This Academy member benefit temporarily has been made public to allow all practitioners access to content that may assist in patient care during the national pandemic response. Click here for information on joining the Academy. 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

COPD: References (2008)

COPD: Medical Nutrition Therapy

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD, 2004. Accessed at:

http://www.thoracic.org/sections/clinical-information/critical-care/evidence-based-critical-care/scientific-statements-and-practice-guidelines.html

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Ethical and legal issues in nutrition, hydration and feeding. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:873-882.

 

COPD: Assessment of Quality of Life

Cochrane WJ, Afolabi OA. Investigation into the nutritional status, dietary intake and smoking habits of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(1):3-11.

Katsura H, Yamada K, Kida K. Both generic and disease specific health-related quality of life are deteriorated in patients with underweight COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2005;99:624-30.

Monso E, Fiz JM, Izquierdo J, Alonso J, Coll R, Rosell A, Morera J. Quality of life in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: correlation with lung and muscle function. Respir Med 1998;92:221-227.

Odencrants S, Ehnfors M, Grobe SJ. Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Part 1. Struggling with meal-related situations: experiences among persons with COPD. Scand J Caring Sci 2005;19:230-239.

 

 

COPD: Assessment of Weight Status and Body Composition

 

Chailleux E, Laaban JP, Veale D. Prognostic value of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD treated by long-term oxygen therapy: data from the ANTADIR observatory. Chest 2003;123(5):1460-6.

Cochrane WJ, Afolabi OA. Investigation into the nutritional status, dietary intake and smoking habits of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(1):3-11.

De Benedetto F, Del Ponte A, Marinari S, Spacone A. In COPD patients, body weight excess can mask lean tissue depletion: a simple method of estimation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2000;55(4):273-8.

Engelen MPKJ, Schols AMWJ, Lamers RJS, Wouters EFM. Different patterns of chronic tissue wasting among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical Nutrition 1999;18(5):275-280.

Ergun P, Turay UY, Aydogdu M, Erdogan Y, Biber C, Direk SA, Caglar A. Nutritional status of COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Tuberk Toraks 2003;51(3):239-43.

Karakas S, Karadag F, Karul AB, Gurgey O, Gurel S, Guney E, Cildag O. Circulating leptin and body composition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59(10):1167-70.

Prescott E, Almdal T, Mikkelsen KL, Tofteng CL, Vestbo J, Lange P. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Respir J 2002;20:539-544.

Vestbo J, Prescott E, Almdal T, Dahl M, Nordestgaard BG, Andersen T, Sorensen TIA, Lange P. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;173:79-83.

 COPD: Assessment of Energy Needs

Baarends EM, Schols AM, Akkermans MA, Wouters EF. Decreased mechanical efficiency in clinically stable patients with COPD. Thorax 1997;52(11):981-6.

Baarends EM, Schols AMWJ, Nusmeier CM, van der Grinten CPM, Wouters EFM. Breathing efficiency during inspiratory threshold loading in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Physiol 1998;18(3):235-44.

Baarends EM, Schols AM, Westerterp KR, Wouters EF. Total daily energy expenditure relative to resting energy expenditure in clinically stable patients with COPD. Thorax 1997;52(9):780-5.

Broekhuizen R, Wouters EF, Creutzberg EC, Schols AM. Raised CRP levels mark metabolic and functional impairment in advanced COPD. Thorax 2006;61(1):17-22.

Burdet L, de Muralt B, Schutz Y, Fitting JW. Thermogenic effect of bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1997;52(2):130-5.

Calikoglu M, Sahin G, Unlu A, Ozturk C, Tamer L, Ercan B, Kanik A, Atik U. Leptin and TNF-alpha levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their relationship to nutritional parameters. Respiration 2004;71:45-50.

Carter R, Holiday DB, Stocks J, Grothues C, Tiep B. Predicting oxygen uptake for men and women with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84(8):1158-64.

Cohen RI, Marzouk K, Berkoski P, O'Donnell CP, Polotsky VY, Scharf SM. Body composition and resting energy expenditure in clinically stable, weight-losing patients with severe emphysema. Chest 2003;124(4):1365-72.

Creutzberg EC, Schols AM, Bothmer-Quaedvlieg FC, Wouters EF. Prevalence of an elevated resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in relation to body composition and lung function. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52(6):396-401.

