtner M, Grönberg A, Larsson S, Slinde F. Vitamin D status and dietary intake in a Swedish COPD population. The Clinical Respiratory Journal. 2014; 8: 24-32.

Malinovschi A, Masoero M, Bellocchia M, Ciuffreda A, Solidoro P, Mattei A, Mercante L, Heffler E, Rolla G, Bucca C. Severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with frequent exacerbations and hospitalization in COPD patients. Respiratory Research. 2014; 15: 131.

Martineau A, James W, Hooper R, Barnes N, Jolliffe D, Greiller C, Islam K, McLaughlin D, Bhowmik A, Timms P, Rajakulasingam R, Rowe M, Venton T, Choudhury A, Simcock D, Wilks M, Degun A, Sadique Z, Monteiro W, Corrigan C, Hawrylowicz C, Griffiths C. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ViDiCO): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine. 2015; 3: 120-130.

Mekov E, Slavova Y, Tsakova A, Genova M, Kostadinov D, Minchev D, Marinova D, Tafradjiiska M. Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Hospitalized COPD Patients. PloS One. 2015; 10: e0129080.

Mekov E, Slavova Y, Tsakova A, Genova M, Kostadinov D ,Minchev D, Marinova D, Boyanov M. One-year mortality after severe COPD exacerbation in Bulgaria. PeerJ. 2016; 4: e2788.

Moberg M, Vestbo J, Martinez G, Lange P, Ringbaek T. Prognostic value of C-reactive protein, leukocytes, and vitamin d in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 140736.

Monadi M, Heidari B, Asgharpour M, Firouzjahi A, Monadi M, Ghazi Mirsaied M. Relationship between serum vitamin D and forced expiratory volume in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine. 2012; 3: 451-455.

Park J, Park H, Jung H, Lee S, Koo H. Parathyroid Hormone as a Novel Biomarker for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PloS One. 2015; 10: e0138482.

Park Y, Kim Y, Kang Y, Shin J, Oh Y, Seo J, Jung J, Lee S. Relationship between vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms and blood vitamin D level in Korean patients with COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2016; 11: 731-738.

Persson L, Aanerud M, Hiemstra P, Hardie J, Bakke P, Eagan T. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with low levels of vitamin D. PloS One. 2012; 7:e38934.

Persson L, Aanerud M, Hiemstra P, Michelsen A, Ueland T, Hardie J, Aukrust P, Bakke P, Eagan T. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and longitudinal outcomes in COPD. PloS One. 2015; 10: e0121622.

Puhan M, Siebeling L, Frei A, Zoller M, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Ter Riet G. No association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with exacerbations in primary care patients with COPD. Chest. 2014; 145: 37-43.

Quint J, Donaldson G, Wassef N, Hurst J, Thomas M, Wedzicha J. 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, exacerbation frequency and human rhinovirus exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2012; 12: 28.

Rafiq R, Prins H, Boersma W, Daniels J, den Heijer M, Lips P, de Jongh R. Effects of daily vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients: a pilot trial. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; 12: 2,583-2,592.

Rezk NA, Yehia AA, Hewidy, AA. Effect of vitamin D replacement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosos. 2015; 64: 353-357.

Romme E, Rutten E, Smeenk F, Spruit M, Menheere P, Wouters E. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Annals of Medicine. 2013; 45: 91-96.

Said AF and Abd-Elnaeem EA. Vitamin D and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2015; 64: 67-73.

Sanjari M, Soltani A, Habibi Khorasani A, Zareinejad M. The effect of vitamin D on COPD exacerbation: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel clinical trial. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. 2016; 15: 33.

Shaheen S, Jameson K, Robinson S, Boucher B, Syddall H, Sayer A, Cooper C, Holloway J, Dennison E. Relationship of vitamin D status to adult lung function and COPD. Thorax. 2011; 66: 692-698.

Yang Y, Guo Y, Zhang H, Sun T. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 circulating levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with high risk of frequent exacerbations. Journal of Thoracic Disease. 2015; 7: 740-745.

Yumrutepe T, Aytemur Z, Baysal O, Taskapan H, Taskapan C, Hacievliyagil S. Relationship between vitamin D and lung function, physical performance and balance on patients with stage I-III chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira. (1992) 2015; 61: 132-138.

Zendedel A, Gholami M, Anbari K, Ghanadi K, Bachari E, Azargon A. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study. Global Journal of Health Science. 2015; 7: 243-248.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

Nutrition Diagnosis

None.

