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Diabetes Type 1 and 2

DM: References (2015)

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.
To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Criteria and Results for Specific Topics.

Diabetes Type 1 and 2 (2015) Major Recommendation References

Nutrition Screening and Referral

DM: Screening and Referral for Medical Nutrition Therapy

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

 

Medical Nutrition Therapy

DM: Medical Nutrition Therapy

Al-Shookri A, Khor GL, Chan YM, Loke SC, Al-Maskari M. Effectiveness of medical nutrition treatment delivered by dietitians on glycaemic outcomes and lipid profiles of Arab, Omani patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012; 29(2): 236-244.

Andrews RC, Cooper AR, Montgomery AA, Norcross AJ, Peters TJ, Sharp DJ, Jackson N, Fitzsimons K, Bright J, Coulman K, England CY, Gorton J, McLenaghan A, Paxton E, Polet A, Thompson C, Dayan CM. Diet or diet plus physical activity vs. usual care in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: The Early ACTID randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2011; 378: 129-139.

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Barakatun Nisak MY, Ruzita AT, Norimah AK, Kamaruddin NA. Medical nutrition therapy administered by a dietitian yields favourable diabetes outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Med J Malaysia. 2013; 68(1): 18-23.

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.

Barratt R, Frost G, Millward DJ, Truby H. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention v. standard care in adults with type 2 diabetes immediately after initiating insulin therapy. Br J Nutr 2008; 99(5): 1,025-1,031.

Bastiaens H, Sunaert P, Wens J, Sabbe B, Jenkins L, Nobels F, Snauwaert B, Van Royen P. Supporting diabetes self-management in primary care: Pilot-study of a group-based programme focusing on diet and exercise. Prim Care Diabetes. 2009; 3(2): 103-109.

Battista MC, Labonte M, Menard J, Jean-Denis F, Houde G, Ardilouze JL, Perron P. Dietitian-coached management in combination with annual endocrinologist follow up improves global metabolic and cardiovascular health in diabetic participants after 24 months. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012; 37 (4): 610-620.

Coppell KJ, Kataoka M, Williams SM, Chisholm AW, Vorgers SM, Mann JI. Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimized drug treatment: Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2010; 341: c3337.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

Davis RM, Hitch AD, Salaam MM, Herman WH, Zimmer-Galler IE, Mayer-Davis EJ. TeleHealth improves diabetes self-management in an underserved community. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 1,712-1,717.

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS.  Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus:  a randomized controlled clinical trial.  J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Imai S, Matsuda M, Hasegawa G, Fukui M, Obayashi H, Ozasa N, Kajiyama S. A simple meal plan of 'eating vegetables before carbohydrate' was more effective for achieving glycemic control than an exchange-based meal plan in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011; 20 (2): 161-168.

Izquierdo R, Lagua CT, Meyer S, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Palmas W, Eimicke JP, Kong J, Teresi JA, Shea S, Weinstock RS. Telemedicine intervention effects on waist circumference and body mass index in the IDEATel project. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010; 12 (3): 213-220.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Laurenzi A, Bolla AM, Panigoni G, Doria V, Uccellatore AC, Peretti E, Saibene A, Galimberti G, Bosi E, Scavini M. Effects of carbohydrate counting on glucose control and quality of life over 24 weeks in adult patients with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34: 823-827.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Takahashi M, Araki A, Ito H. Development of a new method for simple dietary education in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 2004; 4: 111-119.

U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 7. Response of fasting plasma glucose to diet therapy in newly presenting type II diabetic patients. Metabolism, 199039: 905-912.

U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group, prepared by Manley SE, Stratton IM, Cull CA, Frighi V, Eeley A, Matthews DR, Holman RR, Turner RC, Neil HAW. Effects of three months' diet after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on plasma lipids and lipoproteins (UKPDS 45). Diabet Med. 2000; 17: 518-523.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.


References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


Nutrition Assessment

DM: Nutrition Assessment

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.