Creutzberg EC, Wouters EF, Vanderhoven-Augustin IM, Dentener MA, Schols AM. Disturbances in leptin metabolism are related to energy imbalance during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162(4 Pt 1):1239-45.

Dore MF, Laaban JP, Orvoen-Frija E, Kouchakji B, Joubert M, Rochemaure J. Role of the thermic effect of food in malnutrition of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155(5):1535-40.

Hugli O, Schutz Y, Fitting JW. The daily energy expenditure in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153(1):294-300.

Mosier K, Renvall MJ, Ramsdell JW, Spindler AA. The effects of theophylline on metabolic rate in chronic obstructive lung disease patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15(4):403-7.

Nguyen LT, Bedu M, Caillaud D, Beaufrere B, Beaujon G, Vasson M, Coudert J, Ritz P. Increased resting energy expenditure is related to plasma TNF-alpha concentration in stable COPD patients. Clin Nutr 1999;18(5):269-274.

Schols AM, Buurman WA, Staal van den Brekel AJ, Dentener MA, Wouters EF. Evidence for a relation between metabolic derangements and increased levels of inflammatory mediators in a subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 1996;51(8):819-24.

Schols AM, Creutzberg EC, Buurman WA, Campfield LA, Saris WH, Wouters EF. Plasma leptin is related to proinflammatory status and dietary intake in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160(4):1220-6.

Slinde F, Ellegard L, Gronberg AM, Larsson S, Rossander-Hulthen L. Total energy expenditure in underweight patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease living at home. Clin Nutr 2003;22(2):159-65.

Vermeeren MA, Schols AM, Wouters EF. Effects of an acute exacerbation on nutritional and metabolic profile of patients with COPD. Eur Respir J 1997;10(10):2264-9.

 

COPD: Bone Density Screening

 

 

COPD: Antioxidant Vitamins

Agacdiken A, Basyigit I, Ozden M, Yildiz F, Ural D, Maral H, Boyaci H, Ilgazli A, Komsuoglu B. The effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in patients with COPD. Respirology 2004;9:38-42.

Calikoglu M, Unlu A, Tamer L, Ercan B, Bugdayci R, Atik U. The levels of serum vitamin C, malonyldialdehyde and erythrocyte reduced glutathione in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in healthy smokers. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 2002; 40, 1028-1031.

Cerda B, Soto C, Albaladejo MD, Martinez P, Sanchez-Gascon F, Tomas-Barberan F, Espin JC. Pomegranate juice supplementation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 5-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006, 60:245-253.

Couillard A, Koechlin C, Cristol JP, Varray A, Prefaut C. Evidence of local exercise-induced systemic oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. European Respiratory Journal 2002; 20:1123-1129.

Daga MK, Chhabra R, Sharma B, Mishra TK. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels of oxidants and antioxidants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Bioscience 2003, 28:7-11.

Gosker HR, Bast A, Haenen G, Fischer M, van der Vusse GJ, Wouters E, Schols A. Altered antioxidant status in peripheral skeletal muscle of patients with COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2005; 99:118-125.

Igishi T, Hitsuda Y, Kato K, Sako T, Burioka N, Yasuda K, Sano H, Shigeoka Y, Nakanishi H, Shimizu E. Elevated urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) a biomarker of oxidative stress, and lack of association with antioxidant vitamins in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respirology 2003; 8:455-460.

Tug T, Karatas F, Terzi SM. Antioxidant vitamins (A, C and E) and malondialdehyde levels in acute exacerbation and stable periods of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 2004; 27:123-128.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2001.

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2000.

 

COPD: Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Matsuyama W, Mitsuyama H, Watanabe M, Oonakahara K, Higashimoto I, Osame M, Arimura K. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory markers in COPD. Chest 2005;128:3817-3827.

Shahar E, Boland LL, Folsom AR, Tockman MS, McGovern PG, Eckfeldt JH for the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators. Docosahexaenoic acid and smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:1780-1785.

Tabak C, Feskens EJ, Heederik D, Kromhout D, Menotti A, Blackburn HW. Fruit and fish consumption: a possible explanation for population differences in COPD mortality (The Seven Countries Study). Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52(11):819-25.

Tabak C, Smit HA, Rasanen L, Fidanza F, Menotti A, Nissinen A, Feskens EJM, Heederik D, Kromhout D. Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross-sectional study in middle aged men from three European countries. Thorax 1999;54:1021-1026.

