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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD: Major Recommendations (2008)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline

Recommendations are categorized in terms of either conditional or imperative statements. While conditional statements clearly define a specific situation, imperative statements are broadly applicable to the target population and do not impose restraints on their application.

Conditional recommendations are presented in an if/then format, such that:


Fulfillment of the condition triggers one or more guideline-specified actions. In contrast, imperative recommendations include terms such as “require, ” “must, ” and “should, ” and do not contain conditional text that would limit their applicability to specified circumstances.

Resources Available with Each Recommendation

In addition to the recommendation statement and strength rating, you will find on each recommendation page:

  • A brief narrative summary of the evidence analyzed to reach the recommendation
  • A statement of justification, or reason for the strength of the recommendation
  • Detailed information on the evidence supporting the recommendations and background narrative (available in the Supporting Evidence section toward the bottom of each recommendation page)
  • A reference list at the end of each recommendation page that includes all the sources used in the evidence analysis for the particular recommendation (each reference is hyperlinked to a summary of the article analyzed in the evidence analysis).

Below, you will find a list of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Recommendations, organized according to the stage of the Nutrition Care Process and by topic. To see the Recommendation Summary, just click on the Recommendation title.

Also view the Executive Summary of Recommendations or print the guideline in PDF format.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Major Recommendations

COPD: Medical Nutrition Therapy


COPD: Assessment of Quality of Life

COPD: Assessment of Weight Status and Body Composition

COPD: Assessment of Energy Needs

Determination of Energy Needs
Energy Needs in Stable COPD
Energy Needs During Exacerbation
Critical Illness and Energy Expenditure Algorithm

COPD: Bone Density Screening


COPD: Medical Food Supplements

Medical Food Supplements for Inpatients
Medical Food Supplements for Outpatients
Macronutrient Composition of Medical Food Supplements
Frequent Small Amounts of Medical Food Supplements

COPD: Treatment of Osteopenia and Osteoporosis

COPD: Antioxidant Vitamins

COPD: Omega-3 Fatty Acids

COPD: Milk Consumption and Mucus Production

COPD: Integrated Care

COPD: Oxygen Therapy

COPD: Pharmacotherapy

Monitoring and Evaluation

COPD: Monitor and Evaluate Quality of Life

COPD: Monitor and Evaluate Weight Status and Body Composition