Nutrition Intervention

DM: Individualize Nutrition Prescription

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Energy Intake

Al-Shookri A, Khor GL, Chan YM, Loke SC, Al-Maskari M. Effectiveness of medical nutrition treatment delivered by dietitians on glycaemic outcomes and lipid profiles of Arab, Omani patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2012; 29(2): 236-244.

Andrews RC, Cooper AR, Montgomery AA, Norcross AJ, Peters TJ, Sharp DJ, Jackson N, Fitzsimons K, Bright J, Coulman K, England CY, Gorton J, McLenaghan A, Paxton E, Polet A, Thompson C, Dayan CM. Diet or diet plus physical activity vs. usual care in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: The Early ACTID randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2011; 378: 129-139.

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Barakatun Nisak MY, Ruzita AT, Norimah AK, Kamaruddin NA. Medical nutrition therapy administered by a dietitian yields favourable diabetes outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Med J Malaysia. 2013; 68(1): 18-23.

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Jaster B, Seidl K, Green AA, Talpers S. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-83.

Barratt R, Frost G, Millward DJ, Truby H. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention v. standard care in adults with type 2 diabetes immediately after initiating insulin therapy. Br J Nutr 2008; 99(5): 1,025-1,031.

Bastiaens H, Sunaert P, Wens J, Sabbe B, Jenkins L, Nobels F, Snauwaert B, Van Royen P. Supporting diabetes self-management in primary care: Pilot-study of a group-based programme focusing on diet and exercise. Prim Care Diabetes. 2009; 3(2): 103-109.

Battista MC, Labonte M, Menard J, Jean-Denis F, Houde G, Ardilouze JL, Perron P. Dietitian-coached management in combination with annual endocrinologist follow up improves global metabolic and cardiovascular health in diabetic participants after 24 months. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012; 37 (4): 610-620.

Coppell KJ, Kataoka M, Williams SM, Chisholm AW, Vorgers SM, Mann JI. Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimized drug treatment: Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2010; 341: c3337.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

Davis RM, Hitch AD, Salaam MM, Herman WH, Zimmer-Galler IE, Mayer-Davis EJ. TeleHealth improves diabetes self-management in an underserved community. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 1,712-1,717.

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS.  Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus:  a randomized controlled clinical trial.  J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Imai S, Matsuda M, Hasegawa G, Fukui M, Obayashi H, Ozasa N, Kajiyama S. A simple meal plan of 'eating vegetables before carbohydrate' was more effective for achieving glycemic control than an exchange-based meal plan in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011; 20 (2): 161-168.

Izquierdo R, Lagua CT, Meyer S, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Palmas W, Eimicke JP, Kong J, Teresi JA, Shea S, Weinstock RS. Telemedicine intervention effects on waist circumference and body mass index in the IDEATel project. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010; 12 (3): 213-220.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Laurenzi A, Bolla AM, Panigoni G, Doria V, Uccellatore AC, Peretti E, Saibene A, Galimberti G, Bosi E, Scavini M. Effects of carbohydrate counting on glucose control and quality of life over 24 weeks in adult patients with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34: 823-827.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Takahashi M, Araki A, Ito H. Development of a new method for simple dietary education in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 2004; 4: 111-119.

U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 7. Response of fasting plasma glucose to diet therapy in newly presenting type II diabetic patients. Metabolism, 199039: 905-912.

U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study Group, prepared by Manley SE, Stratton IM, Cull CA, Frighi V, Eeley A, Matthews DR, Holman RR, Turner RC, Neil HAW. Effects of three months' diet after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on plasma lipids and lipoproteins (UKPDS 45). Diabet Med. 2000; 17: 518-523.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.


References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Macronutrient Composition

Delahanty LM, Nathan DM, Lachin JM, Hu FB, Cleary PA, Ziegler GK, Wylie-Rosett J, Wexler DJ, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes. Association of diet with glycated hemoglobin during intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89 (2): 518-524.

