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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Overview of Predictive Equations Topic (2019)

Table 1. Predictive equations to estimate energy needs in adults with COPD, descriptions and studies examining the equations.

Download a copy of the Table (PDF).

    STUDIES
PREDICTIVE EQUATION DESCRIPTION Farooqi et al, 2015 Nordenson et al, 2010 Ramos et al, 2016 Slinde et al, 2008 Slinde et al, 2011
Body Weight
W × 30 kcal
W=wt (kg)
Predicted TEE in people with COPD using weight.         X
de Oliveira1
475.3 + (14.9 × W) + (235.8 × G)
Males G=1; Females G=0; W=wt (kg)
Predicted RMR in healthy people using weight, height, age, sex.     X    
Harris-Benedict2
M: 66.47 + (13.75 × W) + (5 × H) − (6.75 × A) 
F: 655 + (9.5 × W) + (1.8 × H) − (4.67 × A) 
W=wt (kg), H=ht (cm), A=age (y) 
Predicted RMR in healthy people using weight, height, age, sex. X X X X  
Moore and Angelillo3
M: (11.5 × W) + 952 
F: (14.1 × W) + 515 
W=wt (kg)
Predicted RMR in people with COPD using weight and sex. X X   X  
Owen4,5
M: 879 + (10.2 × W)
F: 795 + (7.18 × W)
W=wt (kg)
Predicted RMR in healthy people using weight and sex.     X    
Mifflin-St. Jeor6 
M: (9.99 × W) + (6.25 × H) − (4.92 × A) – 161
F: (9.99 × W) + (6.25 × H) − (4.92 × A) + 5
W=wt (kg), H=ht (cm), A=age (y)    
Predicted RMR in healthy people using weight, height, age, sex.     X    
Nordenson7 
1,856 + 76.0 × FFM 
FFM=fat-free mass (kg)    
Predicted RMR in people with COPD using FFM. X X      
Nordic Nutrition Recommendations8
31-60 y: 9.7 × W + 693 kcal 
61-70 y: 10.2 × W + 571 kcal
>70 y: 10.0 × W + 576 kcal 
W=wt (kg)
Based on Henry 2005, which in turn is based on the 1985 WHO equation [WHO omitting ht)]. X        
Schofield9
F (30-60 y): 8.13 × W + 846 kcal 
F (>60 y): 9.08 × W + 659 kcal
W=wt (kg)    
Predicted RMR in healthy people using weight, age, sex. The Schofield data constitute a large portion of the data used to calculate the 1985 WHO equation so the two are similar to one another. In 2004, the FAO/WHO/UNU updated its report and adopted the Schofield equation. X        
RMR × 1.710  Predicted TEE using predicted RMR × 1.7 in people with COPD.         X
Westerterp11 
M and F: 
(0.102 × FFM) + (0.024 × FM) + 0.85 × 1,000
FFM=fat-free mass (kg); FM=fat mass (kg)   
Predicted RMR in healthy people using FFM and FM.       X  
WHO (including ht)12 
M (<60 y): (11.3 × W) + (16 × H) + 901
M (>60 y): (8.8 × W) + (1,128 × H) − 1,071 
F (<60 y): (8.7 × W) – (25 × H) + 865
F (>60 y): (9.2 × W) + (637 × H) − 302 
W=wt (kg), H=ht (m)
Predicted RMR in healthy people from the WHO using weight, height, age, sex. This equation was published in 1985.     X X  
WHO (omitting ht)12 
M (30-60 y): (11.6 × W) + 879 kcal 
M (>60 y): (13.5 × W) + 487 kcal 
F (30-60 y): (8.7 × W) + 829 kcal
F (>60 y): (10.5 × W) + 596 kcal
W=wt (kg)
Shortened variation of WHO equation using only BW, age, and sex. This equation was published in 1985. X X X   X

Abbreviations: BW=body weight; cm=centimeters; F=females; ht=height; kcals=kilocalories; kg=kilograms; M=males; RMR=resting metabolic rate; TEE=total energy expenditure; WHO=World Health Organization; wt=weight; y=year(s).

1de Oliveira EP, Orsatti FL, Teixeira O, Maestá N, Burini RC. Comparison of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure in overweight and obese adults. J Obes. 2011; 2011: 534714. Epub 2011 Jul 21. PMID: 21822484.

2Harris JA, Benedict FG. A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Publication 279. Washington DC: Carnegie Institute; 1919.

3Moore JA, Angelillo VA. Equations for the prediction of resting energy expenditure in chronic obstructive lung disease. Chest. 1988 Dec; 94(6): 1,260-1,263. PMID: 3191768.

4Owen OE, Kavle E, Owen RS, Polansky M, Caprio S, Mozzoli MA, Kendrick ZV, Bushman MC, Boden G. A reappraisal of caloric requirements in healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986 Jul; 44(1): 1-19. PMID: 3728346.

5Owen OE, Holup JL, D'Alessio DA, Craig ES, Polansky M, Smalley KJ, Kavle EC, Bushman MC, Owen LR, Mozzoli MA, et al. A reappraisal of the caloric requirements of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 Dec; 46(6): 875-885. PMID: 3687821.

6Mifflin MD, St Jeor ST, Hill LA, Scott BJ, Daugherty SA, Koh YO. A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Feb; 51(2): 241-247. PMID: 2305711.

7Nordenson A, Grönberg AM, Hulthén L, Larsson S, Slinde F. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2010 Sep 7; 5: 271-276. Review. PMID: 20856826.

8Henry CJ. Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations. Public Health Nutr. 2005 Oct; 8(7A): 1,133-1,152. Review. PMID: 16277825.

9Schofield WN. Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1985; 39 Suppl 1: 5-41. PMID: 4044297.

10Baarends EM, Schols AM, Pannemans DL, Westerterp KR, Wouters EF. Total free living energy expenditure in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Feb;155(2): 549-554. PMID: 9032193.

11Westerterp KR, Donkers JH, Fredrix EW, Boekhoudt P. Energy intake, physical activity and body weight: a simulation model. Br J Nutr. 1995; 73: 337-347. PMID: 7766558.

12Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization and United Nations University. Energy and protein requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report Series. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 724; 1–206, 1985.