Tabak C, Smit HA, Heederik D, Ocke MC, Kromhout D. Diet and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: independent beneficial effects of fruits, whole grains, and alcohol (the MORGEN study). Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2001;31:747-755.

Walda IC, Tabak C, Smit HA, Rasanen L, Fidanza F, Menotti A, Nissinen A, Feskens EJM, and Kromhout D. Diet and 20-year chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in middle-aged men from three European countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 56(7):638-643.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2005.

 

COPD: Milk Consumption and Mucus Production

 

Wuthrich B, Schmid A, Walther B, Sieber R. Milk consumption does not lead to mucus production or occurrence of asthma. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24(6 Suppl):547S - 55S.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 1997.

Vingerhoeds MH, Blijdenstein TBJ, Zoet FD, van Aken GA. Emulsion flocculation induced by saliva and mucin. Food Hydrocolloids 2005;19:915-922.

 

 

 

 

COPD: Integrated Care

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD, 2004. Accessed at:

http://www.thoracic.org/sections/clinical-information/critical-care/evidence-based-critical-care/scientific-statements-and-practice-guidelines.html

Kuzma AM, Meli Y, Meldrum C, Jellen P, Butler-Lebair M, Koczen-Doyle D, Rising P, Stavrolakes K, Brogan F. Multidisciplinary care of the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008;5(4):567-71.

 

COPD: Oxygen Therapy

Bradley JM, O'Neill B. Short-term ambulatory oxygen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD004356.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD, 2004. Accessed at:

http://www.thoracic.org/sections/clinical-information/critical-care/evidence-based-critical-care/scientific-statements-and-practice-guidelines.html

 

 

COPD: Pharmacotherapy

 Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD, 2004. Accessed at:

http://www.thoracic.org/sections/clinical-information/critical-care/evidence-based-critical-care/scientific-statements-and-practice-guidelines.html

Kuzma AM, Meli Y, Meldrum C, Jellen P, Butler-Lebair M, Koczen-Doyle D, Rising P, Stavrolakes K, Brogan F. Multidisciplinary care of the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008;5(4):567-71.

 

 

 

COPD: Monitor and Evaluate Quality of Life

Cochrane WJ, Afolabi OA. Investigation into the nutritional status, dietary intake and smoking habits of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(1):3-11.

Katsura H, Yamada K, Kida K. Both generic and disease specific health-related quality of life are deteriorated in patients with underweight COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2005;99:624-30.

Monso E, Fiz JM, Izquierdo J, Alonso J, Coll R, Rosell A, Morera J. Quality of life in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: correlation with lung and muscle function. Respir Med 1998;92:221-227.

Odencrants S, Ehnfors M, Grobe SJ. Living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Part 1. Struggling with meal-related situations: experiences among persons with COPD. Scand J Caring Sci 2005;19:230-239.

COPD: Monitor and Evaluate Weight Status and Body Composition

Chailleux E, Laaban JP, Veale D. Prognostic value of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD treated by long-term oxygen therapy: data from the ANTADIR observatory. Chest 2003;123(5):1460-6.

Cochrane WJ, Afolabi OA. Investigation into the nutritional status, dietary intake and smoking habits of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17(1):3-11.

De Benedetto F, Del Ponte A, Marinari S, Spacone A. In COPD patients, body weight excess can mask lean tissue depletion: a simple method of estimation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2000;55(4):273-8.

Engelen MPKJ, Schols AMWJ, Lamers RJS, Wouters EFM. Different patterns of chronic tissue wasting among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical Nutrition 1999;18(5):275-280.

Ergun P, Turay UY, Aydogdu M, Erdogan Y, Biber C, Direk SA, Caglar A. Nutritional status of COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Tuberk Toraks 2003;51(3):239-43.

Karakas S, Karadag F, Karul AB, Gurgey O, Gurel S, Guney E, Cildag O. Circulating leptin and body composition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59(10):1167-70.

Prescott E, Almdal T, Mikkelsen KL, Tofteng CL, Vestbo J, Lange P. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Respir J 2002;20:539-544.

Vestbo J, Prescott E, Almdal T, Dahl M, Nordestgaard BG, Andersen T, Sorensen TIA, Lange P. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;173:79-83.