Hansen HP, Tauber-Lassen E, Jensen BR, Parving H-H. Effect of dietary protein restriction on prognosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy.  Kidney Int 2002:61:220-228.

Raal FJ, Kalk WJ, Lawson M, Esser JD, Buys R, Fourie L, Panz VR. Effect of moderate dietary protein restriction on the progression of overt diabetic nephropathy: a 6-month prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:579-585.

Robertson L, Waugh N, Robertson A. Protein restriction for diabetic renal disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 4: CD002181.

Strychar IS, Cohn JS, Renier G, Rivard M, Aris-Jilwan N, Beauregard H, Meltzer S, Belanger A, Dumas R, Ishac A, Radwan F, Yale J-F: Effects of a diet higher in carbohydrate/lower in fat versus lower in carbohydrate/higher in monounsaturated fat on postmeal triglyceride concentrations and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2009; 32: 1,597-1,599.

Velázquez LL, Sil AMJ, Goycochea RMV, Torres TM, Castañeda LR. Effect of protein restriction diet on renal function and metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Nutr Hosp. 2008; 23: 141-147.

Wolever TM, Gibbs AL, Mehling C, Chiasson JL, Connelly PW, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Maheux P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Rodger NW, Ryan EA. The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87 (1): 114-125.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Carbohydrate Management Strategies

Bergenstal RM, Johnson M, Powers MA, Wynn A, Vlajnic A, Hollander P, Rendell M. Adjust to target in type 2 diabetes: Comparison of a simple algorithm with carbohydrate counting for adjustment of mealtime insulin glulisine. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1305-1310.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986. 

Franc S, Dardari D, Boucherie B, Riveline JP, Biedzinski M, Petit C, Requeda E, Leurent P, Varroud-Vial M, Hochberg G, Charpentier G. Real-life application and validation of flexible intensive insulin-therapy algorithms in type 1 diabetes patients. Diabetes Metab. 2009; 35(6): 463-468.

Laurenzi A, Bolla AM, Panigoni G, Doria V, Uccellatore AC, Peretti E, Saibene A, Galimberti G, Bosi E, Scavini M. Effects of carbohydrate counting on glucose control and quality of life over 24 weeks in adult patients with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34: 823-827.

Rankin D, Cooke DD, Elliott J, Heller SR, Lawton J; UK NIHR DAFNE Study Group. Supporting self-management after attending a structured education programme: A qualitative longitudinal investigation of type 1 diabetes patients' experiences and views. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 652.

Speight J, Amiel SA, Bradley C, Heller S, Oliver L, Roberts S, Rogers H, Taylor C, Thompson G. Long-term biomedical and psychosocial outcomes following DAFNE (Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating) structured education to promote intensive insulin therapy in adults with sub-optimally controlled type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010; 89: 22-29.

Trento M, Trinetta A, Kucich C, Grassi G, Passera P, Gennari S, Paganin V, Tedesco S, Charrier L, Cavallo F, Porta M. Carbohydrate counting improves coping ability and metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes managed by Group Care. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011; 34(2): 101-105.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Fiber Intake

McCulloch DK, Mitchell RD, Ambler J, Tattersall RB. A prospective comparison of "conventional" and high carbohydrate/high fibre/low fat diets in adults with established type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes.  Diabetologia 1985;28:208-212.

Milne RM, Mann JI, Chisholm AW, Williams SM. Long-term comparison of three dietary prescriptions in the treatment of NIDDM.  Diabetes Care 1994;17:74-80.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Dietary Reference Intakes. Available at the Institutes of Medicine website at http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/SummaryDRIs/DRI-Tables.aspx.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

Cheong SH, McCargar LJ, Paty BW, Tudor-Locke C, Bell RC. The First Step First Bite Program: guidance to increase physical activity and daily intake of low-glycemic index foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109 (8): 1,411-1,416.

Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J.  Dietary advice based on the glycemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients.  Diabet Med 1994;11(4):397-401.

Holub I, Gostner A, Hessdorfer S, Theis S, Bender G, Willinger B, Schauber J, Melcher R, Allolio B, Scheppach W. Improved metabolic control after 12-week dietary intervention with low glycaemic isomalt in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res 2009;41(12):886-92.

Turner-McGrievy GM, Jenkins DJ, Barnard ND, Cohen J, Gloede L, Green AA. Decreases in dietary glycemic index are related to weight loss among individuals following therapeutic diets for type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2011;141(8):1469-74.

Wolever TM, Gibbs AL, Mehling C, Chiasson JL, Connelly PW, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Maheux P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Rodger NW, Ryan EA. The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87 (1): 114-125.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Nutritive Sweeteners

Brunner S, Holub I, Theis S, Gostner A, Melcher R, Wolf P, Amann-Gassner U, Scheppach W, Hauner H. Metabolic effects of replacing sucrose by isomaltulose in subjects with type 2 diabetes: A randomized double-blind trial. Diabetes Care. 2012; 35(6): 1,249-1,251.

Buysschaert M, Sory R, Mpoy M, Lambert AE.  Effect of the addition of simple sugars to mixed meals on the glycemic control of insulin treated diabetic patients.  Diabete & Metabolisme 1987;13:625-629.

Nadeau J, Koski KG, Strychar I, Yale JF.  Teaching subjects with type 2 diabetes how to incorporate sugar choices into their daily meal plan promotes dietary compliance and does not deteriorate metabolic profile.  Diabetes Care 2001; 24:222-227.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.

Fitch C, Keim KS, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112(5):739-58. 


DM: FDA-Approved Non-Nutritive Sweeteners

Grotz VL, Henry RR, McGill JB, Prince MJ, Shamoon H, Trout JR, Pi-Sunyer FX. Lack of effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec; 103 (12): 1,607-1,612.

Maki KC, Curry LL, Reeves MS, Toth PD, McKenney JM, Farmer MV, Schwartz SL, Lubin BC, Boileau AC, Dicklin MR, Carakostas MC, Tarka SM. Chronic consumption of rebaudioside A, a steviol glycoside, in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008; 46(suppl 7): S47-S53.

Nehrling JK, Kobe P, McLane MP, Olson RE, Kamath S, Horwitz DL. Aspartame use by persons with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1985, Sep-Oct; 8 (5): 415-417.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.

Fitch C, Keim KS, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112(5):739-58.


DM: Protein Intake and Protein Intake for Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD)

Azadbakht L, Atabak S, Esmaillzadeh A. Soy protein intake, cardiorenal indices, and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy: a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31(4): 648-654.

Hansen HP, Tauber-Lassen E, Jensen BR, Parving H-H. Effect of dietary protein restriction on prognosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy.  Kidney Int 2002:61:220-228.

Raal FJ, Kalk WJ, Lawson M, Esser JD, Buys R, Fourie L, Panz VR. Effect of moderate dietary protein restriction on the progression of overt diabetic nephropathy: a 6-month prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:579-585.

Robertson L, Waugh N, Robertson A. Protein restriction for diabetic renal disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 4: CD002181.

Velázquez LL, Sil AMJ, Goycochea RMV, Torres TM, Castañeda LR. Effect of protein restriction diet on renal function and metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Nutr Hosp. 2008; 23: 141-147.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Cardioprotective Eating Pattern

Connor WE, Prince MJ, Ullmann D, Riddle M, Hatcher L, Smith FE, Wilson D. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in adult-onset diabetes without adverse glucose control. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1993; 683: 337-340.

Delahanty LM, Nathan DM, Lachin JM, Hu FB, Cleary PA, Ziegler GK, Wylie-Rosett J, Wexler DJ, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes. Association of diet with glycated hemoglobin during intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89 (2): 518-524.

