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Diabetes Type 1 and 2

DM: References (2008)

Diabetes (DM) Type 1 and 2 Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline for Adults

References (listed by recommendation):

DM: Medical Nutrition Therapy and Diabetes

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Banister NA, Jastrow ST, Hodges V, Loop R, Gillham MB. Diabetes self-management training program in a community clinic improves patient outcomes at modest cost. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104(5):807-10.

Bray P, Thompson D, Wynn JD, Cummings DM, Whetstone L. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The clinical effectiveness of redesigning care management for minority patients in rural primary care practices. J Rural Health 2005; 21(4):317-21.

Chima CS, Farmer-Dziak N, Cardwell P, Snow S. Use of technology to track outcomes in a diabetes self-management program. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105(12):1933-8.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Gaetke LM, Stuart MA, Truszczynska H. A single nutrition counseling session with a registered dietitian improves short-term clinical outcomes for rural Kentucky patients with chronic disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(1):109-112.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Graber AL, Elasy TA, Quinn D, Wolff K, Brown A. Improving glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus: shared responsibility in primary care practices. South Med J 2002; 95(7):684-90.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Maislos M, Weisman D, Sherf M. Western Negev Mobile Diabetes Care Program: a model for interdisciplinary diabetes care in a semi-rural setting. Acta Diabetol 2002; 39(1):49-53.

Miller CK, Edwards L, Kissling G, Sanville L. Nutrition education improves metabolic outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus:results from a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2002;34(2):252-9.

Wilson C, Brown T, Acton K, Gilliland A. Effects of clinical nutrition education and educator discipline on glycemic control outcomes in the Indian Health Service. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(6):2500-04.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.

Delahanty LM, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 28-30.

Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Franz MJ. Practice guidelines for medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians for persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:999-1006.

 DM: Assessment and Diabetes

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Banister NA, Jastrow ST, Hodges V, Loop R, Gillham MB. Diabetes self-management training program in a community clinic improves patient outcomes at modest cost. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104(5):807-10.

Bray P, Thompson D, Wynn JD, Cummings DM, Whetstone L. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The clinical effectiveness of redesigning care management for minority patients in rural primary care practices. J Rural Health 2005; 21(4):317-21.

Chima CS, Farmer-Dziak N, Cardwell P, Snow S. Use of technology to track outcomes in a diabetes self-management program. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105(12):1933-8.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Gaetke LM, Stuart MA, Truszczynska H. A single nutrition counseling session with a registered dietitian improves short-term clinical outcomes for rural Kentucky patients with chronic disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(1):109-112.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Graber AL, Elasy TA, Quinn D, Wolff K, Brown A. Improving glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus: shared responsibility in primary care practices. South Med J 2002; 95(7):684-90.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Maislos M, Weisman D, Sherf M. Western Negev Mobile Diabetes Care Program: a model for interdisciplinary diabetes care in a semi-rural setting. Acta Diabetol 2002; 39(1):49-53.

Miller CK, Edwards L, Kissling G, Sanville L. Nutrition education improves metabolic outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus:results from a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2002;34(2):252-9.

Wilson C, Brown T, Acton K, Gilliland A. Effects of clinical nutrition education and educator discipline on glycemic control outcomes in the Indian Health Service. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(6):2500-04.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.

Delahanty LM, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 28-30.

Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Franz MJ. Practice guidelines for medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians for persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:999-1006.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

 DM: Assessment of A1C  

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Banister NA, Jastrow ST, Hodges V, Loop R, Gillham MB. Diabetes self-management training program in a community clinic improves patient outcomes at modest cost. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104(5):807-10.

Bray P, Thompson D, Wynn JD, Cummings DM, Whetstone L. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The clinical effectiveness of redesigning care management for minority patients in rural primary care practices. J Rural Health 2005; 21(4):317-21.

Chima CS, Farmer-Dziak N, Cardwell P, Snow S. Use of technology to track outcomes in a diabetes self-management program. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105(12):1933-8.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Gaetke LM, Stuart MA, Truszczynska H. A single nutrition counseling session with a registered dietitian improves short-term clinical outcomes for rural Kentucky patients with chronic disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(1):109-112.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Graber AL, Elasy TA, Quinn D, Wolff K, Brown A. Improving glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus: shared responsibility in primary care practices. South Med J 2002; 95(7):684-90.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Maislos M, Weisman D, Sherf M. Western Negev Mobile Diabetes Care Program: a model for interdisciplinary diabetes care in a semi-rural setting. Acta Diabetol 2002; 39(1):49-53.

Miller CK, Edwards L, Kissling G, Sanville L. Nutrition education improves metabolic outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus:results from a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2002;34(2):252-9.

Wilson C, Brown T, Acton K, Gilliland A. Effects of clinical nutrition education and educator discipline on glycemic control outcomes in the Indian Health Service. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(6):2500-04.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.

Delahanty LM, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 28-30.

Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Franz MJ. Practice guidelines for medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians for persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:999-1006.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Assess Importance of Weight Management

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Berne C, for the Orlistat Swedish Type 2 Diabetes Study Group. A randomized study of orlistat in combination with a weight management programme in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. Diabetic Medicine 2005;22: 612-618.

Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Parker B, Foster P, Clifton PM. Long-term effects of advice to consume a high-protein, low-fat diet, rather than a conventional weight-loss diet, in obese adults with Type 2 diabetes: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Diabetologia 2004; 47:1677-1686.

Brown SA, Upchurch S, Anding R, Winter M, Ramirez G. Promoting weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1996;19(6):613-624.

Derosa G, Cicero AF, Murdolo G, Ciccarelli L, Fogari R. Comparison of metabolic effects of orlistat and sibutramine treatment in Type 2 diabetic obese patients. Diabetes Nutr Metab 2004;17:222-229.

Hanefeld M, Sachse G. The effects of orlistat on body weight and glycaemic control in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 2002; 4:415-423.

Hollander PA, Elbein SC, Hirsch IB, Kelley D, McGill J, Taylor T, Weiss SR, Crockett SE, Kaplan RA, Comstock J, Lucas CP, Lodewick PA, Canovatchel W, Chung J, Hauptman J. Role of orlistat in the treatment of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:1288-1294.

Kelley DE, Bray GA, Pi-Sunyer FX, Klein S, Hill J, Miles J, Hollander P. Clinical efficacy of orlistat therapy in overweight and obese patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1033-1041.

Li Z, Hong K, Saltsman P, DeShields S, Bellman M, Thames G, Liu Y, Wang H-J, Elashoff R, Heber D. Long-term efficacy of soy-based meal replacements vs an individualized diet plan in obese type II DM patients: relative effects on weight loss, metabolic parameters, and C-reactive protein. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:411-418

Manning RM, Jung RT, Leese GP, Newton RW. The Comparison of Four Weight Reduction Strategies Aimed at Overweight Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Four-year Follow-up. Diabetic Medicine 1998;15:497-502.

Mayer-Davis EJ, D'Antonio AM, Smith SM, Kirkner G, Martin SL, Parra-Medina D, Schultz R. Pounds off with Empowerment (POWER): a clinical trial of weight management strategies for black and white adults with diabetes who live in medically underserved rural communities. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1736-1742.