Nutrition Intervention

COPD: Medical Nutrition Therapy

Farooqi N, Nordström L, Lundgren R, Sandström T, Håglin L. Changes in body weight and physical performance after receiving dietary advice in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): 1-year follow-up. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2011; 53: 70-75.

Gale N, Duckers J, Enright S, Cockcroft J, Shale D, Bolton C. Does pulmonary rehabilitation address cardiovascular risk factors in patients with COPD?. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2011; 11: 20.

McDonald V, Gibson P, Scott H, Baines P, Hensley M, Pretto J, Wood L. Should we treat obesity in COPD? The effects of diet and resistance exercise training. Respirology. (Carlton, Vic.) 2016; 21: 875-882.

McLoughlin RE, McDonald VM, Gibson PG, Scott HA, Hensley MJ, MacDonald-Wicks L, and Wood LG. The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD. Nutrients. 2017; 9: 1,147.

Norrhall M, Nilsfelt A, Varas E, Larsson R, Curiac D, Axelsson G, Månsson J, Brisman J, Söderström A, Björkelund C, Thorn J. A feasible lifestyle program for early intervention in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study in primary care. Primary Care Respiratory Journal. 2009; 18: 306-312.

van Wetering C, Hoogendoorn M, Broekhuizen R, Geraerts-Keeris G, De Munck D, Rutten-van Mölken M, Schols A. Efficacy and costs of nutritional rehabilitation in muscle-wasted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a community-based setting: a prespecified subgroup analysis of the INTERCOM trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2010; 11: 179-187.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Blackstock FC, Lareau SC, Nici L, ZuWallack R, Bourbeau J, Buckley M, Durning SJ, Effing TW, Egbert E, Goldstein RS, Kelly W, Lee A, Meek PM, and Singh S; on behalf of the American Thoracic Society, Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand, Canadian Thoracic Society, and British Thoracic Society. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Education in Pulmonary Rehabilitation. An Official American Thoracic Society/Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand/Canadian Thoracic Society/British Thoracic Society Workshop Report. 2018. Ann Am Thorac Soc Vol 15, No 7, 769–784, Jul 2018.

COPD: Energy Prescription

Abston E, Comellas A, Reed R, Kim V, Wise R, Brower R, Fortis S, Beichel R, Bhatt S, Zabner J ,Newell J ,Hoffman E, Eberlein M. Higher BMI is associated with higher expiratory airflow normalised for lung volume (FEF25-75/FVC) in COPD. BMJ Open Respiratory Research. 2017; 4:e000231

Benton M, Wagner C, Alexander J. Relationship between body mass index, nutrition, strength, and function in elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention. 2010; 30: 260-263.

Dimov D, Tacheva T, Koychev A, Ilieva V, Prakova G, Vlaykova T. Obesity in Bulgarian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chron Respir Dis. 2013; 10 (4): 215-222. doi: 10.1177/1479972313504940. Epub 2013 Sep 26. PMID: 24072750.

Froli L, Boe J. The energy intake that is needed for weight gain in COPD candidates for lung transplantation. COPD. 2005; 2: 405-410.

Galesanu R, Bernard S, Marquis K, Lacasse Y, Poirier P, Bourbeau J, Maltais F. Obesity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is fatter really better?. Canadian Respiratory Journal. 2014; 21: 297-301.

Hallin R, Gudmundsson G, Suppli Ulrik C, Nieminen M, Gislason T, Lindberg E, Brøndum E, Aine T, Bakke P, Janson C. Nutritional status and long-term mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respiratory Medicine. 2007; 101: 1,954-1,960.

Jiang J, Zhao J, Yuan Y, Di S. Risk factors associated with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A retrospective analysis in 4,624 patients. Biomedical Research. 2017; 28: 3,855-3,859.

Koul P, Dar H, Jan R, Shah S, Khan U. Two-year mortality in survivors of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A North Indian study. Lung India : Official Organ of Indian Chest Society. 2017; 34: 511-516

Lainscak M, von Haehling S, Doehner W, Sarc I, Jeric T, Ziherl K, Kosnik M, Anker S, Suskovic S. Body mass index and prognosis in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 2011; 2: 81-86.

Lee H, Kim S, Lim Y, Gwon H, Kim Y, Ahn J, Park H. Nutritional status and disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2013; 56: 518-523.

Lim J, Lee J, Kim J, Hwang Y, Kim T, Lim S, Yoo K, Jung K, Kim Y, Rhee C. Comparison of World Health Organization and Asia-Pacific body mass index classifications in COPD patients. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; 12: 2,465-2,475.

