AWM: Portion Control (2006)
In adults, how effective (in terms of client adherence and weight loss and maintenance) is reducing portion size as a strategy?
Two randomized controlled trials have shown that portion control at meals and snacks result in weight loss. Since portion control is an important factor in weight management, more research using this strategy is needed.
Five studies have shown that as portion size increases at a meal, energy intake also increases. Despite an increase in energy intake, increased consumption of food is not associated with feelings of fullness. Furthermore, two studies have shown that increased energy intake at one meal does not result in decreased energy intake at subsequent meals, resulting in a significant increase in daily energy intake.
Studies have shown no statistically significant associations between portion size variations and subject characteristics, such as sex and BMI.
- Grade I means there is Good/Strong evidence supporting the statement;
- Grade II is Fair;
- Grade III is Limited/Weak;
- Grade IV is Expert Opinion Only;
- Grade V is Not Assignable.
Evidence Summary: How effective (in terms of client adherence and weight loss and maintenance) is reducing portion size as a strategy?
- Quality Rating Summary
For a summary of the Quality Rating results, click here.
- Hannum SM, Carson LA, Evans EM, Canene KA, Petr EL, Bui L, Erdman JW. Use of portion-controlled entrees enhances weight loss in women. Obes Res 2004; 12: 538-546.
- Kral TVE, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:962-8.
- Levitsky DA, Youn T. The more food young adults are served, the more they overeat. J Nutr 2004; 134: 2546-2549.
- Rolls BJ, Morris EL, Roe LS. Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 1207-1213.
- Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Kral TVE, Meengs JS, Wall DE. Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite 2004; 42: 63-69.
- Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS, Wall DE. Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104: 367-372.
- Waller SM, Vander Wal JS, Klurfeld DM, McBurney MI, Cho S, Bijlani S, Dhurandhar NV. Evening ready-to-eat cereal consumption contributes to weight management. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(4):316-21.
- Wansink B, Kim J. Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste. J Nutr Educ Behav 2005; 37: 242-245.
- Wansink B, Painter JE, North J. Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obes Res 2005; 13(1): 93-100.
Search Plan and Results: Portion Size Reduction 2005