McNulty SJ, Ur E, Williams G, for the Multicenter Sibutramine Study Group. A randomized trial of sibutramine in the management of obese type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin. Diabetes Care 2003;125-131.

Metz JA, Stern JS, Kris-Etherton P, Reusser ME, Morris CD, Hatton DC, Oparil S, Haynes RB, Resnick LM, Pi-Sunyer FX, Clark S, Chester L, McMahon M, Snyder GW, McCarron DA. A randomized trial of improved weight loss with a prepared meal plan in overweight and obese patients: impact on cardiovascular risk reduction. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2150-2158.

Miles JM, Leiter L, Hollander P, Wadden T, Anderson JW, Doyle M, Foreyt J, Aronne L and Klein S. Effect of orlistat in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. Diabetes Care 2002;25(7):1123-1128.

Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Bowman B, Serdula M, Brown TJ, Schmid CH and Lau J. Long-term effectiveness of lifestyle and behavioral weight loss interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2004 Nov 15;117(10):762-74.

Paisey RB, Frost J, Harvey P, Paisey A, Bower L, Paisey RM, Taylor P, Belka I. Five-year results of a prospective very low calorie diet or conventional weight loss programme in type 2 diabetes. J Hum Nutr Diet 2002;15(2):121-7.

Redmon JB, Raatz SK, Reck KP, Swanson JE, Kwong CA, Fan Q, Thomas W and Bantle JP. One-year outcome of a combination of weight loss therapies for subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 2003;26(9):2505-2511.

Redmon JB, Reck KP, Raatz SK, Swanson JE, Kwong CA, Ji H, Thomas W, Bantle JP. Two-year outcome of a combination of weight loss therapies for Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1311-1315.

Sanchez-Reyes L, Fanghanel G, Yamamoto J, Martinez-Rivas L, Campos-Franco E, Berber A. Use of sibutramine in overweight adult Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 12-month, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Therapeutics 2004; 26(9):1427-1435.

Vettor R, Serra R, Fabris R, Pagano C and Federspil G. Effect of sibutramine on weight management and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of clinical studies. Diabetes Care 2005;28(4):942-949.

Wing RR, Koeske R, Epstein LH, Nowalk MP, Gooding W, Becker D. Long-term effects of modest weight-loss in type II diabetic patients. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:1749-1753.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Intervention options 

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Banister NA, Jastrow ST, Hodges V, Loop R, Gillham MB. Diabetes self-management training program in a community clinic improves patient outcomes at modest cost. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104(5):807-10.

Bray P, Thompson D, Wynn JD, Cummings DM, Whetstone L. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The clinical effectiveness of redesigning care management for minority patients in rural primary care practices. J Rural Health 2005; 21(4):317-21.

Chima CS, Farmer-Dziak N, Cardwell P, Snow S. Use of technology to track outcomes in a diabetes self-management program. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105(12):1933-8.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Delahanty LM, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 28-30.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Gaetke LM, Stuart MA, Truszczynska H. A single nutrition counseling session with a registered dietitian improves short-term clinical outcomes for rural Kentucky patients with chronic disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(1):109-112.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Graber AL, Elasy TA, Quinn D, Wolff K, Brown A. Improving glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus: shared responsibility in primary care practices. South Med J 2002; 95(7):684-90.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Maislos M, Weisman D, Sherf M. Western Negev Mobile Diabetes Care Program: a model for interdisciplinary diabetes care in a semi-rural setting. Acta Diabetol 2002; 39(1):49-53.

Miller CK, Edwards L, Kissling G, Sanville L. Nutrition education improves metabolic outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus:results from a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2002;34(2):252-9.

Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Franz MJ. Practice guidelines for medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians for persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:999-1006.

Wilson C, Brown T, Acton K, Gilliland A. Effects of clinical nutrition education and educator discipline on glycemic control outcomes in the Indian Health Service. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(6):2500-04.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Macronutrients

Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TP. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:403-411.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, Coulston AM, Griver KA, Raatz SK, Brinkley L, Chen Y-D I, Grundy SM, Huet BA, Reaven GM. Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1994;271:1421-1428.

Gerhard GT, Ahmann A, Meeuws K, McMurry MP, Duell PB, Connor WE. Effects of a low-fat diet compared with those of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, plasma lipids and lipoprotiens, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(3):668-73.

Komiyama N, Kaneko T, Sato A, Sato W, Asami K, Onaya T, Tawata M. The effect of high carbohydrate diet on glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2002; 57:163-170.

Nielsen JV, Jonsson E, Ivarsson A. A low-carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes: clinical experience--a brief report. Upsala J Med Sci 2005;110:267-273.

Nielsen JV, Jonsson E, Nilsson AK. Lasting improvement of hyperglycemia and bodyweight: low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. A brief report. Upsala J Med Sci 2005; 109:179-184.

Wolever TMS, Hamad S, Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Rodger NW, Ross SA, Ryan EA. Day-to-day consistency in amount and source of carbohydrate intake associated with improved glucose control in type 1 diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1999;18:242-247.

Gannon MC, Nuttall JA, Damberg G, Gupta V, Nuttall FQ. Effect of protein ingestion on the glucose appearance rate in people with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrin Metab. 2001;86:1040-1047.

Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, Jordan K, Hoover H. An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:734-741.

Luscombe ND, Clifton PM, Noakes M, Parker B, Wittert G. Effects of energy-restricted diets containing increased protein on weight loss, resting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:652-657

Nordt TK, Besenthal I, Eggstein M, Jakober B. Influence of breakfasts with different nutrient contents on glucose, C peptide, insulin, glucagon, triglycerides, and GIP in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:155-160.

Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Saeed A, Jordan K, Hoover H. The metabolic response of subjects with type 2 diabetes to a high-protein, weight-maintenance diet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3577-3583.

Parker B, Noakes M, Luscombe N, Clifton P. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:425-430.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2002.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Carbohydrate and Diabetes 

Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TP. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:403-411.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, Coulston AM, Griver KA, Raatz SK, Brinkley L, Chen Y-D I, Grundy SM, Huet BA, Reaven GM. Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1994;271:1421-1428.

Gerhard GT, Ahmann A, Meeuws K, McMurry MP, Duell PB, Connor WE. Effects of a low-fat diet compared with those of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, plasma lipids and lipoprotiens, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(3):668-73.

Komiyama N, Kaneko T, Sato A, Sato W, Asami K, Onaya T, Tawata M. The effect of high carbohydrate diet on glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2002; 57:163-170.

Nielsen JV, Jonsson E, Ivarsson A. A low-carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes: clinical experience--a brief report. Upsala J Med Sci 2005;110:267-273.

Nielsen JV, Jonsson E, Nilsson AK. Lasting improvement of hyperglycemia and bodyweight: low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes. A brief report. Upsala J Med Sci 2005; 109:179-184.

Wolever TMS, Hamad S, Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Rodger NW, Ross SA, Ryan EA. Day-to-day consistency in amount and source of carbohydrate intake associated with improved glucose control in type 1 diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1999;18:242-247.

DM: Sucrose and Diabetes

Bantle JP, Laine DC, Castle GW, Thomas JW, Hoogwerf BJ, Goetz FC. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to meals containing different carbohydrates in normal and diabetic subjects. New Eng J Med 1983; 309:7-12.

