FNCE 2023
Session 357. Providing MNT for the Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Population: What Does the Evidence Show?
Monday, October 9, 8:30 AM - 9:30 AM

See session information ♦ See EAL review results

Preterm Infant (VLBW) Enteral Nutrition

VLBW: Guideline References (2020)

Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Preterm Infant Enteral Nutrition (2020) Evidence Based Nutrition Practice Guideline References

References used in the development of the recommendations and references used in supporting materials (e.g. costs and feasibility) are listed in alphabetical order.  The specific references are available in the Supporting Evidence section of each recommendation under Guideline Recommendations & Supporting Evidence.

  • Agostoni C, Buonocore G, Carnielli VP, et al. Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;50(1):85-91.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutiriton. Pediatric Nutrition. Itasca, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2020.
  • Bruun S, van Rossem L, Lauritzen L, et al. Content of n-3 LC-PUFA in breast milk four months postpartum is associated with infancy blood pressure in boys and infancy blood lipid profile in girls. Nutrients. 2019;11(2).
  • Buckle A, Taylor C. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Donor Human Milk to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Systematic Review. Breastfeed Med. 2017;12(9):528-536.
  • Committee on Nutrition, Section on Breastfeeding, Committee on Fetus Newborn. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States. Pediatrics. 2017;139(1).
  • Dieterich CM, Felice JP, O'Sullivan E, Rasmussen KM. Breastfeeding and health outcomes for the mother-infant dyad. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(1):31-48.
  • Dietze TR, Rose FF, Moore TA. Maternal variables associated with physiologic stress and perinatal complications in preterm infants. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2016;9(3):271-277.
  • Eidelman AI. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk: an analysis of the American Academy of Pediatrics 2012 Breastfeeding Policy Statement. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7(5):323-324.
  • ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. Donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence and research directions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;57(4):535-542.
  • Fengler J, Heckmann M, Lange A, Kramer A, Flessa S. Cost analysis showed that feeding preterm infants with donor human milk was significantly more expensive than mother's milk or formula. Acta Paediatr. 2019.
  • Ganapathy V, Hay JW, Kim JH. Costs of necrotizing enterocolitis and cost-effectiveness of exclusively human milk-based products in feeding extremely premature infants. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7(1):29-37.
  • Gidrewicz DA, Fenton TR. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the nutrient content of preterm and term breast milk. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:216.
  • Guest JF, Moya F, Sisk PM, et al. Relative cost-effectiveness of using a liquid human milk fortifier in preterm infants in the US. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2017;9:49-57.
  • Human Milk Banking Association of North America. News and Events. https://www.hmbana.org/news/donor-human-milk-distribution-2018.html. Published 2020. Accessed March 9, 2020.
  • Johnston M, Landers S, Noble L, Szucs K, Viehmann L. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):e827-841.
  • Klein CJ, Life Sciences Research Office. Nutrient requirements for preterm infant formulas. J Nutr. 2002;132(6 Suppl 1):1395S-1577S.
  • Klein CJ, Heird WC. Summary and Comparison of Recommendation for Nutrient Contents of Low-Birth-Weight Infant Formulas. In. Bethesda, MD: Life Sciences Research Office; 2005
  • Knake LA, King BC, Gollins LA, et al. Optimizing the use of human milk cream supplement in very preterm infants: growth and cost outcomes. Nutr Clin Pract. 2019.
  • Koletzko B, Poindexter B, Uauy R. Recommended nutrient intake levels for stable, fully enterally fed very low birth weight infants. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2014;110:297-299.
  • Martin CR, Dasilva DA, Cluette-Brown JE, et al. Decreased postnatal docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid blood levels in premature infants are associated with neonatal morbidities. J Pediatr. 2011;159(5):743-749 e741-742.
  • Nakano Y, Hirabayashi C, Murase M, Mizuno K, Itabashi K. Malnutrition caused by unexpectedly low protein concentration in breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2017;59(10):1100-1101.
  • O'Connor DL, Gibbins S, Kiss A, et al. Effect of Supplemental Donor Human Milk Compared With Preterm Formula on Neurodevelopment of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants at 18 Months: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016;316(18):1897-1905.
  • Panagos PG, Vishwanathan R, Penfield-Cyr A, et al. Breastmilk from obese mothers has pro-inflammatory properties and decreased neuroprotective factors. J Perinatol. 2016;36(4):284-290.
  • Patel AL, Schoeny ME, Hoban R, et al. Mediators of racial and ethnic disparity in mother's own milk feeding in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res. 2019;85(5):662-670.
  • Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group, Steele C, Collins E. Infant and Pediatric Feedings: Guidelines for Preparation of Human Milk and Formula in Health Care Facilities. Chicago 2018.
  • Quigley M, Embleton ND, McGuire W. Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;6:CD002971.
  • Ramaswamy VV. A randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of fortification of human milk with an infant formula powder versus unfortified human milk on the growth of preterm very low birth weight infants. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019:1.
  • Trang S, Zupancic JAF, Unger S, et al. Cost-Effectiveness of Supplemental Donor Milk Versus Formula for Very Low Birth Weight Infants. Pediatrics. 2018;141(3).
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Use of Donor Milk. Pediatrics Web site. https://www.fda.gov/science-research/pediatrics/use-donor-human-milk. Published 2018. Accessed.
  • The World Health Organization. Guidelines on optimal feeding of low birth-weight infants in low-and middle-income countries. WHO. http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/infant_feeding_low_bw/en/. Published 2011. Accessed March 27, 2020.
  • World Health Organization. WHO recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. In. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2015.
  • Young L, Embleton ND, McGuire W. Nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula for preterm infants following hospital discharge. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;12:CD004696.    


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