Marti S, Muñoz X, Rios J, Morell F, Ferrer J. Body weight and comorbidity predict mortality in COPD patients treated with oxygen therapy. The European Respiratory Journal. 2006; 27: 689-696.

O'Donnell DE, Deesomchok A, Lam YM, Guenette JA, Amornputtisathaporn N, Forkert L, Webb KA. Effects of BMI on static lung volumes in patients with airway obstruction. Chest. 2011 Aug; 140 (2): 461-468. doi: 10.1378/chest.10-2582. Epub 2011 Feb 10. PMID: 21310838.

Piquet J, Chavaillon J, David P, Martin F, Blanchon F, Roche N. High-risk patients following hospitalisation for an acute exacerbation of COPD. The European Respiratory Journal 2013; 42: 946-955.

Planas M, Alvarez J, García-Peris P, de la Cuerda C, de Lucas P, Castella M, Canseco F, Reyes L. Nutritional support and quality of life in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2005; 24: 433-441.

Pothirat C, Phetsuk N, Deesomchok A, Theerakittikul T, Bumroongkit C, Liwsrisakun C, Inchai J. Clinical characteristics, management in real world practice and long-term survival among COPD patients of Northern Thailand COPD club members. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2007; 90: 653-662.

Qiu T, Tang YJ, Xu ZB, Xu D, Xiao J, Zhang MK, Feng YL, Wang K. Association between body mass index and pulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009 May 5; 122 (9): 1, 110-1, 111. No abstract available. PMID: 19493450.

Ranieri P, Bianchetti A, Margiotta A, Virgillo A, Clini E, Trabucchi M. Predictors of 6-month mortality in elderly patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease discharged from a medical ward after acute nonacidotic exacerbation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2008; 56: 909-913.

Renvall M, Friedman P, Ramsdell J. Predictors of body mass index in patients with moderate to severe emphysema. COPD. 2009; 6: 432-436.

Rutten E, Calverley P, Casaburi R, Agusti A, Bakke P, Celli B, Coxson H, Crim C, Lomas D, Macnee W, Miller B, Rennard S, Scanlon P, Silverman E, Tal-Singer R, Vestbo J, Watkins M, Wouters E. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: do they influence patient-related outcomes?. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 2013; 63: 239-247.

Selvi EC, Saikumar P, Kumar N. How to evaluate the risk of malnutrition in patients with COPD?. Global Journal of Medical Research: F Diseases. 2014; 14: 21-25.

Schols A, Broekhuizen R, Weling-Scheepers C, Wouters E. Body composition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005; 82: 53-59.

Slinde F, Grönberg A, Engström C, Rossander-Hulthén L, Larsson S. Body composition by bioelectrical impedance predicts mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Respiratory Medicine. 2005; 99: 1,004-1,009.

Sugawara K, Takahashi H, Kashiwagura T, Yamada K, Yanagida S, Homma M, Dairiki K, Sasaki H, Kawagoshi A, Satake M, Shioya T. Effect of anti-inflammatory supplementation with whey peptide and exercise therapy in patients with COPD. Respiratory Medicine. 2012; 106: 1,526-1,534.

Tsimogianni A, Papiris S, Stathopoulos G, Manali E, Roussos C, Kotanidou A. Predictors of outcome after exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2009; 24: 1,043-1,048.

Uh S-T, Lee JY, Koo SM, Kim YK, Kim KU, Park JS, Park SW, Jang AS, Kim DJ, Choi JS, Na JO, Suh KH, Kim YH, Park C-S,. The Survival Rate of Korean Patients with COPD with or without Acute Exacerbations. Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. 2011; 70: 474-481.

Weekes C, Emery P, Elia M. Dietary counselling and food fortification in stable COPD: a randomised trial. Thorax. 2009; 64: 326-331.

Yamauchi Y, Hasegawa W, Yasunaga H, Sunohara M, Jo T, Takami K, Matsui H, Fushimi K, Nagase T. Paradoxical association between body mass index and in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Japan. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2014; 9:1,337-1,346.

Yazdanpanah L, Shidfar F, Moosavi A, Heidarnazhad H, Haghani H. Energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Acta Medica Iranica. 2010; 48: 374-379.

Zapatero A, Barba R, Ruiz J, Losa J, Plaza S, Canora J, Marco J. Malnutrition and obesity: influence in mortality and readmissions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association. 2013; 26:16-22.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

COPD: Macronutrient Composition (Percent Distribution)

Tümer G, Mercanligil SM, Uzun O, Aygün C. The Effects of a High-Fat, Low-Carbohydrate Diet on the Prognosis of Patients with an Acute Attack of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Sci. 2009; 29: 895-904.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

COPD: Vitamin D Supplementation

Khan D, Ullah A, Randhawa F, Iqtadar S, Butt N, Waheed K. Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2017; 33: 610-614.