Bantle JP, Laine DC, Thomas JW. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose in Types I and II diabetic subjects. JAMA 1986; 256:3241-3246.

Bantle JP, Swanson JE, Thomas W, Laine DC. Metabolic effects of dietary sucrose in type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 1993; 16:1301-1305.

Buysschaert M, Sory R, Mpoy M, Lambert AE. Effect of the addition of simple sugars to mixed meals on the glycemic control of insulin treated diabetic patients. Diabete & Metabolisme 1987;13:625-629.

Chantelau EA, Gosseringer G, Sonnenberg GE, Berger M. Moderate intake of sucrose does not impair metabolic control in pump-treated diabetic outpatients. Diabetologia 1985; 29(4):204-207.

Cooper PL, Wahlqvist ML, Simpson RW. Sucrose versus saccharin as an added sweetener in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: short- and medium-term metabolic effects. Diabet Med. 1988 Oct; 5 (7): 676-680. PMID: 2975554.

Coulston AM, Hollenbeck CB, Donner CC, Williams R, Chiou YM, Reaven GM. Metabolic effects of added dietary sucrose in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Metabolism 1985; 34(10):962-966.

Loghmani E, Rickard K, Washburne L, Vandagriff J, Fineberg N, Golden M. Glycemic response to sucrose-containing mixed meals in diets of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Pediatrics 1991; 119:531-537.

Malerbi DA, Duarte AL, Paiva ESA, Wajchenberg BL. Metabolic effects of dietary sucrose and fructose in Type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 1996:1249-1256.

Nadeau J, Koski KG, Strychar I, Yale JF. Teaching subjects with type 2 diabetes how to incorporate sugar choices into their daily meal plan promotes dietary compliance and does not deteriorate metabolic profile. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:222-227.

Peterson DB, Lambert J, Gerring S, Darling P, Carter RD, Jelfs R, Mann JI. Sucrose in the diet of diabetic patients - just another carbohydrate? Diabetologia 1986:29(4):216-220.

Rickard KA, Cleveland JL, Loghmani ES, Fineberg NS, Freidenberg GR. Similar glycemic responses to high versus moderate sucrose-containing foods in test meals for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and fasting euglycemia. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:1202-1205.

Santacroce G, Forlani G, Giangiulio S, Galuppi V, Pagani M, Vannini P. Long-term effects of eating sucrose on metabolic control of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic outpatients. Acta Diabetol Lat 1990; 27:365-370.

Schwingshandl J, Rippel S, Unterluggauer M, Borkenstein M. Effect of the introduction of dietary sucrose on metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Acta Diabetol 1994; 31:205-209.

Shimakawa T, Warram JH, Herrera-Acena MG, Krolewski AS. Usual dietary intake and hemoglobin A1 level in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:1409-1412, 1415.

DM: Non-nutritive Sweeteners and Diabetes

Cooper PL, Wahlqvist ML, Simpson RW. Sucrose versus saccharin as an added sweetener in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: short- and medium-term metabolic effects. Diabet Med. 1988 Oct; 5 (7): 676-680. PMID: 2975554.

Grotz VL, Henry RR, McGill JB, Prince MJ, Shamoon H, Trout JR, Pi-Sunyer FX. Lack of effect of sucralose on glucose homeostasis in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec; 103 (12): 1,607-1,612.

Mackenzie T, Brooks B, O'Connor G. Beverage Intake, Diabetes, and Glucose Control of Adults in America. Ann Epidemiol. 2006 Jan 31; [Epub ahead of print].

Mezitis NH, Maggio CA, Koch P, Quddoos A, Allison DB, Pi-Sunyer FX. Glycemic effect of a single high oral dose of the novel sweetener sucralose in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1996 Sep; 19 (9): 1,004-1,005.

Reyna N, Cano C, Bermudez VJ, et al. Sweeteners and beta-glucans improve metabolic and anthropometrics variables in well controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Therapeutics. 2003; 10: 438-443.

Cullen M, Nolan J, Cullen M, Moloney M, Kearney J, Lambe J, Gibney MJ. Effect of high levels of intense sweetener intake in insulin dependent diabetics on the ratio of dietary sugar to fat: a case-control study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct; 58 (10): 1,336-1,341. PMID: 15054410.

Garnier-Sagne I, Leblanc JC, Verger P. Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001 Jul; 39 (7): 745-749.

Ilback NG, Alzin M, Jahrl S, Enghardt-Barbieri H, Busk L. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics. Food Additives and Contaminates, 2003 Feb; 20 (2): 99-114.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Glycemic Index and Diabetes

Brand-Miller J, Petocz P, Hayne S, Colagiuri S. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:2261-2267.

Burani J, Longo P. Low glycemic index carbohydrates: an effective behavioral change for glycemic control and weight management in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator 2006; 32:78-88.

Buyken AE, Toeller M, Heitkamp G, Karamanos B, Rottiers R, Muggeo M, Fuller JH. Glycemic index in the diet of European outpatients with type 1 diabetes: relations to glycated hemoglobin and serum lipids. Am J clin Nutr 2001; 73:574-581.

Fontvieille AM, Rizkalla SW, Penfornis A, Acosta M, Bornet FRJ, Slama G. The use of low glycemic index foods improves metabolic control of diabetic patients over five weeks. Diabet Med 1992;9(5):444-50.

Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. Dietary advice based on the glycemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1994;11(4):397-401.

Gilbertson HR, Thorburn AW, Brand-Miller JC, Chondros P, Werther GA. Effect of low-glycemic-index dietary advice on dietary quality and food choice in children with type 1 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77:83-90.

Gilbertson HR, Brand-Miller JC, Thorburn AW, Evans S, Chondros P, Werther GA. The effect of flexible low glycemic index dietary advice versus measured carbohydrate exchange diets on glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1137-1143.

Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. The effect of high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control. J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21:120-127.

Jarvi AE, Karlstrom BE, Granfeldt YE, Bjorck IE, Asp NGL, Vessby BOH. Improved glycemic control and lipid profile and normalized fibrinolytic activity on a low glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 1999; 22: 10-18.

Kabir M, Oppert JM, Vidal H, Bruzzo F, Fiquet C, Wursch P, Slama G, Rizkalla SW. Four-week low-glycemic index breakfast with a modest amount of soluble fibers in type 2 diabetic men. Metabolism 2002; 51:819-826.

Rizkalla SW, Boillot J, Taghrid L, Rigoir A, Laromiguiere M, Elgrably F, Huet D, Slama G. Improved plasma glucose control, whole-body glucose utilization, and lipid profile on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic men: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:1866-1872.

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:846-854.

Wolever TMS, Hamad S, Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Rodger NW, Ross SA, Ryan EA. Day-to-day consistency in amount and source of carbohydrate intake associated with improved glucose control in type 1 diabetes. J Amer Coll Nutr. 1999;18:242-247.

Wolever TMS, Nguyen PM, Chiasson JL, Hunt JA, Josse RG, Palmason C, Rodger NW, Ross SA, Ryan EA, Tan MH. Determinants of diet glycemic index calculated retrospectively from diet records of 342 individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:1265-1269.

Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Buckley GC, Wong GS, Josse RG. Beneficial effect of a low glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 1992;9(5):451-8.