Dullaart RP, Beusekamp BJ, Meijer S, Hoogenberg K, van Doormaal JJ, Sluiter WJ. Long-term effects of linoleic-acid-enriched diet on albuminuria and lipid levels in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion. Diabetologia. 1992; 35(2): 165-172.

Goh YK, Jumpsen JA, Ryan EA, Clandinin MT. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid on plasma lipids, cholesterol and lipoprotein fatty acid content in NIDDM patients. Diabetologia, 1997; 40 (1): 45-52.

Heine RJ, Mulder C, Popp-Snijders C, van der Meer J, van der Veen EA. Linoleic-acid-enriched diet: Long-term effects on serum lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations and insulin sensitivity in noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989; 49(3): 448-456.

Holman RR, Paul S, Farmer A, Tucker L, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Atorvastatin in Factorial with Omega-3 EE90 Risk Reduction in Diabetes Study Group. Atorvastatin in Factorial with Omega-3 EE90 Risk Reduction in Diabetes (AFORRD): a randomized controlled trial. Diabetologia, 2009; 52 (1): 50-59.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Banach MS, Srichaikul K, Vidgen E, Mitchell S, Parker T, Nishi S, Bashyam B, de Souza R, Ireland C, Josse RG. Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet. Diabetes Care. 2011; 34: 1,706-1,711.

McManus RM, Jumpson J, Finegood DT, Clandinin MT, Ryan EA. A comparison of the effects of n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil and fish oil in well-controlled type II diabetes. Diabetes Care, 1996; 19 (5): 463-467.

Morgan WA, Raskin P, Rosenstock J. A comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDM. Diabetes Care, 1995; 18: 83-86.

Pan A, Sun J, Chen Y, Ye X, Li H, Yu Z, Wang Y, Gu W, Zhang X, Chen X, Demark-Wahnefried W, Liu Y, Lin X. Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. PLoS One. 2007; 2 (11): e1,148.

Rossing P, Hansen BV, Nielsen FS, Myrup B, Holmer G, Parving HH. Fish oil in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care, 1996; 19 (11): 1,214-1,219.

Strychar IS, Cohn JS, Renier G, Rivard M, Aris-Jilwan N, Beauregard H, Meltzer S, Belanger A, Dumas R, Ishac A, Radwan F, Yale J-F: Effects of a diet higher in carbohydrate/lower in fat versus lower in carbohydrate/higher in monounsaturated fat on postmeal triglyceride concentrations and other cardiovascular risk factors in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2009; 32: 1,597-1,599.

Tapsell LC, Owen A, Gillen LJ, Bare M, Patch CS, Kennedy M, Betterham M.  Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-fat diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Diabetes Care 2004; 27:2777-2783.

Wolever TM, Gibbs AL, Mehling C, Chiasson JL, Connelly PW, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Maheux P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Rodger NW, Ryan EA. The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87 (1): 114-125.

Wong CY, Yiu KH, Li SW, Lee S, Tam S, Lau CP, Tse HF. Fish-oil supplement has neutral effects on vascular and metabolic function but improves renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2010; 27 (1): 54-60.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Vitamin, Mineral and/or Herbal Supplementation

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Alcohol Consumption

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, Dunbar SA, Franz MJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Neumiller JJ, Nwankwo R, Verdi CL, Urbanski P, Yancy Jr WS. Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:3821-3841.


DM: Physical Activity

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

A Physical Activity Toolkit for Registered Dietitians: Utilizing Resources of Exercise is Medicine. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2013. 

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.

Kaufman FR, ed. American Diabetes Association. Medical Management of Type 1 Diabetes. Sixth Edition. American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA, 2012.


DM: Education on Glucose Monitoring

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.


DM: Coordination of Care

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.


Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

DM: Monitor and Evaluate Effectiveness of Medical Nutrition Therapy

None.

References not graded in Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2015. Diabetes Care 2015;38(1):S1-S94.