 

Bradley JM, O'Neill B. Short-term ambulatory oxygen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD004356.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD, 2004. Accessed at:

http://www.thoracic.org/sections/clinical-information/critical-care/evidence-based-critical-care/scientific-statements-and-practice-guidelines.html

 

 

 

de Vries F, van Staa TP, Bracke MSGM, Cooper C, Leufkens HGM, Lammers JWJ. Severity of obstructive airway disease and risk of osteoporotic fracture. Eur Respir J 2005;25:879-884.

Dinc M, Tchugunova Y, Dinc S, Cinarli B, Atasever T, Oz M. Decreased osteocalcin levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using long-term inhaled beclomethosone diproprionate. Metabolism 2001, 11:1336-1339.


DuBois EF, Roder E, Dekhuijzen PN, Zwinderman AE, Schweitzer DH. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry outcomes in male COPD patients after treatment with different glucocorticoid regimens. Chest 2002;121(5):1456-63.

Halpern MT, Schmier JK, Van Kerkhove MD, Watkins M, Kalberg CJ. Impact of long-term inhaled corticosteroid therapy on bone mineral density: results of a meta-analysis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;92(2):201-7.

Johnell O, Pauwels R, Lofdahl CG, Laitinen LA, Postma DS, Pride NB, Ohlsson SV. Bone mineral density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with budesonide Turbuhaler. Eur Respir J 2002;19(6):1058-63.

Lung Health Study Group. Effect of inhaled triamcinolone on the decline in pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2000;343(26):1902-9.

McEvoy CE, Ensrud KE, Bender E, Genant HK, Yu W, Griffith JM, and Niewoehner DE. Association between Corticosteroid Use and Vertebral Fractures in Older Men with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 1998;157:704–709.

Melton LJ, Patel A, Achenbach SJ, Oberg AL, Yunginger JW. Long-term fracture risk following adult-onset asthma: a population-based study. Osteoporosis International 2004;15:311-316.

Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Wise RA, Tashkin DP, Madhok T, Skeans M, Carpenter PC, Bailey WC, Buist AS, Eichenhorn M, Kanner RE, Weinmann G, The Lung Health Study Research Group. Loss of bone density with inhaled triamcinolone in Lung Health Study II. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2004;170:1302-1309.


Struijs A, Mulder H. The effects of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone mass and biochemical markers of bone homeostasis: a 1-year study of beclomethasone versus budesonide. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 1997;50:233-237.


Walsh LJ, Lewis SA, Wong CA, Cooper S, Oborne J, Cawte SA, Harrison T, Green DJ, Pringle M, Hubbard R, Tattersfield AE. The Impact of Oral Corticosteroid Use on Bone Mineral Density and Vertebral Fracture. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;166:691-695.

Yeh SS, Phanumas D, Hafner A, Schuster MW. Risk factors for osteoporosis in a subgroup of elderly men in a Veterans Administration nursing home. J Investigative Med 2002;50(6):452-7.

Bolton CE, Ionescu AA, Shiels KM, Pettit RJ, Edwards PH, Stone MD, Nixon LS, Evans WD, Griffiths TL, Shale DJ. Associated Loss of Fat-free Mass and Bone Mineral Density in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;170(12):1286-1293.

de Vries F, van Staa TP, Bracke MSGM, Cooper C, Leufkens HGM, Lammers JWJ. Severity of obstructive airway disease and risk of osteoporotic fracture. Eur Respir J 2005;25:879-884.

Dimai HP, Domej W, Leb G, Lau KH. Bone Loss in Patients with Untreated Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is Mediated by an Increase in Bone Resorption Associated with Hypercapnia. J Bone Miner Res 2001;16:2132-2141.

Forli L, Halse J, Haug E, Biortuft O, Vatn M, Kofstad J, Boe J. Vitamin D deficiency, bone mineral density and weight in patients with advanced pulmonary disease. J Intern Med 2004;256:56-62.

Incalzi RA, Caradonna P, Ranieri P, Basso S, Fuso L, Pagano F, Ciappi G, Pistelli R. Correlates of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med 2000;94:1079-1084.

Karadag F, Cildag O, Yurekli Y, Gurgey O. Should COPD patients be routinely evaluated for bone mineral density? J Bone Miner Metab 2003;21:242-246.