DM: Fiber and Diabetes

Anderson JW, Zeigler JA, Deakins DA, Floore TL, Dillon DW, Wood CL, Oeltgen PR, Whitley RJ. Metabolic effects of high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets for insulin-dependent diabetic individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:936-943.

Buyken AE, Toeller M, Heitkamp G, Vitelli F, Stehle P, Scherbaum WA, Fuller JH and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study Group. Relation of fibre intake to HbA1c and the prevalence of severe ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycaemia. Diabetologia 1998;41:882-890.

Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000:342:1392-1398.

Del Toma E, Lintas C, Clementi A, Marcelli M. Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in diabetic diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988;42: 313-319.

Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Lasorella G, Giacco A, D'Episcopo L, Riccardi G. Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1461-1466.

Hagander B, Asp N-G; Efendic S, Nilsson-Ehle P, Schersten B. Dietary fiber decreases fasting blood glucose levels and plasma LDL concentration in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47(5):852-858.

Kinmonth A-L, Angus RM, Jenkins PA, Smith MA, Baum JD. Whole foods and increased dietary fibre improve blood glucose control in diabetic children. Arch Dis Childhood. 1982;57:187-194.

Lindsay AN, Hardy S, Jarrett L, Rallison ML. High-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1984;7(1):63-67.

McCulloch DK, Mitchell RD, Ambler J, Tattersall RB. A prospective comparison of "conventional" and high carbohydrate/high fibre/low fat diets in adults with established type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1985;28:208-212.

Milne RM, Mann JI, Chisholm AW, Williams SM. Long-term comparison of three dietary prescriptions in the treatment of NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:74-80.

Riccardi G, Rivellese A, Pacioni D, Genovese S, Mastranzo P, Mancini M. Separate influence of dietary carbohydrate and fibre on the metabolic control in diabetes. Diabetologia. 1984;26:116-121.

Shimakawa T, Warram JH, Herrera-Acena MG, Krolewski AS. Usual dietary intake and hemoglobin A1 level in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:1409-1412, 1415.

Simpson RW, McDonald J, Wahlqvist ML, Balasz N, Sissons M, Atley L. Temporal study of metabolic change when poorly controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetics change from low to high carbohydrate and fiber diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:104-109.

Stevens J, Burgess MB, Kaiser DL, Sheppa CM. Outpatient management of diabetes mellitus with patient education to increase dietary carbohydrate and fiber. Diabetes Care. 1985;8:359-366.

Story L, Anderson JW, Chen W-JL, Karounos D, Jefferson B. Adherence to high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diets: long-term studies of non-obese diabetic men. J Am Diet Assoc. 1985; 85:1105-1110.

Bazzano, L.A., He, J., Ogden, L.G., Loria, C.M., Whelton, P.K. Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease in us men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163:1897-1904.

Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, et al. Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:412-419.

Liu, S., Buring, J., Sesso, H., Rimm, E., Willett, W., Manson, J. A prospective study of dietary fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002,39:49-56

Merchant AT, Hu FB, Spieglman D, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Ascherio A. Dietary fiber reduces peripheral arterial disease risk in men. J Nutr. 2003;133: 3658-3663.

Pereira, M.A., O’Reily, E., Augustsson, K., Frasen, G.E., Goldbourt, U., Heumann, B.L., et. al. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:370-376.

Van Horn L. Fiber, lipids, and coronary heart disease. Circulation. 1997;95:2701-2704.

Wolk J, Mason JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA. 1999;281:1998-2004.

Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J of Clin Nutr. 1999;69:30-42

Davy BM, Davy KP, Ho RC, Beske SD, Davrath LR, Melby CL. High-fiber oat cereal compared with wheat cereal consumption favorable alters LDL-cholesterol subclass and particle numbers in middle-aged and older men. Am J Clin Nutr . 2002; 76:351-358.

Jenkins, D., Kendall, C., Vuksan, V., Vidgen, E., Parker, T., Faulkner, D., Mehling, C., Garsetti, M., Testolin, G., Cunnane, S., Ryan M., Corey, P. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the us food and drug administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:834-9.

Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, Hilner JE, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR Jr. Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA 1999;99:1539-1546.

Saltzman E, Das SK, Lichtenstein AC, Dallal GE, Corrales A, Schaefer EJ, Greenberg AS, Roberts SB. An oat-containing hypocaloric diet reduces systolic blood pressure and improves lipid profile beyond effects of weight loss in men and women. J Nutr. 2001;131:1465-1470.

Van Horn L, Liu K, Gerber J, Garside D, Schiffer L, Gernhofer N, Greenland P. Oats and soy in lipid-lowering diets for women with hypercholesterolemia: is there synergy? J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101:1319-1325.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes: Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC, National Academies Press, 2002.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Protein and Diabetes 

Gannon MC, Nuttall JA, Damberg G, Gupta V, Nuttall FQ. Effect of protein ingestion on the glucose appearance rate in people with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrin Metab. 2001;86:1040-1047.

Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Saeed A, Jordan K, Hoover H. An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:734-741.

Luscombe ND, Clifton PM, Noakes M, Parker B, Wittert G. Effects of energy-restricted diets containing increased protein on weight loss, resting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:652-657

Nordt TK, Besenthal I, Eggstein M, Jakober B. Influence of breakfasts with different nutrient contents on glucose, C peptide, insulin, glucagon, triglycerides, and GIP in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:155-160.

Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Saeed A, Jordan K, Hoover H. The metabolic response of subjects with type 2 diabetes to a high-protein, weight-maintenance diet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3577-3583.

Parker B, Noakes M, Luscombe N, Clifton P. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:425-430.

Azadbakht L, Shakerhosseini R, Atabak S, Jamshidian M, Mehrabi Y, Esmaill-Zadeh A. Beneficiary effect of dietary soy protein on lowering plasma levels of lipid and improving kidney function in type II diabetes with nephropathy. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:1292-1294.

Hansen HP, Christensen PK, Tauber-Lassen E, Klausen A, Jensen BR, Parving H. Low-protein diet and kidney function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Kidney International. 1999;55:621-628.

Hansen HP, Tauber-Lassen E, Jensen BR, Parving H-H. Effect of dietary protein restriction on prognosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int 2002:61:220-228.

Meloni C, Morosetti M, Suraci C, Pennafina MG, Tozzo C, Taccone-Gallucci M, Casciani CU. Severe dietary protein restriction in overt diabetic nephropathy: Benefits or risks? J Renal Nutr 2002;12:96-101.

Meloni C, Tatangelo P, Cipriani S, Rossi V, Suraci C, Tozzo C, Rossini B, Cecilia A, DiFranco D, Straccialano E, Casciani CU. Adequate protein dietary restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic renal failure. Journal of Renal Nutrition 2004;14(4):208-213.

Pijls LTJ, de Vries H, van Eijk JThM, Donker AJM. Protein restriction, glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:1200-1207.

Pijls LTJ, de Vries H, Kriegsman DMW, Donker AJM, van Eijk JThM. Determinants of albuminuria in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001:52:133-143.

Raal FJ, Kalk WJ, Lawson M, Esser JD, Buys R, Fourie L, Panz VR. Effect of moderate dietary protein restriction on the progression of overt diabetic nephropathy: a 6-month prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:579-585.