Lehouck A, Mathieu C, Carremans C, Baeke F, Verhaegen J, Van Eldere J, Decallonne B, Bouillon R, Decramer M, Janssens W. High doses of vitamin D to reduce exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012; 156: 105-114.

Martineau A, James W, Hooper R, Barnes N, Jolliffe D, Greiller C, Islam K, McLaughlin D, Bhowmik A, Timms P, Rajakulasingam R, Rowe M, Venton T, Choudhury A, Simcock D, Wilks M, Degun A, Sadique Z, Monteiro W, Corrigan C, Hawrylowicz C, Griffiths C. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ViDiCO): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine. 2015; 3: 120-130.

Rafiq R, Prins H, Boersma W, Daniels J, den Heijer M, Lips P, de Jongh R. Effects of daily vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients: a pilot trial. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; 12: 2,583-2,592.

Rezk NA, Yehia AA, Hewidy, AA. Effect of vitamin D replacement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosos. 2015; 64: 353-357.

Said AF and Abd-Elnaeem EA. Vitamin D and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2015; 64: 67-73.

Sanjari M, Soltani A, Habibi Khorasani A, Zareinejad M. The effect of vitamin D on COPD exacerbation: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel clinical trial. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. 2016; 15: 33.

Zendedel A, Gholami M, Anbari K, Ghanadi K, Bachari E, Azargon A. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study. Global Journal of Health Science. 2015; 7: 243-248.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul; 96(7): 1, 911-1, 930. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385. Epub 2011 Jun 6. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec; 96 (12): 3,908. PMID: 21646368.

Jolliffe DA,  Greenberg L,  Hooper RL, et al. Vitamin D to prevent exacerbations of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. Thorax Published Online First: 10 January 2019. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212092.

Marra MV, Bailey RL. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Micronutrient Supplementation. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018 Nov;118(11): 2,162-2,173. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2018.07.022. Erratum in: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019 Feb; 119(2): 344. PMID: 30366569.

Pludowski P, Holick MF, Grant WB, Konstantynowicz J, Mascarenhas MR, Haq A, Povoroznyuk V, Balatska N, Barbosa AP, Karonova T, Rudenka E, Misiorowski W, Zakharova I, Rudenka A, Lukaszkiewicz J, Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Laszcz N, Abramowicz P, Bhattoa HP, Wimalawansa SJ. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Jan; 175: 125-135. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.01.021. Epub 2017 Feb 12. PMID: 28216084.

Rusinska A, Pludowski P, Walczak M, Borszewska-Kornacka MK, Bossowski A, Chlebna-Sokól D, Czech-Kowalska J, Dobrzanska A, Franek E, Helwich E, Jackowska T, Kalina MA, Konstantynowicz J, Ksiazyk J, Lewinski A, Lukaszkiewicz J, Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Mazur A, Michalus I, Peregud-Pogorzelski J, Romanowska H, Ruchala M, Socha P, Szalecki M, Wielgos M, Zwolinska D, Zygmunt A. Vitamin D Supplementation Guidelines for General Population and Groups at Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency in Poland-Recommendations of the Polish Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and the Expert Panel With Participation of National Specialist Consultants and Representatives of Scientific Societies-2018 Update. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 May 31;9:246. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00246. eCollection 2018. Review. PMID: 2990437.

Thomson C, Diekman C, Fragakis AS, Meerschaert C, Holler H, Devlin C; American Dietetic Association. Guidelines regarding the recommendation and sale of dietary supplements. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002 Aug; 102(8): 1,158-1,164. No abstract available. PMID: 12171465.

Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

COPD: Monitor and Evaluate Energy Intake and Body Weight for Energy Needs 

Farooqi N, Slinde F, Carlsson M, Håglin L, Sandström T. Predicting energy requirement with pedometer-determined physical-activity level in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2015; 10:1129-37.

Nordenson A, Grönberg A, Hulthén L, Larsson S, Slinde F. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2010; 5: 271-276.

Ramos F, Rossato L, Ramires B, Pimentel G, Venâncio L, Orsatti F, de Oliveira E. Comparison of predictive equations of resting energy expenditure in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia. 2016; 23: 40-42.

Slinde F, Svensson A, Gronberg AM, Nordenson N, Hulthen L, Larsson SC. Reproducibility of indirect calorimetry in underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European e-Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. 2008; 3: 40-45.