Katsura H, Kida K. A comparison of bone mineral density in elderly female patients with COPD and bronchial asthma. Chest 2002;122:1949-1955.

Melton LJ, Patel A, Achenbach SJ, Oberg AL, Yunginger JW. Long-term fracture risk following adult-onset asthma: a population-based study. Osteoporosis International 2004;15:311-316.

Nishimura Y, Nakata H, Tsutsumi M, Maeda H, Yokoyama M. Relationship between changes of bone mineral content and twelve-minute walking distance in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal study. Internal Medicine 1997;36:450-453.


Papaioannou A, Parkinson W, Ferko N, Probyn L, Ioannidis G, Jurriaans E, Cox G, Cook RJ, Kumbhare D, Adachi JD. Prevalence of vertebral fractures among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Canada. Osteoporos Int 2003;14:913-7.

Soriano JB, Visick GT, Muellerova H, Payvandi N, Hansell AL. Patterns of comorbidities in newly diagnosed COPD and asthma in primary care. Chest 2005;128:2099-2107.

Szymanski P, Mosiewicz J, Myslinski W, Dzida G, Rymarz E. The influence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the occurrence rate and intensification of osteoporosis. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie Sklodowska 2002;57(1):187-95.

Yeh SS, Phanumas D, Hafner A, Schuster MW. Risk factors for osteoporosis in a subgroup of elderly men in a Veterans Administration nursing home. J Investigative Med 2002;50(6):452-7.

 

 

 

COPD: Medical Food Supplements
 

 

Akrabawi SS, Mobarhan S, Stoltz RR, Ferguson PW. Gastric emptying, pulmonary function, gas exchange, and respiratory quotient after feeding a moderate versus high fat enteral formula meal in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Nutrition 1996;12(4):260-5.

Broekhuizen R, Creutzberg EC, Weling-Scheepers CA, Wouters EF, Schols AM. Optimizing oral nutritional drink supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Br J Nutr 2005;93(6):965-71.

Cai B, Zhu Y, Ma Y, Xu Z, Zao Y, Wang J, Lin Y, Comer GM. Effect of supplementing a high-fat, low-carbohydrate enteral formula in COPD patients. Nutrition 2003;19(3):229-232.

Creutzberg EC, Wouters EF, Mostert R, Weling-Scheepers CA, Schols AM. Efficacy of nutritional supplementation therapy in depleted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nutrition 2003;19(2):120-7.

Ferreira IM, Brooks D, Lacasse Y, Goldstein RS, White J. Nutritional supplementation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD000998.

Forli L, Pedersen JI, Bjortuft O, Vatn M, Boe J. Dietary support to underweight patients with end-stage pulmonary disease assessed for lung transplantation. Respiration 2001;68(1):51-7.

Planas M, Alvarez J, Garcia-Peris PA, de la Cuerda C, de Lucas P, Castella M, Canseco F, Reyes L. Nutritional support and quality of life in stable chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Clin Nutr 2005;24(3):433-41.

Schols AM, Slangen J, Volovics L, Wouters EF. Weight loss is a reversible factor in the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157(6 Pt 1):1791-7.

Schols AM, Soeters PB, Mostert R, Pluymers RJ, Wouters EF. Physiologic effects of nutritional support and anabolic steroids in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A placebo-controlled randomized trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152(4 Pt 1):1268-74.

Thorsdottir I, Gunnarsdottir I. Energy intake must be increased among recently hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to improve nutritional status. J Am Diet Assoc 2002;102(2):247-249.

Vermeeren MA, Wouters EF, Nelissen LH, van Lier A, Hofman Z, Schols AM. Acute effects of different nutritional supplements on symptoms and functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(2):295-301.

Vermeeren MAP, Wouters EFM, Geraerts-Keeris AJW, Schols AMWJ. Nutritional support in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during hospitalization for an acute exacerbation: a randomized controlled feasibility trial. Clin Nutr 2004;23(5):1184-92.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

 

Anker SD, John M, Pedersen PU, Raguso C, Cicoira M, Dardai E, Laviano A, Ponikowski P, Schols AMWJ, DGEM: Becker HF, Bohm M, Brunkhorst FM, Vogelmeier C., ESPEN. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Cardiology and Pulmonology. Clin Nutr 2006;25:311-8.

COPD: Treatment of Osteopenia and Osteoporosis