Stojceva-Taneva O, Polenakovic M, Grozdanovski R, Sikole A. Lipids, protein intake and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001;16[suppl 1]:90-91.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Diabetes

Bonora E, Calcaterra F, Lombardi S, Bonfante N, Formentini G, Bonadonna RC, Muggeo M. Plasma Glucose Levels Throughout the Day and HbA1c Interrelationships in Type 2 Diabetes: Implications for treatment and monitoring of metabolic control. Diabetes Care 2001;24: 2023-2029.

Brewer KW, Chase HP, Owen S, Garg SK. Slicing the pie: correlating HbA1C values with average blood glucose values in a pie chart form. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:209-212.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Fiallo-Scharer R, Xing D, Weinzimer S, Buckingham B, Mauras N, Tansey M, Chase P, Beck R, Ruedy K, Kollman C, Tamborlane W. Eight-Point Glucose Testing Versus the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3387-3391.

Hoffman RM, Shah JH, Wendel CS, Duckworth WC, Adam KD, Bokhari SU, Dalton C, Murata GH. Evaluating Once- and Twice-Daily Self-Monitored Blood Glucose Testing Strategies for Stable Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. The Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study. Diabetes Care 2002;25: 1744-1748.

Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Darbinian JA, D’Agostino RB Jr, Ferrara A, Liu J, Selby JV. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and glycemic control: the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Diabetes registry. Am J Med. 2001; 111:1-9.

Alemzadeh R, Loppnow C, Parton E, Kirby M. Glucose sensor evaluation of glycemic instability in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. 2003;5(2):167-173.

Bode B, Gross K, Rikalo N, Schwartz S, Wahl T, Page C, Gross T, Mastrototaro J. Alarms based on real-time sensor glucose values alert patients to hypo- and hyperglycemia: the Guardian Continuous Monitoing System. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. 2004:6(2):105-113.

Bode BW, Schwartz S, Stubbs HA, Block JE. Glycemic characteristics in continuously monitored patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28(10): 2361-2366.

Boland E, Monsod T, Delucia M, Brandt CA, Fernando S, Tamborlane WV. Limitations of conventional methods of self-monitoring of blood glucose. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 1858-1862.

Chico A, Vidal-Rios P, Subira M, Novials A. The continuous glucose monitoring system is useful for detecting unrecognized hypoglycemias in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but is not better than frequent capillary glucose measurements for improving metabolic control. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1153-1157.

Deiss D, Hartmann R, Hoeffe J, Kordonouri O. Assessment of glycemic control by continuous glucose monitoring system in 50 children with type 1 diabetes starting on insulin pump therapy. Pediatric Diabetes. 2004;5:117-121.

Fiallo-Scharer R, Xing D, Weinzimer S, Buckingham B, Mauras N, Tansey M, Chase P, Beck R, Ruedy K, Kollman C, Tamborlane W. Eight-Point Glucose Testing Versus the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3387-3391.

Garg SK, Schwartz S, Edelman SV. Improved glucose excursions using an implantable real-time continuous glucose sensor in adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:734-738.

Garg S, Zisser H, Schwartz S, Bailey T, Kaplan R, Ellis S, Jovanovic L. Improvement in glycemic excursions with a transcutaneous, real-time continuous glucose sensor: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2006; 29(1): 44-50.

Kaufman FR, Gibson LC, Halvorson M, Carpenter S, Fisher LK, Pitukcheewanont P. A pilot study of the continuous glucose monitoring system: clinical decisions and glycemic control after its use in pediatric type 1 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(12):2030-2034.

Ludvigsson J, Hanas R. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring improved metabolic control in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes: a controlled crossover study. Pediatrics. 2003;111(5):933-938.

Manuel-y-Keenoy B, Vertommen J, Abrams P, Van Gaal L, De Leeuw I, Messeri D, Poscia A. Postprandial glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes mellitus: use of a continuous subcutaneous monitoring device. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2004;20 (Suppl 2):S24-S31.

Schaepelynck-Belicar P, Vague Ph, Simonin G, Lassmann-Vague V. Improved metabolic control in diabetic adolescents using the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). Diabetes Metab. 2003;29:608-612.

Schiaffini R, Ciampalini P, Fierabracci A, Spera S, Borrelli P, Bottazzo GF, Crino A. The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in type 1 diabetic children is the way to reduce hypoglycemic risk. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2002;18:324-329.

Streja D. Can continuous glucose monitoring provide objective documentation of hypoglycemia unawareness?. Endocrine Practice 2005;11(2):83-90.

Tanenberg R, Bode B, Lane W, Levetan C, Mestman J, Harmel AP, Tobian J, Gross T, Mastrototaro J. Use of the continuous glucose monitoring system to guide therapy in patients with insulin-treated diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79 (12):1521-1526.

Weintrob N, Schechter A, Benzaquen H, Shalitin S, Lilos P, Galatzer A, Phillip M. Glycemic patterns detected by continuous subcutaneous glucose sensing in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated by multiple daily injections vs continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158:677-684.

Allen BT, DeLong ER, Feussner JR. Impact of glucose self-monitoring on non-insulin-treated patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Randomized controlled trial comparing blood and urine testing. Diabetes Care. 1990; 13: 1044-1050.

Bonora E, Calcaterra F, Lombardi S, Bonfante N, Formentini G, Bonadonna RC, Muggeo M. Plasma Glucose Levels Throughout the Day and HbA1c Interrelationships in Type 2 Diabetes: Implications for treatment and monitoring of metabolic control. Diabetes Care 2001;24: 2023-2029.

Brewer KW, Chase HP, Owen S, Garg SK. Slicing the pie: correlating HbA1C values with average blood glucose values in a pie chart form. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:209-212.

Coster S, Gulliford MC, Seed PT, Powrie JK, Swaminathan R. Self-monitoring in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Diabetic Medicine. 2000; 17: 755-761.

Davidson MB, Castellanos M, Kain D, Duran P. The effect of self monitoring of blood glucose concentrations on glycated hemoglobin levels in diabetic patients not taking insulin: A blinded, randomized trial. Am J Medicine 2005;118(4):422-5.

Fiallo-Scharer R, Xing D, Weinzimer S, Buckingham B, Mauras N, Tansey M, Chase P, Beck R, Ruedy K, Kollman C, Tamborlane W. Eight-Point Glucose Testing Versus the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3387-3391.

Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, DeBerardis G, Belfiglio M, Cavaliere D, DiNardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A, for The QuED Study Group. The Impact of Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring on Metabolic Control and Quality of Life in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An urgent need for better educational strategies. Diabetes Care 2001;24(11):1870-7.

Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, DeBerardis G, Belfiglio M, DiNardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MCE, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. for The QuED Study Group- quality of care and outcomes in Type 2 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin-treated diabetic patients: a longitudinal evaluation of its impact on metabolic control. Diabetes Medicine 2005; 22: 900-906.

Harris MI. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring in relation to glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001;24(6):979-982.

Hoffman RM, Shah JH, Wendel CS, Duckworth WC, Adam KD, Bokhari SU, Dalton C, Murata GH. Evaluating Once- and Twice-Daily Self-Monitored Blood Glucose Testing Strategies for Stable Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. The Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study. Diabetes Care 2002;25: 1744-1748.

Jaworska J, Dziemidok P, Kulik TB, Rudnicka-Drozak E. Frequency of self-monitoring and its effect on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowsk (Med) 2004; 59(1): 310-6.

Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Darbinian JA, D’Agostino RB Jr, Ferrara A, Liu J, Selby JV. Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and glycemic control: the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Diabetes registry. Am J Med. 2001; 111:1-9.

Martin S, Schneider B, Heinemann L, Lodwig V , Kurth HJ, Kolb H, Scherbaum WA, for the ROSSO Study Group. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes and long-term outcome: an epidemiological cohort study. Diabetologia 2006; 49: 271-278.

Meier JL, Swislocki ALM, Lopez JR, Noth RH, Bartlebaugh P, Siegel D. Reduction in self-monitoring of blood glucose in persons with type 2 diabetes results in cost savings and no change in glycemic control. Am J Manag Care 2002; 8:557-565.

Murata GH, Shah JH, Hoffman RM, Wendel CS, Adam KD, Solvas PA, Bokhari SU, Duckworth WC. Intensified Blood Glucose Monitoring Improves Glycemic Control in Stable, Insulin-Treated Veterans With Type 2 Diabetes: The Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study (DOVES). Diabetes Care 2003;26: 1759-1763.

Sarol Jr JN, Nicodemus Jr NA, Tan KM, Grava MB. Self-monitoring of blood glucose as part of a multi-component therapy among non-insulin requiring type 2 diabetes patients: a meta-analysis (1966-2004). Current Medical Research and Opinion 2005;21(2):173-184.

Schwedes U, Siebolds M, Mertes G, For the SMBG Study Group. Meal-Related Structured Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose: Effect on diabetes control in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2002;25: 1928-1932.

Wen L, Parchman ML, Linn WD, Lee S. Association between self-monitoring of blood glucose and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004; 61:2401-5.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Kulkarni K, Boucher J, Daly A, Shwide-Slavin C, Silvers B, O’Sullivan Maillet J. American Dietetic Association: Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitians (Generalist, Specialty, and Advanced) in Diabetes Care. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:820-824.

DM: Prevention and Treatment of CVD and Diabetes

Ciccarone E, Di Castelnuovo A, Salcuni M, Siani M, Giacco A, Donati MB, De Gaetano G, Capani F, Iacoviello L, Gendiabe Investigators. A high-score Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with a reduced risk of peripheral arterial disease in Italian patients with Type 2 diabetes. J Thromb Haemost 2003;1(8):1744-52.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Dhindsa P, Scott AR, Donnelly R. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of very-low-calorie diet therapy in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes in secondary failure: outcomes after 1 year. Diabet Med 2003;20(4):319-24.

Diakoumopoulou E, Tentolouris N, Kirlaki E, Perrea D, Kitsou E, Psallas M, Doulgerakis D, Katsilambros N. Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean population: relation with nutritional and other factors. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 2005; 15: 109-117.

Faulkner MS, Chao W, Kamath SK, Quinn L, Fritschi C, Maggiore JA, Williams RH, Reynolds RD. Total homocysteine, diet, and lipid profiles in type 1 and type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic adolescents. J of Cardiovascular Nursing 2006; 21: 47-55.

Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003;348(5):383-93.

Gill GV, Woodward A, Pradhan S, Wallymahmed M, Groves T, English P, Wilding JP. Intensified treatment of type 2 diabetes--positive effects on blood pressure, but not glycaemic control. Q J Med 2003; 96:833-836.

Mayer-Davis EJ, Levin S, Marshall JA. Heterogeneity in associations between macronutrient intake and lipoprotein profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1632-1639.

Mukamal KJ, Nesto RW, Cohen MC, Muller JE, Maclure M, Sherwood JB, Mittleman MA. Impact of diabetes on long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction. Comparability of risk with prior myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1422-1427.

Orchard TJ, Forrest KY, Kuller LH, Becker DJ. Lipid and blood pressure treatment goals for type 1 diabetes: 10-year incidence data from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1053-1059.

Selvin E, Marinopoulos S, Berkenblit G, Rami T, Brancati FL, Powe NR, Golden SH. Meta-analysis: glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004; 141: 421-431.

Turner RC, Millns H, Neil HAW, Stratton IM, Manley SE, Matthews DR, Holman RR. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: United Kingdom prospective diabetes study (UKPDS: 23). BMJ. 1998; 316: 823-828.

Didangelos TP, Thanapoulou AK, Bousboulas SH, Sambanis CL, Athyros VG, Spanou EA, Dimitriou KC, Pappas SI, Karamanos BG, Karamitsos DT. The ORLIstat and CArdiovascular risk profile in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 DIAbetes (ORLICARDIA) study. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2004; 20:1393-1401.

Gerhard GT, Ahmann A, Meeuws K, McMurry MP, Duell PB, Connor WE. Effects of a low-fat diet compared with those of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, plasma lipids and lipoprotiens, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(3):668-73.

Houlihan CA, Casley DJ, Allen TJ, Cooper ME, Baxter AL, Jerums G, Panangiotopoulos S. a low-sodium diet potentiates the effects of Losartan in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25:663-671.

Karantonis HC, Fragopoulou E, Antonopoulou S, Rementzis J, Phenekos C, Demopoulos CA. Effect of fast-food Mediterranean-type diet on type 2 diabetics and healthy human subjects' platelet aggregation. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2006; 72:33-41.

Krook A, Holm I, Pettersson S, Wallberg-Henriksson H. Reduction of risk factors following lifestyle modification programme in subjects with type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 2003; 23:21-30.

Lee YM, Haastert B, Scherbaum W, Hauner H. A phytosterol-enriched spread improves the lipid profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Nutr 2003; 42:111-117.

Lonn E, Dagenais G, Yusuf S, Mann JFE, Hoogwerf B, Gerstein HC, Pogue J, Qilong Y, Zinman B, Bosch J. Effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in high-risk patients with diabetes: results of the HOPE Study and MICRO-HOPE Substudy. Diabetes Care 2002; 25:1919-1927.

Lovejoy JC, Most MM, Lefevre M, Greenway FL, Rood JC. Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76:1000-1006.

Mantzoros CS, Williams CJ, Manson JE, Meigs JB, Hu FB. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is positively associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetic women. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84: 328-335.

Mostad IL, Qvigstad E, Bjerve KS, Grill VE. Effects of a 3-day low-fat diet on metabolic control, insulin sensitivity, lipids, and adipocyte hormones in Norwegian subjects with hypertriacylglycerolaemia and type 2 diabetes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2004; 64:565-574.

Neyestani TR, Alipour-Birgani R, Siassi F, Rajayi M, Djalali M, Mohamadi M. Glycemic optimization may reduce lipid peroxidation independent of weight and blood lipid changes in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diab Nutr Metab 2004; 17:275-279.

Osende JI, Badimon JJ, Fuster V, Herson P, Rabito P, Vidhun R, Zaman A, Rodriguez OJ, Lev EI, Rauch U, Heflt G, Fallon JT, Crandall JP. Blood thrombogenicity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients is associated with glycemic control. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2001; 38:1307-1312.

Parker B, Noakes M, Luscombe N, Clifton P. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:425-430.

Perassolo MS, Moulin CC, Almeida JC, Camargo JL, Pra RL, Zelmanovitz T, Mello VD, Azevedo MJ, Maia AL, Gross JL. Fatty acid composition of serum lipid fractions in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:613-618.