Slinde F, Gronberg A, Svantesson U, Hulthen L, Larsson S. Energy expenditure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-evaluation of simple measures. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 65: 1,309-1,313.

Benton M, Wagner C, Alexander J. Relationship between body mass index, nutrition, strength, and function in elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention. 2010; 30: 260-263.

Froli L, Boe J. The energy intake that is needed for weight gain in COPD candidates for lung transplantation. COPD. 2005; 2: 405-410.

Lee H, Kim S, Lim Y, Gwon H, Kim Y, Ahn J, Park H. Nutritional status and disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2013; 56: 518-523.

Planas M, Alvarez J, García-Peris P, de la Cuerda C, de Lucas P, Castella M, Canseco F, Reyes L. Nutritional support and quality of life in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2005; 24: 433-441.

Renvall M, Friedman P, Ramsdell J. Predictors of body mass index in patients with moderate to severe emphysema. COPD. 2009; 6: 432-436.

Selvi EC, Saikumar P, Kumar N. How to evaluate the risk of malnutrition in patients with COPD?. Global Journal of Medical Research: F Diseases. 2014; 14: 21-25.

Sugawara K, Takahashi H, Kashiwagura T, Yamada K, Yanagida S, Homma M, Dairiki K, Sasaki H, Kawagoshi A, Satake M, Shioya T. Effect of anti-inflammatory supplementation with whey peptide and exercise therapy in patients with COPD. Respiratory Medicine. 2012; 106: 1,526-1,534.

Weekes C, Emery P, Elia M. Dietary counselling and food fortification in stable COPD: a randomised trial. Thorax. 2009; 64: 326-331.

Yazdanpanah L, Shidfar F, Moosavi A, Heidarnazhad H, Haghani H. Energy and protein intake and its relationship with pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Acta Medica Iranica. 2010; 48: 374-379.

Abston E, Comellas A, Reed R, Kim V, Wise R, Brower R, Fortis S, Beichel R, Bhatt S, Zabner J ,Newell J ,Hoffman E, Eberlein M. Higher BMI is associated with higher expiratory airflow normalised for lung volume (FEF25-75/FVC) in COPD. BMJ Open Respiratory Research. 2017; 4:e000231

Dimov D, Tacheva T, Koychev A, Ilieva V, Prakova G, Vlaykova T. Obesity in Bulgarian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chron Respir Dis. 2013; 10 (4): 215-222. doi: 10.1177/1479972313504940. Epub 2013 Sep 26. PMID: 24072750.

Galesanu R, Bernard S, Marquis K, Lacasse Y, Poirier P, Bourbeau J, Maltais F. Obesity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is fatter really better?. Canadian Respiratory Journal. 2014; 21: 297-301.

Hallin R, Gudmundsson G, Suppli Ulrik C, Nieminen M, Gislason T, Lindberg E, Brøndum E, Aine T, Bakke P, Janson C. Nutritional status and long-term mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respiratory Medicine. 2007; 101: 1,954-1,960.

Jiang J, Zhao J, Yuan Y, Di S. Risk factors associated with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A retrospective analysis in 4,624 patients. Biomedical Research. 2017; 28: 3,855-3,859.

Koul P, Dar H, Jan R, Shah S, Khan U. Two-year mortality in survivors of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A North Indian study. Lung India : Official Organ of Indian Chest Society. 2017; 34: 511-516

Lainscak M, von Haehling S, Doehner W, Sarc I, Jeric T, Ziherl K, Kosnik M, Anker S, Suskovic S. Body mass index and prognosis in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 2011; 2: 81-86.

Lim J, Lee J, Kim J, Hwang Y, Kim T, Lim S, Yoo K, Jung K, Kim Y, Rhee C. Comparison of World Health Organization and Asia-Pacific body mass index classifications in COPD patients. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; 12: 2,465-2,475.

Marti S, Muñoz X, Rios J, Morell F, Ferrer J. Body weight and comorbidity predict mortality in COPD patients treated with oxygen therapy. The European Respiratory Journal. 2006; 27: 689-696.

O'Donnell DE, Deesomchok A, Lam YM, Guenette JA, Amornputtisathaporn N, Forkert L, Webb KA. Effects of BMI on static lung volumes in patients with airway obstruction. Chest. 2011 Aug; 140 (2): 461-468. doi: 10.1378/chest.10-2582. Epub 2011 Feb 10. PMID: 21310838.

Piquet J, Chavaillon J, David P, Martin F, Blanchon F, Roche N. High-risk patients following hospitalisation for an acute exacerbation of COPD. The European Respiratory Journal 2013; 42: 946-955.