Rizkalla SW, Boillot J, Taghrid L, Rigoir A, Laromiguiere M, Elgrably F, Huet D, Slama G. Improved plasma glucose control, whole-body glucose utilization, and lipid profile on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic men: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:1866-1872.

Rodriguez-Villar C, Perez-Heras A, Mercade I, Casals E, Ros E. Comparison of a high-carbohydrate and a high-monounsaturated fat, olive oil-rich diet on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine 2004; 21:142-149.

Storm H, Thomsen C, Pedersen E, Rasmussen O, Christiansen C, Hermansen K. Comparison of a carbohydrate-rich diet and diets rich in stearic or palmitic acid in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1997; 20:1807-1813.

Tapsell LC, Owen A, Gillen LJ, Bare M, Patch CS, Kennedy M, Betterham M. Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-fat diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:2777-2783.

Vedovato M, Lepore G, Coracina A, Dodesini AR, Jori E, Tiengo A, Del Prato S, Trevisan R. Effect of sodium intake on blood pressure and albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients: the role of insulin resistance. Diabetologia 2004; 47:300-303.

West SG, Hecker KD, Mustad VA, Nicholson S, Schoemer SL, Wagner P, Hinderliter AL, Ulbrecht J, Ruey P, Kris-Etherton PM. Acute effects of monosaturated fatty acids with and without omega-3 fatty acids on vasular reactivity in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 113-122.

Yu-Poth S, Zhao G, Etherton T, Naglak M, Jonnalagadda S, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Step I and Step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:632-646.

DM: Weight Management and Diabetes

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Berne C, for the Orlistat Swedish Type 2 Diabetes Study Group. A randomized study of orlistat in combination with a weight management programme in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. Diabetic Medicine 2005;22: 612-618.

Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Parker B, Foster P, Clifton PM. Long-term effects of advice to consume a high-protein, low-fat diet, rather than a conventional weight-loss diet, in obese adults with Type 2 diabetes: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Diabetologia 2004; 47:1677-1686.

Brown SA, Upchurch S, Anding R, Winter M, Ramirez G. Promoting weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1996;19(6):613-624.

Derosa G, Cicero AF, Murdolo G, Ciccarelli L, Fogari R. Comparison of metabolic effects of orlistat and sibutramine treatment in Type 2 diabetic obese patients. Diabetes Nutr Metab 2004;17:222-229.

Hanefeld M, Sachse G. The effects of orlistat on body weight and glycaemic control in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 2002; 4:415-423.

Hollander PA, Elbein SC, Hirsch IB, Kelley D, McGill J, Taylor T, Weiss SR, Crockett SE, Kaplan RA, Comstock J, Lucas CP, Lodewick PA, Canovatchel W, Chung J, Hauptman J. Role of orlistat in the treatment of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:1288-1294.

Kelley DE, Bray GA, Pi-Sunyer FX, Klein S, Hill J, Miles J, Hollander P. Clinical efficacy of orlistat therapy in overweight and obese patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1033-1041.

Li Z, Hong K, Saltsman P, DeShields S, Bellman M, Thames G, Liu Y, Wang H-J, Elashoff R, Heber D. Long-term efficacy of soy-based meal replacements vs an individualized diet plan in obese type II DM patients: relative effects on weight loss, metabolic parameters, and C-reactive protein. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:411-418

Manning RM, Jung RT, Leese GP, Newton RW. The Comparison of Four Weight Reduction Strategies Aimed at Overweight Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Four-year Follow-up. Diabetic Medicine 1998;15:497-502.

Mayer-Davis EJ, D'Antonio AM, Smith SM, Kirkner G, Martin SL, Parra-Medina D, Schultz R. Pounds off with Empowerment (POWER): a clinical trial of weight management strategies for black and white adults with diabetes who live in medically underserved rural communities. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1736-1742.

McNulty SJ, Ur E, Williams G, for the Multicenter Sibutramine Study Group. A randomized trial of sibutramine in the management of obese type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin. Diabetes Care 2003;125-131.

Metz JA, Stern JS, Kris-Etherton P, Reusser ME, Morris CD, Hatton DC, Oparil S, Haynes RB, Resnick LM, Pi-Sunyer FX, Clark S, Chester L, McMahon M, Snyder GW, McCarron DA. A randomized trial of improved weight loss with a prepared meal plan in overweight and obese patients: impact on cardiovascular risk reduction. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2150-2158.

Miles JM, Leiter L, Hollander P, Wadden T, Anderson JW, Doyle M, Foreyt J, Aronne L and Klein S. Effect of orlistat in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. Diabetes Care 2002;25(7):1123-1128.

Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Bowman B, Serdula M, Brown TJ, Schmid CH and Lau J. Long-term effectiveness of lifestyle and behavioral weight loss interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2004 Nov 15;117(10):762-74.

Paisey RB, Frost J, Harvey P, Paisey A, Bower L, Paisey RM, Taylor P, Belka I. Five-year results of a prospective very low calorie diet or conventional weight loss programme in type 2 diabetes. J Hum Nutr Diet 2002;15(2):121-7.

Redmon JB, Raatz SK, Reck KP, Swanson JE, Kwong CA, Fan Q, Thomas W and Bantle JP. One-year outcome of a combination of weight loss therapies for subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 2003;26(9):2505-2511.

Redmon JB, Reck KP, Raatz SK, Swanson JE, Kwong CA, Ji H, Thomas W, Bantle JP. Two-year outcome of a combination of weight loss therapies for Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1311-1315.

Sanchez-Reyes L, Fanghanel G, Yamamoto J, Martinez-Rivas L, Campos-Franco E, Berber A. Use of sibutramine in overweight adult Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 12-month, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Therapeutics 2004; 26(9):1427-1435.

Vettor R, Serra R, Fabris R, Pagano C and Federspil G. Effect of sibutramine on weight management and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of clinical studies. Diabetes Care 2005;28(4):942-949.

Wing RR, Koeske R, Epstein LH, Nowalk MP, Gooding W, Becker D. Long-term effects of modest weight-loss in type II diabetic patients. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:1749-1753.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

Also see Adult Weight Management Evidence-Based Nutrition Practice Guideline.

DM: Physical Activity and Diabetes

Boule NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 2001;286:1218-1227.

Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-Orians L, Gordon PL, Walsmith J, Foldvari M, Roubenoff R, Tucker KL, Nelson ME. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(12): 2335-2341.

Cauza E, Hanusch-Enserer U, Strasser B, Ludvik B, Metz-Schimmerl S, Pacini G, Wagner O, Georg P, Prager R, Kostner K, Dunky A, Haber P. The relative benefits of endurance and strength training on the metabolic factors and muscle function of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86:1527-1533.

Church TS, Cheng YJ, Earnest CP, Barlow CE, Gibbons LW, Priest EL, Blair SN. Exercise capacity and body composition as predictors of mortality among men with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:83-88.

Clark M, Hampson SE, Avery L, Simpson R. Effects of a tailored lifestyle self-management intervention in patients with Type 2 diabetes. British Journal of Health Psychology 2004; 9: 365-379.

Di Loreto C, Ranchelli A, Fanelli C, Fatone C, Lucidi P, Taglioni C, Murdolo G, Santeusanio F, De Cicco A, De Feo F, Parlanti N. Make your diabetic patients walk: long-term impact of different amounts of physical activity on type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:1295-1302.

Dunstan DW, De Courten M, Daly RM, Shaw J, Owen N, Zimmet P, Jolley D. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1729-1736.

Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, Jolley D, Vulikh E, Shaw J, Zimmet P. Home-based resistance training is not sufficient to maintain improved glycemic control following supervised training in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005: 28:3-9.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Kirk A, MacIntyre P, Mutrie N, Fisher M. Increasing physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1186-1192.

Kirk A, Mutrie N, MacIntyre P, Fisher M. Effects of a 12-month physical activity counseling intervention on glycemic control and on the the status of cardiovascular risk factors in people with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2004;47:821-832.

Mayer-Davis EJ, D'Agostino R, Karter AJ, Haffner SM, Rewers MJ, Saad M, Bergman RN. Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity. The Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). JAMA. 1998;279:669-674.

Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, Castaneda-Sceppa C. Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(10):2518-2539.

Van Rooijen AJ, Rheeder P, Eales CJ, Becker PJ. Effect of exercise versus relaxation on haemoglobin A1C in Black females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. QJ Med 2004: 97:343-351.

Wei M, Gibbons LW, Kampert JB, Nichaman MZ, Blair SN. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and physical inactivity in men with type 2 diabetes. Annals of Intern Med 2000;132:605-611.

Roberts L, Jones TW, Fournier PA. Exercise training and glycemic control in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2002;15(5):621-7.

Sarnblad S, Ekelund U, Aman J. Physical activity and energy intake in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2005;22(7):893-9.

Tansey MJ, Tsalikian E, Beck RW, Mauras N, Buckingham BA, Weinzimer SA, Janz KF, Kollman C, Xing D, Ruedy KJ, Steffes MW, Borland TM, Singh RJ, Tamborlane WV, The Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) Study Group. The effects of aerobic exercise on glucose and counterregulatory hormone concentrations in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29(1):20-5.

Tsalikian E, Mauras N, Beck RW, Tamborlane WV, Janz KF, Chase HP, Wysocki T, Weinzimer SA, Buckingham BA, Kollman C, Xing D, Ruedy KJ; Diabetes Research in Children Network Direcnet Study Group. Impact of exercise on overnight glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr 2005;147(4):528-34.

Waden J, Tikkanen H, Forsblom C, Fagerudd J, Pettersson-Fernholm K, Lakka T, Riska M, Groop PH, FinnDiane Study Group. Leisure time physical activity is associated with poor glycemic control in type 1 diabetic women: the FinnDiane study. Diabetes Care 2005;28(4):777-82.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2007. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S4-41.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304.

DM: Coordination of Care and Diabetes 

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Banister NA, Jastrow ST, Hodges V, Loop R, Gillham MB. Diabetes self-management training program in a community clinic improves patient outcomes at modest cost. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104(5):807-10.

Bray P, Thompson D, Wynn JD, Cummings DM, Whetstone L. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The clinical effectiveness of redesigning care management for minority patients in rural primary care practices. J Rural Health 2005; 21(4):317-21.

Chima CS, Farmer-Dziak N, Cardwell P, Snow S. Use of technology to track outcomes in a diabetes self-management program. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105(12):1933-8.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Delahanty LM, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998; 98: 28-30.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Gaetke LM, Stuart MA, Truszczynska H. A single nutrition counseling session with a registered dietitian improves short-term clinical outcomes for rural Kentucky patients with chronic disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(1):109-112.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Graber AL, Elasy TA, Quinn D, Wolff K, Brown A. Improving glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus: shared responsibility in primary care practices. South Med J 2002; 95(7):684-90.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Maislos M, Weisman D, Sherf M. Western Negev Mobile Diabetes Care Program: a model for interdisciplinary diabetes care in a semi-rural setting. Acta Diabetol 2002; 39(1):49-53.

Miller CK, Edwards L, Kissling G, Sanville L. Nutrition education improves metabolic outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus:results from a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2002;34(2):252-9.

Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Franz MJ. Practice guidelines for medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians for persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:999-1006.

Wilson C, Brown T, Acton K, Gilliland A. Effects of clinical nutrition education and educator discipline on glycemic control outcomes in the Indian Health Service. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(6):2500-04.

Wolf AM, Conaway MR, Crowther JQ, Hazen KY, Nadler JL, Oneida B, Bovbjerg VE. Translating Lifestyle Intervention to Practice in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Improving Control with Activity and Nutrition (ICAN) study. Diabetes Care, 2004; 27 (7): 1,570-1,576.

Citations Not used in the Evidence Analysis

American Diabetes Association. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2007;30 Suppl 1:S48-65.

Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AA, Apovian C, Clark NG, Delahanty L, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf B, Kulkarni K, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler M. 2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: issues for practice translation. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107(8):1296-304. 

DM: Monitor and Evaluate and Diabetes

Ash S, Reeves MM, Yeo S, Morrison G, Carey D, Capra S. Effect of intensive dietetic interventions on weight and glycaemic control in overweight men with Type II diabetes: a randomised trial. International Journal of Obesity. 2003; 27:797-802.

Banister NA, Jastrow ST, Hodges V, Loop R, Gillham MB. Diabetes self-management training program in a community clinic improves patient outcomes at modest cost. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104(5):807-10.

Bray P, Thompson D, Wynn JD, Cummings DM, Whetstone L. Confronting Disparities in Diabetes Care: The clinical effectiveness of redesigning care management for minority patients in rural primary care practices. J Rural Health 2005; 21(4):317-21.

Chima CS, Farmer-Dziak N, Cardwell P, Snow S. Use of technology to track outcomes in a diabetes self-management program. J Am Diet Assoc 2005; 105(12):1933-8.

DAFNE Study Group. Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomised controlled trial. Brit Med J. 2002; 325:746-751.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Franz MJ, Monk A, Barry B, McClain K, Weaver T, Cooper N, Upham P, Bergenstal R, Mazze RS. Effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy provided by dietitians in the management of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:1009-1017.

Gaetke LM, Stuart MA, Truszczynska H. A single nutrition counseling session with a registered dietitian improves short-term clinical outcomes for rural Kentucky patients with chronic disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106(1):109-112.

Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:24-29.

Graber AL, Elasy TA, Quinn D, Wolff K, Brown A. Improving glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus: shared responsibility in primary care practices. South Med J 2002; 95(7):684-90.

Laitinen JH, Ahola IE, Sarkkinen ES, Winberg RL, Harmaakorpi-Livonen PA, Uusitupa MI. Impact of intensified dietary therapy on energy and nutrient intakes and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in patients with recently diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93(3):276-283.

Lemon CC, Lacey K, Lohse B, Hubacher DO, Klawitter B, Palta M. Outcomes monitoring of health, behavior, and quality of life after nutrition intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104(12):1085-15.

Maislos M, Weisman D, Sherf M. Western Negev Mobile Diabetes Care Program: a model for interdisciplinary diabetes care in a semi-rural setting. Acta Diabetol 2002; 39(1):49-53.

Miller CK, Edwards L, Kissling G, Sanville L. Nutrition education improves metabolic outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus:results from a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2002;34(2):252-9.

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