Pothirat C, Phetsuk N, Deesomchok A, Theerakittikul T, Bumroongkit C, Liwsrisakun C, Inchai J. Clinical characteristics, management in real world practice and long-term survival among COPD patients of Northern Thailand COPD club members. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2007; 90: 653-662.

Qiu T, Tang YJ, Xu ZB, Xu D, Xiao J, Zhang MK, Feng YL, Wang K. Association between body mass index and pulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009 May 5; 122 (9): 1, 110-1, 111. No abstract available. PMID: 19493450.

Ranieri P, Bianchetti A, Margiotta A, Virgillo A, Clini E, Trabucchi M. Predictors of 6-month mortality in elderly patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease discharged from a medical ward after acute nonacidotic exacerbation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2008; 56: 909-913.

Rutten E, Calverley P, Casaburi R, Agusti A, Bakke P, Celli B, Coxson H, Crim C, Lomas D, Macnee W, Miller B, Rennard S, Scanlon P, Silverman E, Tal-Singer R, Vestbo J, Watkins M, Wouters E. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: do they influence patient-related outcomes?. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 2013; 63: 239-247.

Schols A, Broekhuizen R, Weling-Scheepers C, Wouters E. Body composition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005; 82: 53-59.

Slinde F, Grönberg A, Engström C, Rossander-Hulthén L, Larsson S. Body composition by bioelectrical impedance predicts mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Respiratory Medicine. 2005; 99: 1,004-1,009.

Tsimogianni A, Papiris S, Stathopoulos G, Manali E, Roussos C, Kotanidou A. Predictors of outcome after exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2009; 24: 1,043-1,048.

Uh S-T, Lee JY, Koo SM, Kim YK, Kim KU, Park JS, Park SW, Jang AS, Kim DJ, Choi JS, Na JO, Suh KH, Kim YH, Park C-S,. The Survival Rate of Korean Patients with COPD with or without Acute Exacerbations. Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. 2011; 70: 474-481.

Yamauchi Y, Hasegawa W, Yasunaga H, Sunohara M, Jo T, Takami K, Matsui H, Fushimi K, Nagase T. Paradoxical association between body mass index and in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Japan. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2014; 9:1,337-1,346.

Zapatero A, Barba R, Ruiz J, Losa J, Plaza S, Canora J, Marco J. Malnutrition and obesity: influence in mortality and readmissions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics : the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association. 2013; 26:16-22.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

COPD: Monitor and Evaluate Serum 25(OH)D Status 

Azargoon AR, Moghadam PK, Shokrollahi S, Ebrahimzadeh F, Pournia Y. Relationship between FEV1 and 25-hydroxy Vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Trends in Medical Research. 2011; 6: 184-190.

Berg I, Hanson C, Sayles H, Romberger D, Nelson A, Meza J, Miller B, Wouters E, Macnee W, Rutten E ,Romme E, Vestbo J, Edwards L, Rennard S. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD. Respiratory Medicine. 2013; 107: 1,578-1,588.

Basem I. El-Shafey and Hesham A. El-Srougy B. Does serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D level play a role in COPD?. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2014; 63: 43-47.

Essam Gouda, Mohamed Zidan, Gharraf Heba, Doreene Nazeih Younan, Samar Mohamed. Pattern of vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and in patients with bronchial asthma. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2016; 65: 389-396.

Hashim Ali Hussein S, Nielsen L, Konow Bøgebjerg Dolberg M, Dahl R. Serum magnesium and not vitamin D is associated with better QoL in COPD: A cross-sectional study. Respiratory Medicine. 2015; 109: 727-733.

Holmgaard D, Mygind L, Titlestad I, Madsen H, Fruekilde P, Pedersen S, Pedersen C. Serum vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease does not correlate with mortality--results from a 10-year prospective cohort study. PloS One. 2013; 8: e53670.

Janssens W, Bouillon R, Claes B, Carremans C, Lehouck A, Buysschaert I, Coolen J, Mathieu C, Decramer M, Lambrechts D. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD and correlates with variants in the vitamin D-binding gene. Thorax. 2010; 65: 215-2.

Jolliffe D, James W, Hooper R, Barnes N, Greiller C, Islam K, Bhowmik A, Timms P, Rajakulasingam R, Choudhury A, Simcock D, Hyppönen E, Walton R, Corrigan C, Griffiths C, Martineau A. Prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in London, UK. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2018; 175: 138-145.

Jung J, Kim Y, Kim S, Kim H, Oh Y, Lee S, Seo J, Lee S. Relationship of vitamin D status with lung function and exercise capacity in COPD. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.). 2015; 20: 782-789.

Khan D, Ullah A, Randhawa F, Iqtadar S, Butt N, Waheed K. Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2017; 33: 610-614.

Kunisaki K, Niewoehner D, Singh R, Connett J. Vitamin D status and longitudinal lung function decline in the Lung Health Study. The European Respiratory Journal. 2011; 37: 238-243.

Kunisaki K, Niewoehner D, Connett J. Vitamin D levels and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2012; 185: 286-290.

Lehouck A, Mathieu C, Carremans C, Baeke F, Verhaegen J, Van Eldere J, Decallonne B, Bouillon R, Decramer M, Janssens W. High doses of vitamin D to reduce exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012; 156: 105-114.

Måhlin C, von Sydow H, Osmancevic A, Emtner M, Grönberg A, Larsson S, Slinde F. Vitamin D status and dietary intake in a Swedish COPD population. The Clinical Respiratory Journal. 2014; 8: 24-32.

Malinovschi A, Masoero M, Bellocchia M, Ciuffreda A, Solidoro P, Mattei A, Mercante L, Heffler E, Rolla G, Bucca C. Severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with frequent exacerbations and hospitalization in COPD patients. Respiratory Research. 2014; 15: 131.

Martineau A, James W, Hooper R, Barnes N, Jolliffe D, Greiller C, Islam K, McLaughlin D, Bhowmik A, Timms P, Rajakulasingam R, Rowe M, Venton T, Choudhury A, Simcock D, Wilks M, Degun A, Sadique Z, Monteiro W, Corrigan C, Hawrylowicz C, Griffiths C. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ViDiCO): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2015; 3: 120-130.

Mekov E, Slavova Y, Tsakova A, Genova M, Kostadinov D, Minchev D, Marinova D, Tafradjiiska M. Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Hospitalized COPD Patients. PloS One. 2015; 10: e0129080.

Mekov E, Slavova Y, Tsakova A, Genova M, Kostadinov D ,Minchev D, Marinova D, Boyanov M. One-year mortality after severe COPD exacerbation in Bulgaria. PeerJ. 2016; 4: e2788.

Moberg M, Vestbo J, Martinez G, Lange P, Ringbaek T. Prognostic value of C-reactive protein, leukocytes, and vitamin d in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 140736.

Monadi M, Heidari B, Asgharpour M, Firouzjahi A, Monadi M, Ghazi Mirsaied M. Relationship between serum vitamin D and forced expiratory volume in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine. 2012; 3: 451-455.

Park J, Park H, Jung H, Lee S, Koo H. Parathyroid Hormone as a Novel Biomarker for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PloS One. 2015; 10: e0138482.

Park Y, Kim Y, Kang Y, Shin J, Oh Y, Seo J, Jung J, Lee S. Relationship between vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms and blood vitamin D level in Korean patients with COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2016; 11: 731-738.

Persson L, Aanerud M, Hiemstra P, Hardie J, Bakke P, Eagan T. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with low levels of vitamin D. PloS One. 2012; 7: e38934.

Persson L, Aanerud M, Hiemstra P, Michelsen A, Ueland T, Hardie J, Aukrust P, Bakke P, Eagan T. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and longitudinal outcomes in COPD. PloS One. 2015; 10: e0121622.

Puhan M, Siebeling L, Frei A, Zoller M, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Ter Riet G. No association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with exacerbations in primary care patients with COPD. Chest. 2014; 145: 37-43.

Quint J, Donaldson G, Wassef N, Hurst J, Thomas M, Wedzicha J. 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, exacerbation frequency and human rhinovirus exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2012; 12: 28.

Rafiq R, Prins H, Boersma W, Daniels J, den Heijer M, Lips P, de Jongh R. Effects of daily vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients: a pilot trial. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; 12: 2,583-2,592.

Rezk NA, Yehia AA, Hewidy, AA. Effect of vitamin D replacement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosos. 2015; 64: 353-357.

Romme E, Rutten E, Smeenk F, Spruit M, Menheere P, Wouters E. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Annals of Medicine. 2013; 45: 91-96.

Said AF and Abd-Elnaeem EA. Vitamin D and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2015; 64: 67-73.

Sanjari M, Soltani A, Habibi Khorasani A, Zareinejad M. The effect of vitamin D on COPD exacerbation: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel clinical trial. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. 2016; 15: 33.

Shaheen S, Jameson K, Robinson S, Boucher B, Syddall H, Sayer A, Cooper C, Holloway J, Dennison E. Relationship of vitamin D status to adult lung function and COPD. Thorax. 2011; 66: 692-698.

Yang Y, Guo Y, Zhang H, Sun T. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 circulating levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with high risk of frequent exacerbations. Journal of Thoracic Disease. 2015; 7: 740-745.

Yumrutepe T, Aytemur Z, Baysal O, Taskapan H, Taskapan C, Hacievliyagil S. Relationship between vitamin D and lung function, physical performance and balance on patients with stage I-III chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira. (1992) 2015; 61: 132-138.

Zendedel A, Gholami M, Anbari K, Ghanadi K, Bachari E, Azargon A. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study. Global Journal of Health Science. 2015; 7: 243-248.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

COPD: Monitor and Evaluate Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation

Khan D, Ullah A, Randhawa F, Iqtadar S, Butt N, Waheed K. Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2017; 33: 610-614.

Lehouck A, Mathieu C, Carremans C, Baeke F, Verhaegen J, Van Eldere J, Decallonne B, Bouillon R, Decramer M, Janssens W. High doses of vitamin D to reduce exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012; 156: 105-114.

Martineau A, James W, Hooper R, Barnes N, Jolliffe D, Greiller C, Islam K, McLaughlin D, Bhowmik A, Timms P, Rajakulasingam R, Rowe M, Venton T, Choudhury A, Simcock D, Wilks M, Degun A, Sadique Z, Monteiro W, Corrigan C, Hawrylowicz C, Griffiths C. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ViDiCO): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine. 2015; 3: 120-130.

Rafiq R, Prins H, Boersma W, Daniels J, den Heijer M, Lips P, de Jongh R. Effects of daily vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients: a pilot trial. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2017; 12: 2,583-2,592.

Rezk NA, Yehia AA, Hewidy, AA. Effect of vitamin D replacement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosos. 2015; 64: 353-357.

Said AF and Abd-Elnaeem EA. Vitamin D and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2015; 64: 67-73.

Sanjari M, Soltani A, Habibi Khorasani A, Zareinejad M. The effect of vitamin D on COPD exacerbation: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled parallel clinical trial. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. 2016; 15: 33.

Zendedel A, Gholami M, Anbari K, Ghanadi K, Bachari E, Azargon A. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study. Global Journal of Health Science. 2015; 7: 243-8.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul; 96(7): 1, 911-1, 930. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385. Epub 2011 Jun 6. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec; 96 (12): 3, 908. PMID: 21646368.

Hurst JR, Vestbo J, Anzueto A, Locantore N, Müllerova H, Tal-Singer R, Miller B, Lomas DA, Agusti A, Macnee W, Calverley P, Rennard S, Wouters EF, Wedzicha JA; Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) Investigators. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 16; 363(12): 1,128-1,138. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0909883. PMID: 20843247.

Le Rouzic O, Roche N, Cortot AB, Tillie-Leblond I, Masure F, Perez T, Boucot I, Hamouti L, Ostinelli J, Pribil C, Poutchnine C, Schück S, Pouriel M, Housset B. Defining the "Frequent Exacerbator" Phenotype in COPD: A Hypothesis-Free Approach. Chest. 2018 May; 153(5): 1,106-1,115. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2017.10.009. Epub 2017 Oct 17. PMID: 29054347.

Rusinska A, Pludowski P, Walczak M, Borszewska-Kornacka MK, Bossowski A, Chlebna-Sokól D, Czech-Kowalska J, Dobrzanska A, Franek E, Helwich E, Jackowska T, Kalina MA, Konstantynowicz J, Ksiazyk J, Lewinski A, Lukaszkiewicz J, Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Mazur A, Michalus I, Peregud-Pogorzelski J, Romanowska H, Ruchala M, Socha P, Szalecki M, Wielgos M, Zwolinska D, Zygmunt A. Vitamin D Supplementation Guidelines for General Population and Groups at Risk of Vitamin D Deficiency in Poland-Recommendations of the Polish Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and the Expert Panel With Participation of National Specialist Consultants and Representatives of Scientific Societies-2018 Update. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 May 31;9: 246. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00246. eCollection 2018. Review. PMID: 29904370.

Wedzicha JA Ers Co-Chair, Miravitlles M, Hurst JR, Calverley PM, Albert RK, Anzueto A, Criner GJ, Papi A, Rabe KF, Rigau D, Sliwinski P, Tonia T, Vestbo J, Wilson KC, Krishnan JA Ats Co-Chair. Management of COPD exacerbations: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline. Eur Respir J. 2017 Mar 15;49(3). pii: 1600791. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00791-2016. Print 2017 Mar. PMID: 28298398.